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THE  / / 

NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 

MAGAZINE,, 

AN  ILLUSTRATED  MONTHLY  > 


honorary  Editor:  JOHN  HYDE 

HONORARY  ASSOCIATE  EDITORS 

A.  W.  GREELY  W J McGEE  ELIZA  RUHAMAH  SCIDMORE 


VOL.  VII -YEAR  189G 


WASHINGTON 

THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRARIIIC  SOCTETY" 
IS!)<; 


NOV  5 1981 

vJ:(Bf?ARIES 


WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 

JUDD  & DETWEILER,  PRINTERS 
1896 


CONTENTS 


Page 

Introductory;  [John  Hyde].., 1 

Russia  in  Europe;  by  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard 3 

Tlie  Arctic  Cruise  of  the  U.  S.  Revenue  Cutter  Benr ; by  Sheldon 

Jackson 27 

The  Scope  and  Value  of  Arctic  Explorations;  by  A.  W.  Greely.  ...  32 

Obituary  (Robert  Brown,  Admiral  Pearse,  Henry  Seebohm,  Rear 

Admiral  Shufeldt) 40 

Geographic  Literature  (Elementary  Physical  Geography,  Tarr ; The 
Gold  Diggings  of  Cape  Horn,  Spears;  South  Africa,  Keane; 
National  Geographic  Monographs,  Powell,  Shaler,  Russell,  Wil- 
lis, Diller,  Davis,  Gilbert,  and  Hayes ; Tibet,  Rockhill ; Chili, 


Bianconi ; Highways  of  Commerce,  Consular  Office) 40 

Executive  Reports  (War,  Navy,  Post  Office,  and  Interior  Depart- 
ments; Interstate  Commerce  Commission) 43 

New  Maps 45 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society .' 46 

North  American  Notes 48 

Venezuela:  Her  Government,  People,  and  Boundary;  by  William 

E.  Curtis 49 

The  Panama  Canal  Route  ; by  Robert  T.  Hill 59 

The  Tehuantepec  Ship  Railway  ; by  Elmer  L.  Corthell 64 

The  Present  State  of  the  Nicaragua  Canal;  by  A.  W.  Greely 73 

Explorations  by  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  in  1895 ; b}^ 

W J McGee  77 

Geographic  Literature  (The  Yellowstone  National  Park,  Chittenden  ; 

Sixteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  IT.  S.  Geological  Surve3’',  etc. . . 80 

Y ucatan  in  1895 83 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 86 

Geographic  Notes. 87 

The  Valley  of  the  Orinoco  ; by  T.  H.  Gignilliat.  92 

Tlie  So-called  “Jeannette  Belies”  ; by  William  H.  Dall 93 

Nansen’s  Polar  Expedition  ; by  A.  W.  Greely 98 

The  Submarine  Cables  of  the  World  ; by  Gustave  Herrle.  .......  102 

Peter  Cooper  and  Submarine  Telegraphy ; [A.  W.  Grelly] 108 

The  Russo-Ymerican  Telegraph  Project  of  1864-’67;  by  W.  H.  Dall.  110 
Survey  and  Subdivision  of  Indian  Territory  ; by  Henry  Gannett.  . . 1J2 

“ Free  Burghs  ” in  the  United  States  ; by  Jamls  H.  Blodgeit 116 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 122 

Miscellanea 124 

Seriland  ; by  W J McGnu  and  Willard  D.  Johnson 125 

The  Olympic  Country  ; by  S.  C.  Gilman 133 

The  Discovery  of  Glacier  Bay,  Alaska ; bv  Eliza  R.  Scidmore.  ...  140 
Hydrography  in  the  United  States  ; by  Frederick  H.  Newell 146 

iii 


IV 


CONTICNTS 


Page 

RcccMit  Trian^ulation  in  the  Cascades  ; by  S.  S.  Gaxnktt loO 

The  Altitude  of  Mount  Adams,  Washinfjton  ; by  Edgar  McCi.ure.  . 151 
Geographic  Literature  (Archeological  Studies  atnong  the  Ancient 
Cities  of  Alexico,  Holmes;  Geological  History  of  the  Chautauqua 

Graj)e  Belt,  Tarr ; Die  Liparischen  Inseln,  Hawranek) 153 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 155 

Aliscellanea 156 

Africa  since  ISSS,  with  Special  Reference  to  South  Africa  and  Abys- 
sinia; by  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard 157 

Fundamental  Geographic  Relation  of  the  Three  Americas;  by  Rob- 
ert T.  Hiui 175 

Tbe  Kansas  River;  b\’  Arthur  P.  Davis 181 

Geographic  Literature  (Le(;ons  de  Geographie  Physiipie,  de  Lappar- 
ent ; Annual  Report  of  the  Superintendent  of  the  U.  S.  Coast  and 

Geodetic  Survey) 184 

Miscellanea 188 

The  Seine,  the  Aleuse,  and  the  Aloselle;  by  William  M.  Davis  [IJ.  . 189 
Across  the  Gulf  by  Rail  to  Key  AVest ; by  Jefferson  B.  Browne.  . . . 203 
A Geographical  Description  of  the  British  Islands;  by  AV.  AI.  Davis..  208 

The  Alexican  Census;  [A.  AV.  Greely] 211 

Geographic  Literature  (Handbook  of  Arctic  Di.scoveries,  Greely; 
Crater  Lake  Special  Alap,  Diller ; Rand,  AIcNally  and  Company’s 
Alaps;  Occupations  of  the  Negroes,  Gannett;  Foreign  Commerce 

and  Navigation;  Statistical  Abstract  of  tbe  United  States) 212 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society ’. 214 

Geograidiic  Notes  ....  217 

Aliscellanea, 220 

The  AA'ork  of  the  U.  S.  Board  on  Geographic  Names;  by  Henry  Gan- 
nett  221 

The  .Seine,  the  Aleuse,  and  the  Aloselle ; by  AVilliam  AL  Davis  [II]  . . 228 

A Journey  in  Ecuador;  by  AIark  B.  Kerr 238 

The  Aberration  of  Sound  as  Ilhistrateil  by  the  Berkeley  Powder  Ex- 
plosion; by  Robert  H.  Chapman 246 

Alineral  Production  in  the  United  States 250 

Geographic  Notes 251 

Aliscellanea 252 

The  AVork  of  the  National  Geographic  Society;  [W  J AIoGee] 253 

Eighth  Annual  Field  Aleeting  of  the  National  Geographic  Society; 

[W  J AIcGee] 259 

Geographic  History  of  the  Piedmont  Plateau;  by  W J AIcGee 261 

Sjkottswood’s  Flxpedition  in  1716;  by  William  AI.  Thornton 265 

Jefferson  as  a Geographer;  b}’  A.  AA’.  Greely 269 

Albemarle  in  Revolutionary  Days;  bj'  G.  Brown  Goode 271 

Geograpliic  Notes 281 

Al  iscellanea 283 

The  Recent  Flarthquake  AAhive  on  the  Coast  of  Japan;  by  Eliza  R. 

Sctdmore 285 

The  Return  of  Dr  Nansen 290 

Descriptive  Topographic  Terms  of  Spanish  America;  by  R.  T.  Hill.  291 


CONTENTS 


V 


Page 

The  "Weather  Bureau  Eiver  and  Flood  System  ; by  Willis  L.  Moori:.  302 

Cliarles  Francis  Hall  and  Jones  Sound  ; [A.  W.  Greely] 3CaS 

^lineral  Production  in  the  United  States 310 

Reports  of  Sealing  Schooners  from  Tuscarora  Deep ; by  Eliza  R.  Scid- 

MORE 310 

Geographic  Notes 312 

The  American  Association  at  Buffalo  ; [W  J AIcGee] •. 315 

Death  of  G.  Brown  Goode;  [W  J McGee] 316 

California;  by  George  C.  Perkins 317 

The  Economic  Aspects  of  Soil  Erosion  ; by  N.  S.  Siialer  [I] 328 

The  Nansen  Polar  Expedition;  by  Ernest  A.  Man 339 

Ice-cliffs  on  the  Kowak  River;  by  J.  C.  Cantwell 345 

Recent  Hydrographic  Work ; [F.  H.  Newell] 347 

Miscellanea 348 

The  Witwatersrand  and  the  Revolt  of  the  Uitlanders ; by  George  F. 

Becker ...  349 

The  Economic  AsjDects  of  Soil  Erosion;  by  N.  S.  Shaler  [II] 368 

A Critical  Period  in  South  African  History;  [John  Hyde] 377 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 379 

Geographic  Notes 380 

Report  of  the  Sixth  International  Geographical  Congress. 380 

The  Geography  of  the  Southern  Peninsula  of  the  United  States;  by 

John  N.  MacGonigle 381 

Tlie  Sage  Plains  of  Oregon  ; by  Frederick  V.  Covii.le 395 

The  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  and  its  Biological  Survey ; [John 

Ha’de] 405 

Statistics  of  Railways  in  the  United  States ; [Henry'  Gannett] 406 

Geographic  Work  in  Peru ; [W  J McGee] 407 

Geographic  Literature  (The  Scenery  of  Switzerland  and  the  Causes 
to  which  it  is  due,  Lubbock ; Frye’s  Home  and  School  Atlas; 

Lakes  of  North  America,  Russell) 408 

Proceedings  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 410 

Geographic  Notes 411 

Miscellanea 412 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Pl.vte  1 — Map  of  Russia  in  Europe 1 

2 —  United  States  revenue-marine  steamer  Bear,  moored  to  a 

field  of  ice  in  B(*ringsea 27 

3 —  Herd  of  reindeer  lying  down 28 

4—  Scene  at  Point  Barrow  in  April 30 

5 —  Map  of  the  Orinoco  valley 49 

6 —  La  Giiayra,  from  the  east 52 

7 —  Valley  of  Caracas,  east  of  the  capitid,  with  coffee  and  sugar 

j)Iantations .54 


vi  ILL  I’STRA  TIONS 

Page 

Platk  8 — Valley  of  Caracap,  west  of  the  capital,  with  plantations  and 

sugar  factory 56 

5) — Construction  work  on  the  Panama  canal  in  1895 62 

10—  Chart  showing  the  submarine  cables,  principal  land  lines, 

coaling  stations,  etc.,  of  the  world 9.3 

11 —  Portrait  of  Dr  F’ridtjof  Nansen 98 

12 —  Portrait  of  William  H.  Dali 110 

13 —  Indian  Territory — camp  of  a .surveying  party  of  the  United 

Suites  Geological  Survey,  1895 114 

14—  Map  of  Seriland,  Sonora,  iMe.vico 125 

15 —  VieM'  of  Seriland  from  camp  on  Tiburon  island 128 

16 —  Map  of  the  Olymiiic  country,  Washington .'.  133 

17 —  Front  of  ^luir  glacier  from  the  west  moraine.  Mount  Case 

in  the  background. 142 

18 —  Portrait  of  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard 157 

19 —  .Sketch  map  of  Africa 16)4 

20—  Portrait  of  General  A.  W.  Greely,  United  States  Army. . . 189 

21 —  Map  of  the  valley  of  the  Seine  near  Duclair 191 

22 —  Ma])  of  the  valley  of  the  Moselle  near  Berncastel 193 

23—  Map  of  the  valley  of  the  Meuse  near  St  ^lihiel 194 

24 —  Maj)  of  the  valley  of  the  Meuse  near  Dun-.suf-Meuse 195 

25 —  Handiwork  of  the  Cayapas  Indians,  Ecuador 221 

26—  Map  of  the  lower  valley  of  the  Bar 236 

27—  Residence  of  the  Gohernador  of  the  Cayapas  Indians,  on 

the  Rio  Cayapas,  Ecuador 241 

28 —  Portrait  of  Henry  Gannett 253 

29 —  Monticello,  Virginia,  meeting  of  the  National  Geographic 

Society,  May  16,  1896 2.59 

.30— Effects  of  the  earthquake  wave  at  Kamaishi,  .lapan,  .Tune 

1.5,  1896 285 

31 —  Sketch  map  of  .lapan 285 

32—  Scenes  on  the  coast  at  Kamaishi,  .lapan,  June  15,  1896. . . . 286 

33 —  Scene  on  thecoa.stof  the  island  of  Hondo,  .lapan,  after  the 

earthquake  wave  of  June  15,  1.896 288 

34 —  IMap  of  the  Arctic  regions,  showing  routes  traversed  by  the 

Nan.sen  e.vpedition  of  189.3-1896 317 

35—  Market  square,  Johannesburg,  .South  Africa .349 

.36 — Zulu  bride  and  bridegroom 356 

37  — Crossing  the  Umbelosi  river,  Swazieland 360 

38 — Flying  the  Transvaal  flag  on  the  offices  of  the  reform  com- 
mittee, Johanne.sburg,  December  31,  1895 364 

.39 — Phosphate  mining  on  the  west  coast  of  Florida  .381 

40 —  On  the  St.  Johns  river .384 

Falls  of  the  Miami  river  384 

41—  On  the  Caloo.sahatchee  river  .388 


L-  - 


The 


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AN  ILttJSrkATE 


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Honoitary  Editor  : JOHN  ^VSe 

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Hoioraiy  Associate  £^t[prs 


W.  OREELY  W jiMcGEE  , ELIZA  l^UH AMAH  SCIDMpRE 


CONTENTS 


TiEODUCTQRY  THE  EDITOR  | 

I^SIA  IN  EUROPE.  HON.  GARDINER  G.  HUBBARD 

i‘B  ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  U^S,  REVENUE  CUTTER  “BEAR.” 
With  illustrations.  DR.  SHELDON  JACKSON 

SCOPE  AND  VALUE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATION. 

GEN.  A.  W.  GREELY 

GRAPH19  literature 

CEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 
TH  AMERICAN  NOTES 


PAGE 

1 


27 


32 

40 

46 

48 


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GEOG. 


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THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine 

Yol.  VII  JANUARY,  1896  No.  1 


INTRODUCTORY 

With  the  present  number  the  National  Geographic  Magazine 
commences  a new  series  and  makes  its  first  appearance  as  a 
monthly  publication.  What  shall  be  its  precise  scope  and  func- 
tion has  been  the  most  difficult  question  its  editors  have  been 
called  upon  to^ete^Tnine.  From  no  other  point  of  view  is  the  in- 
terdependence of  the  sciences  so  manifest  as  from  the  geographic. 
Geography  in  its  broader  sense  has  to  do  not  merely  with  the 
physical  featured  of  the  earth’s  surface,  but  with  the  distribution 
of  animal  and  vegetable  life,  with  political  divisions  and  subdi- 
visions, with  the  growth  and  movement  of  population,  with  the 
progress  of  human  society,  with  the  development  of  the  earth’s 
natural  resources,  and  with  commercial  intercourse  between  na- 
tions. To  cover  successfully  so  vast  and  so  diversified  a field  is 
entirely  beyond  the  capacity  of  any  single  periodical  publication. 
Either  it  must  restrict  itself  to  physical  geography  and  become 
largely  technical,  or  it  must  content  itself  with  briefly  chronicling 
the  more  notable  additions  to  geographic  knowledge  in  those 
parts  of  the  world  in  which  its  readers  are  less  directly  interested, 
and  with  becoming  more  especially  tlie  exponent  of  the  geogra- 
ph}^ — physical,  political,  and  commercial — of  the  continent  with 
which  its  pul)lication  more  particularly  identifies  it.  And  surely 
in  the  case  of  an  American  publication  tins  is  a sufficient!}''  broad 
field.  There  are  vast  regions  of  the  New  World  that  must  con- 
tinue to  tempt  the  venturesome  explorer  for  many  years  to  come. 
Here,  too,  on  this  continent  “ the  rudiments  of  empire  are,”  in  the 
words  of  one  of  our  own  poets,  “ plastic  yet  and  warm  })olitical 
Ijrohlems  are  being  wrought  out  on  an  unexami)led  scale,  a fusion 
of  races  hitherto  without  i)arallel  is  going  on,  and  the  bounty  of 
nature  is  being  {)Oured  out  with  a more  lavish  hand  than  in  any 
other  equally  e.xtensive  [)ortion  of  the  globe.  It  will  accordingly 


2 


IXTRODUCTOR  Y 


be  the  aim  of  the  National  Geographic  Magazine  to  he  American 
rather  than  cosmopolitan,  and  in  an  especial  degree  to  be  National. 
There  is  hardly  a United  States  citizen  whose  name  has  become 
identified  with  Arctic  exploration,  with  the  Bering  sea  contro- 
versy, or  with  the  Alaska  boundary  dispute  who  is  not  an  active 
member  of  the  National  Geographic  Society  and  a contributor  to 
the  pages  of  its  magazine.  In  the  Army  and  Navy  the  Society 
is  also  well  represented,  and  from  the  gallant  and  accomplished 
ofificers  of  those  important  branches  of  the  service  it  receives  from 
time  to  time  much  valuable  information.  The  principal  officers 
and  experts  of  the  different  scientific  bureaus  of  the  Govern- 
ment— the  Geological  Survey,  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey, 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  the  National  Museum,  the  Hydro- 
graphic  Office,  the  Naval  Observatory,  the  "Weather  Bureau,  the 
Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  the  Biological  Division  of  the 
Department  of  Agriculture,  and  others — have  always  been  among 
the  most  active  members  of  the  Society,  and^the  great  work  that 
is  being  done  by  these  several  bureaus — a work  that  is  at  once 
the  wonder  and  admiration  of  foreign  scientii^ts — will  be  regu- 
larly discussed  in  the  pages  of  the  magazine  by  those  who  are  in 
close  touch  with  if  not  actually  engaged  in  it.  Turning  from 
our  own  country  to  the  sister  republics  of  the  two  Americas,  we 
find  almost  all  of  them  connected  with  the  Society  in  the  persons' 
of  their  diplomatic  representatives,  and  through  the  cordial  coop- 
eration of  these  gentlemen  the  magazine  will  receive  from  time 
to  time  the  latest  and  most  authentic  geographic  intelligence  con- 
cerning countries  in  which  the  people  of  the  United  States  are 
now  taking  an  exceedingly  keen  and  friendly  interest.  That  the 
magazine  will  not  reach  at  a single  liound  the  high  standard  at 
which  those  responsible  for  its  management  are  aiming  will 
scarcely  be  a disappointment  either  to  its  editors  or  its  readers. 
The  measure  of  its  success,  however,  will  not  wholly  depend 
upon  the  efforts  of  those  conducting  it.  Nothing  less  than  the 
generous  support  of  that  numerous  class  of  the  community  which 
is  interested  in  one  or  another  of  the  different  branches  of  geo- 
graphic science  will  enable  the  National  Geograidiic  Society  to 
make  its  magazine  everything  that  it  ought  to  lie  and  pro}ierly 
equip  it  for  the  discharge  of  its  function  as  The  ^Magazine  of 
American  Geography.  To  possess  a knowledge  of  the  condi- 
tions and  possibilities  of  one’s  own  country  is  surely  no  small 
part  of  an  enlightened  patriotism,  and  to  the  })atriotic  imi)ulses 
of  the  American  people  no  appeal  was  ever  made  in  vain. 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


3 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE* 

By  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  LL.  D.,  President  of  the  National 
Geographic  Society 

England,  the  United  States,  and  Russia  have  each  made 
greater  territorial  acquisitions  during  the  present  century  than 
all  the  other  countries  of  the  world  together.  In  the  case  of  the 
British  empire,  these  have  been  larger  and  more  important  than 
those  of  either  the  United  States  or  Russia.  The  United  States 
and  Russia  have  only  annexed  contiguous  territory,  save  Alaska. 
Russia  when  first  enrolled  among  civilized  nations,  in  the  time 
of  Peter  the  Great,  had  no  outlet  to  any  ocean  except  the  Arctic, 
and  consequently  no  possibility  of  a navy  or  of  commerce. 
Since  then  she  has  extended  her  dominion  northwest  to  the 
gulf  of  Bothnia  and  the  Baltic  sea,  building  St.  Petersburg  on 
the  marshes  of  Finland,  south  to  the  Black  and  Caspian  seas, 
southeast  to  Afghanistan  and  China,  and  in  the  extreme  east  to 
the  river  Amur  and  the  Pacific. 

The  acquisitions  of  the  Russian  Empire  within  this  centuiy 
are  greater  in  extent  and  importance  than  the  whole  of  European 
Russia  before  that  time.  Her  frontier  has  been  advanced 
toward  Stockholm  630  miles,  toward  Berlin  700  miles,  toward 
Constantinople  500  miles,  toward  India  1,300  miles.  Her  terri- 
tory in  Europe  comprises  more  than  one-half  of  that  continent; 
yet  with  all  her  great  empire  she  has  only  three  ports,  and 
these  on  the  Black  sea,  open  to  navigation  throughout  the  year, 
the  others  being  closed  by  ice  from  three  to  six  months,  while 
from  those  on  the  Black  sea  ships  of  war  have  no  right  to 
pas.s  into  the  Mediterranean.  Until  within  one  hundred  years 
southern  and  southeastern  Russia  were  infested  with  hordes  of 
Tartars  and  Kalmucks,  who  overran  nearly  one-third  of  Russia — 
wandering  tribes  without  fixed  habitation  or  permanent  govern- 
ment, “ marauders,  slave-dealers,  and  vagabonds,’’  who  “ came, 
compiered,  burned,  ])illaged,  murdered,  and  went.’’  The  first 
step  of  Russia  when  she  determined  that  her  em])ire  should 
l)elong  to  the  civilization  of  Europe  was  the  subjugation  of  these 
tribes.  This  has  been  accomplislied  by  compelling  the  Tartars 

*Ammal  :ul(lre.ss  delivercil  May  10,  1805. 


4 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


and  Kalmucks  to  live  within  fixed  and  permanent  boundaries, 
by  enrolling  tlie  Cossacks  into  bands  of  cavalry,  and  substituting 
the  agricultural  for  the  nomadic  life.  Many  of  the  tribes,  unwil- 
ling to  give  up  their  wandering  life,  retired  beyond  the  Caspian 
sea,  and  from  those  regions  continued  their  inroads  upon  the 
Russian  settlements.  Russia,  for  her  own  protection,  was  again 
obliged  to  subdue  these  unruly  tribes,  and  thereby  to  extend 
her  dominion  still  farther  to  the  east,  until  it  finally  reached  a 
barrier  in  the  Pamir  and  tlie  mountains  of  Afghanistan. 

PHYSICAL  FEATURES  OF  RUSSIA. 

If  nature  ever  made  the  boundaries  of  a nation,  it  determined 
those  of  Russia — the  Arctic  ocean  on  the  north,  the  Ural 
mountains  on  the  east,  the  Black  and  Caspian  seas  on  the 
south,  and  the  Baltic  sea  on  the  northwest,  with  Siberia  and 
Trans-Caspia  as  the  natural  extension  of  her  empire. 

In  August,  1881,  I left  London  on  a trip  to  Russia,  passing 
through  Antwerp,  Berlin,  and  Konigsberg  to  St.  Petersburg; 
thence  to  Moscow  and  Nijni  Novgorod.  From  Moscow  I went 
southeast  through  Russia,  over  the  Caucasus  to  Tiflis,  in  Asia; 
thence  to  Batoum  and  Sebastopol,  on  the  Black  sea,  and  from 
the  Crimea  north  to  ^Moscow.  In  all  this  journey  of  3,500  miles 
we  crossed  no  range  of  mountains,  we  saw  no  hills  more  than 
five  or  six  hundred  feet  in  height  until  we  reached  the  Cau- 
casus. It  was  one  broad,  level  plain  from  Antwerp  to  Konigs- 
berg, 150  miles  in  width,  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Baltic, 
on  the  south  by  the  Erzberg  and  the  foothills  of  the  Carpathian 
mountains.  Entering  Russia,  the  plain  widens,  extending  north- 
east 1,800  miles  along  the  coast  of  the  Arctic  ocean  to  the  Ural 
mountains,  south  to  the  Black  sea  and  the  foothills  of  the  Cau- 
casus, and  southeast  3,000  miles  to  the  mountains  of  Afghan- 
istan. My  letters  written  from  the  foothills  of  the  Caucasus  say  : 
“ Onl}’’  think  of  traveling  from  one  end  of  Europe  to  the  other 
over  a plain,  neither  hill  nor  mountain  in  all  the  route,  with 
scarcely  a new  scene  from  morning  to  night  or  from  one  day 
to  another.  After  two  days’  and  nights’  traveling  nearl}’-  due 
south  from  St.  Petersburg  we  have  not  reached  as  far  south  as 
St.  Johns,  in  Newfoundland.” 

“Yesterday  our  route  was  over  great  plains  with  rich  black 
earth,  occasional  forests,  i)retty  well  watered;  today, broad  level 
stej^pes  with  sandy  soil,  without  a tree  in  sight.  We  are  trav- 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


5 


eling  through  the  land  of  the  Cossacks;  men  and  -women  at 
every  station  have  Asiatic  faces,  and  wear  generally  a goatskin 
coat,  with  the  fur  inside,  fastened  by  a girdle.  No  trace  of  cul- 
tivation, except  on  the  streams  which  we  cross  from  time  to 
time.  These  streams  flow  in  low,  narrow  valleys;  the  road 
descends  two  or  three  hundred  feet  into  the  valleys  by  curves, 
and  then  ascends  to  the  plain  to  save  grading,  and  this  affords 
the  only  variation  in  tlie  scenery.” 

In  this  great  plain  there  are  five  distinct  zones  of  land  : The 
frozen,  the  forest,  the  black,  the  agricultural,  and  the  barren 
steppes.  The  black  zone,  near  the  center,  is  the  most  fertile  and 
thickly  inhabited.  To  the  north  the  country  grows  gradually 
less  fertile,  passing  through  the  forest  zone  to  the  Arctic  zone, 
entirel}’-  destitute  of  vegetation.  To  the  south  of  the  black  zone 
the  country  likewise  grows  less  and  less  fertile,  passing  through 
the  agricultural  zone  to  the  dry  and  sandy  steppes,  entirely  des- 
titute of  vegetation. 

From  200  to  300  miles  in  width,  the  black  zone  extends  from 
Austria,  a little  north  of  east,  across  Russia,  over  the  Ural 
mountains,  far  into  Siberia.  It  resembles  our  ])rairies ; has  a 
rich,  l)lack  soil  of  great  depth,  unsurpassed  in  fertility.  Reclus 
sa,ys  that  “ all  traces  of  glaciers  disappear  where  the  black  lands 
begin  and  the  forests  end,  while  the  contrast  between  the  flora 
of  the  two  regions  is  complete.”  American  geologists  believe 
that  the  glaciers  extended  over  the  whole  of  Russia  to  the  Black 
sea,  and  that  the  great  level  plain  which  constitutes  Russia  is 
due  to  aqueo-glacial  action. 

In  the  northern  part  of  the  black  zone  are  occasional  groves  of 
oak  and  birch ; traveling  north  these  are  succeeded  by  forests 
of  hardwood,  with  occasional  evergreens.  Gradually  the  hard- 
wood disappears ; then  we  enter  the  forest  zone,  j)ines  and 
evergreens.  About  one-third  of  Russia  is  forest.  In  this  region 
are  immense  districts,  where  the  onlv  roads  are  rivers  flowinsr 
througli  interminable  walls.  Then  comes  a land  of  rocks,  lakes, 
and  swam])s,with  isolated  and  snowy  masses  rising  above  the 
forests  and  peat-l)eds.  This  is  the  Arctic  zone,  and  here  is 
Finland,  a region  of  lakes,  over  eleven  hundred  in  one  province  ; 
the  great  forests  of  pine  become  small  evergreens,  reaching  a 
height  of  25  feet  in  100  years,  gaining  their  maturity  in  300  years. 
Gradually  they  become  yet  smaller  and  are  of  slower  growth. 
The  giant  of  these  forests  is  the  willow,  which  sometimes  reaches 


6 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


a height  of  6 inches.  A little  farther  north  the  rainfall  exceeds 
the  evaporation  and  river-flow  and  forms  a woodless  plain  of 
small  lakes  and  morasses,  called  tundra,  on  which  neither  man 
nor  beast  could  set  foot  if  the  ground  were  not  frozen  to  the 
depth  of  very  many  feet;  in  summer  melting  a little  more  than 
one  foot.  Into  this  treeless  region  in  summer  come  innumer- 
able birds  of  different  kinds  to  build  their  nests  and  hatch  their 
young.  In  autumn  they  fly  south — some  to  the  Crimea,  some 
to  Asia,  others  into  Africa.  So  level  is  the  countr}'^  that  in  their 
flight  they  rarely  reach  a lieight  of  500  feet  above  sea-level. 
This  is  the  land  of  the  Samoyeds,  where  agriculture  is  impossi- 
ble, and  the  natives  live  by  Ashing  and  hunting.  Still  farther 
north,  yet  in  Russia,  is  Nova  Zembla,  75°  north  latitude,  where 
no  animal  life  exists ; but  even  here,  in  this  land  of  ice  and 
snow,  several  hundred  species  of  lichen  have  l)een  found. 
Though  the  surface  of  the  water  is  frozen  for  about  nine  months 
in  the  year,  }’^et  fish  and  animalculse  abound,  the  temperature  of 
the  fish  varying  with  the  water  in  which  they  live,  here  only  a 
little  above  the  freezing-point. 

Returning  to  the  black  zone,  near  the  latitude  of  Mo.scow,  and 
traveling  south,  first  the  hardwood  gives  place  to  the  rich  prairie 
land;  then  we  reach  the  agricultural  steppe,  a treeless  land, 
susceptible  of  cultivation,  though  lacking  in  the  ricli,  deep  loam 
of  the  black  zone.  Farther  south  lie  the  vast  barren  steppes, 
in  the  west  a sandy  desert,  in  the  east  a vast  saline  plain,  for- 
merly the  bed  of  a great  lake,  of  which  the  Caspian  and  Aral 
seas  formed  a small  part.  This  is  the  genuine  steppe,  a country 
level  as  the  sea,  without  even  a gentle  undulation  or  a particle 
of  cultivation — neither  tree  nor  bush,  nor  even  a stone,  to  diversify 
the  monotonous  expanse.  The  inhabitants  lead  a nomadic  life, 
like  those  of  the  Arctic  region. 

The  very  diversity  of  the  country  and  the  occupations  of  the 
people  of  Russia  tend  to  unity,  for  the  north  needs  the  grain  of 
the  south,  and  the  south  requires  the  wood  of  the  north.  Middle 
Russia,  that  great  center  of  manufactures,  without  the  north  and 
south  would  lack  markets  for  its  manufactures. 

MOUNTAINS. 

The  greatest  extent  of  upland  in  Russia  is  near  Great  Nov- 
gorod, southwest  of  St.  Petersburg,  where  the  Valdai  hills  rise 
from  800  to  1,000  feet. 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


III  the  east  the  Ural  mountains  separate  Russia  from  Siberia, 
a range  of  plateaus  rather  than  mountains,  attaining  an  eleva- 
tion of  from  3,000  to  5,000  feet,  extending  from  the  Arctic  ocean 
south  about  1,200  miles.  They  are  rich  in  metals — gold,  precious 
stones,  iron,  and  coal — with  large  and  productive  mines.  In 
the  southeastern  part  of  Russia  are  the  Caucasian  mountains, 
separating  Europe  from  Asia  and  running  from  the  Black  to  the 
Caspian  seas,  about  600  miles  in  length  and  150  in  width.  The 
culminating  point  is  mount  Elburz,  18,572  feet  above  the  sea 
level,  3,000  feet  higher  than  Mont  Blanc.  Near  the  center  of 
the  Caucasus  is  mount  Kazbek,  16,552  feet,  1,000  feet  higher 
than  Monte  Rosa.  These  mountains  are  clothed  with  snow  for 
several  thousand  feet,  and  down  their  sides  flow  many  glaciers. 
The  Russians  have  so  little  love  of  sceneiy -that  they  rarely  make 
excursions  among  these  mountains  or  ascend  Elburz,  which, 
though  half  a mile  higher  than  Mont  Blanc,  is  much  easier  of 
ascent,  because  there  is  only  a steady  climb  for  several  hours 
over  smooth,  frozen  snow. 

Near  Kazbek  is  the  pass  of  Dariel,  8,000  feet  in  height,  the  only 
carriage  road  through  these  mountains.  In  ancient  times  this 
pass,  called  the  “ gates  of  the  Caucasus,”  was  guarded  by  Tartar 
towers,  which  still  stand,  thousands  of  years  old,  overlooking  the 
pass.  Until  Russia  conquered  the  northern  part  of  Persia,  the 
two  sides  were  never  held  by  the  same  power. 

At  the  southeastern  extremity  of  the  Caucasus,  on  the  Caspian 
sea,  at  Baku,  there  stands  an  old  temple,  where  for  centuries  a 
beacon  was  kept  burning  by  the  fire-worshipers  of  India  and 
Persia.  The  people  in  the  olden  time  believed  that  the  fire  was 
supernatural — the  gift  of  the  god  of  fire.  Modern  science  shoAvs 
that  it  came  from  oil  wells,  and  modern  enterprise  has  here  de- 
veloped a great  industry.  The  old  temple  of  the  fire-worshipers 
remains;  on  one  side  of  it  are  huge  derricks,  ijumping  tlie  oil ; 
on  the  other,  a great  stone  embankment,  stretching  over  a mile 
along  the  coast,  where  steam  and  sailing  vessels  and  long  trains 
of  railroad  cars  load  Avith  oil.  Here  is  a population  of  fifty 
thousand,  Avhere  tAventy  years  ago  Avere  less  than  fifteen  hun- 
dred. The  Parsee  tending  the  fire  symbolizes  the  past;  the 
Russian  Avith  his  oil  Avells,  his  railroads,  and  steamboats,  the 
future.  The  petroleum  is  used  for  fuel  on  the  Caspian  and  Volga 
steamers.  It  is  sent  up  the  Volga  and  its  branches  to  all  jiarts 
of  Russia  and  is  carrietl  by  rail  from  Baku  to  Batoum,  on  the 


8 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


]^lack  sea,  and  thence  )jy  steamer  to  different  parts  of  Europe. 
It  has  superseded  American  oil  in  Russia  and  competed  with 
it  in  Vienna  and  Berlin  until  consolidation  of  the  American  and 
Russian  interests  was  made.  In  1893  Baku  alone  produced 
33,104,000  gallons,  a production  largeh^  exceeding  that  of  either 
of  the  two  great  oil-fields  of  America. 

Another  range  of  mountains,  or  rather  a continuation  of  tlie 
Caucasus,  runs  across  the  Crimea.  This  range  protects  the 
coast  on  the  southeastern  side  from  the  cold  winds  of  the  north, 
and  here  are  Livadia  and  Yalta,  where  the  late  Czar  died — the 
only  places  in  all  Russia  Avhere  there  is  an  equable  climate  like 
that  of  Nice  and  Mentone.  The  road  from  Livadia  crosses  this 
chain  of  mountains  through  a pass  about  3,000  feet  in  height, 
with  views  of  the  Black  sea  resembling  those  of  the  Mediterra- 
nean near  Amalfi,  and  then  descends  to  Balaklava  and  Sebas- 
to])ol,  where  the  winter  winds  from  the  Arctic  blow  unljroken 
by  any  mountains. 

EIVER  SYSTEM. 

In  the  plateau  of  the  Valdai  the  principal  rivers  of  Russia 
rise.  The  Volga  and  its  branches  flow  east  and  south  to  the 
Caspian  sea ; the  Dnieper  and  Don  to  the  Black  sea ; others 
northwest  to  the  Baltic.  Russia  is  so  level  that  its  rivers  are 
slow  and  sluggish,  with  little  water  except  during  the  melting 
of  snows.  They  are  connected  Avith  each  other  and  Avith  the 
gulf  of  Finland  and  the  Arctic  ocean  by  canals,  so  that  inter- 
communication betAveen  different  parts  of  the  country  is  easy 
in  the  summer.  The  rivers  that  emj)ty  into  the  Arctic  ocean 
and  into  the  Black  and  Caspian  seas  have  several  mouths,  so 
that  navigation  from  the  river  into  the  sea  is  A’ery  difficult. 

There  are  33,000  miles  of  naA’igable  rivers,  81,000  vessels  of 
various  kinds,  and  138,000  rafts. 

CLIM.A.TE. 

In  its  climate,  as  in  extent,  conformation,  and  population, 
Russia  differs  from  the  other  countries  of  Europe.  These  are 
bathed  by  the  Avarm  Avinds  from  the  Atlantic  and  ^Mediterranean. 
The  moisture  of  these  Avinds  is  rapidly  condensed  as  they  pass 
over  the  Alps  and  Carpathians  and  the  mountains  of  Noiavay 
and  SAveden,  the  source  of  numerous  rivers,  and  affording  an 
abundant  supply  of  rain  to  Avestern  Europe.  These  Avinds  then 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


9 


blow  over  Russia,  but  they  have  become  cUy,  without  moisture ; 
consequently  the  rainfall  of  western  Russia  is  only  about  twenty 
or  twenty-five  inches,  or  half  that  of  western  Europe.  This 
steadily  diminishes  toward  the  east,  leaving  the  steppes  of  east- 
ern Russia  dry  and  barren,  unless  irrigated.  The  tem])erature 
diminishes  rapidly  from  the  west  to  the  east.  North  of  50°, 
or  far  south  of  Moscow,  it  diminishes  more  rapidly  from  the 
west  to  the  east  than  from  the  south  to  the  north. 

Over  the  vast  plain  of  Russia  the  winds  blow  without  obstruc- 
tion. The  cold  winter  winds  bring  from  the  Arctic  ocean  the 
temperature  of  the  polar  regions,  while  the  warm  summer  winds 
from  the  Black  sea  convey  the  temperature  of  the  torrid  zone. 
Spring  and  autumn  are  almost  unknown,  for  as  soon  as  the  frost 
is  gone,  about  the  middle  of  April  or  the  first  of  May,  the  wheat 
and  grain  fields  and  the  foliage  of  the  trees  burst  forth  with  a 
rapidit}'  unknown  in  our  country. 

RACES. 

Although  Russia  is  one  of  the  most  uniform  and  level  of 
countries,  yet  few  are  occupied  by  as  great  a variety  of  races. 
Southern  and  middle  Russia  were  for  centuries  the  great  high- 
ways over  which  vast  numbers  of  barbaric  hordes — Scythians, 
Huns,  Mongols,  and  Vandals — passed  from  Asia  through  Russia 
into  Italy,  Hungaiy,  Poland,  Germany,  and  by  the  Dari  el  pass 
over  the  Caucasus  into  Asia  Minor.  Some  of  each  of  these 
tribes  remained ; all  left  their  impress  U{)on  Russia.  While 
these  tribes  were  overrunning  Russia  the  Slavonians  came,  to- 
day the  ]>redominant  race,  the  last  of  the  Aryans  to  leave  their 
original  home,  ai\il  these  retained  when  they  entered  Russia 
many  Asiatic  habits.  In  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries  they  prol)- 
ably  occu[)ied  the  region  now  known  as  “ Little  Russia”  and  were 
the  germ  of  the  great  Russian  empire.  ^Vhen  the  Slavonians 
entered  Russia  they  found  Mongols,  Finns,  and  Huns;  with 
.some  they  intermarried;  others  they  pushed  into  northern  and 
Arctic  Russia,  a region  without  temptation  for  the  Aryan  or  other 
Avandering  tribes. 

From  the  Avest  came  the  Northmen,  Avho  settled  the  country 
about  the  Baltic  sea  and  founded  NoA'gorod  the  Great,  tlie  oldest 
toAvn  in  Russia,  and  brought  many  of  the  customs  and  habits 
of  western  Europe.  In  the  fifteenth  century  NoA'gorod  was  the 
largest  and  most  important  town  in  northern  Euroj)c  and  a 


10 


JiUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


member  of  the  Hanseatic  league.  It  lost  its  independence  and 
was  overthrown  hy  Ivan  the  Terrible  in  1570,  and  Novgorod  as 
an  independent  State  ceased  to  exist  and  is  now  a town  of  little 
importance. 

In  the  thirteenth  century  the  ^Mongol  Tartars  entered  eastern 
Russia  and  for  over  200  years,  from  1238  to  1462,  ruled,  mingling 
their  blood  with  the  Russians.  They  in  turn  were  conquered 
by  the  Russians  and  driven  from  central  Russia  into  the  valley 
of  the  Volga  and  the  Crimea,  where  their  descendants  still  live. 

In  the  seventeentli  century  Poland,  then  one  of  the  largest 
countries  of  Europe,  undertook  the  conquest  of  Russia,  and  for 
some  years  there  was  a life-and-death  struggle  between  the  two 
nations.  Moscow  was  captured  and  the  king  of  Poland  reigned 
there  for  thirteen  years.  The  people  of  Nijni  Novgorod  the 
Great  arose,  selling  their  wives  and  daughters  to  buy  arms,  took 
Moscow,  burning  a large  part  of  it,  and  finally  expelled  the 
Poles,  but  not  until  they  had  mingled  their  blood  with  the  Rus- 
sian. This  was  the  last  invasion  of  Russia  that  left  its  impress 
on  the  country. 

The  Great  Russians,  the  inhabitants  of  the  black  zone  in  north- 
ern and  central  Russia,  are  the  most  numerous  of  the  poioulation 
of  Russia,  In  the  northwest  they  intermarried  and  mingled  with 
the  Finns ; in  the  east  with  the  Mongol  Tartars.  In  southern 
Russia  the  inhabitants  called  Little  Russians  intermarried  with 
the  Cossacks  and  Crimean  Tartars  and  are  next  in  number  to 
the  Great  Russians.  The  Cossacks  are  Russians  who  preferred 
the  nomadic  to  the  agricultural  life,  and  therefore  wandered  into 
the  steppes  away  from  civilization  and  formed  bands  of  horse- 
men, called  often  by  the  country  in  which  they  lived,  as  the  Don 
Cossacks.  They  resemble  in  some  respects  the  cowboys  of 
America.  They  occupied  the  Crimea  and  the  country  north 
of  the  Black  sea,  with  Tartar  tribes  from  Turania,  Kalmucks, 
and  Bashkirs. 

Besides  the  races  named,  there  are  Turanians,  Armenians, 
Poles,  Semites,  Georgians,  and  Turks — in  all,  thirty  different 
races — with  Greek,  Catholic,  Shumanistic,  Buddhist,  Jewish, 
Mohammedans,  Dissenters  and  pagan  religions  of  all  kinds. 
These  various  races  formerly  intermarried,  but  the  introduction 
of  the  ^Mohammedan  religion  among  the  Tartar  trilies  has  pre- 
vented further  mingling  of  these  various  races  and  has  proved 
a great  obstacle  to  their  elev'^ation  and  civilization.  I was  struck 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


11 


with  the  variet}’’  of  races  at  a dinner  in  Piatigorsk,  a watering 
place  at  the  foothills  of  the  Caucasus,  given  by  an  officer  of  the 
Pussian  army.  My  host  was  a German;  the  other  guests,  his 
fellow-officers,  were  a Pole,  a Jew,  an  Armenian,  a Caucasian,  a 
Georgian,  a Tartar,  a Mongolian,  and,  finally,  a Russian, 

In  a Tartar  and  Russian  village  there  is  no  blending  of  races. 
Near  one  end  stands  the  Mohammedan  mosque ; at  the  other 
the  Christian  temple.  In  Finnish  villages,  on  the  oth^r  hand, 
intermarriages  of  the  Finns  and  Russians  is  causing  the  blend- 
ing of  the  two  races. 

CH.\RACTERISTICS  OF  THE  POPULATION. 

Russia  in  Europe,  with  a population  of  nearly  100,000,000,  is 
very  thinly  populated,  having  only  fifteen  inhabitants  to  the 
square  kilometer,  while  Germany  has  seventy-eight  and  England 
one  hundred  and  fourteen.  The  population  is  increasing  at  a 
more  rapid  rate  than  in  either  of  these  countries. 

A recent  writer  says  : “ The  life  that  men  live  in  the  city  gives 
the  type  and  measure  of  their  civilization.  The  word  civiliza- 
tion means  the  manner  of  life  of  the  civilized  part  of  the  com- 
munity— that  is,  of  the  city  men,  not  of  the  country  men,  who 
are  called  rustics.”  The  cities  of  Russia,  except  St.  Petersburg, 
are  small,  far  apart,  and  have  little  connection  with  each  other 
or  influence  on  the  population.  The  Russian  peasant  has  there- 
fore little  knowledge  either  of  city  life  or  of  this  civilization.  He 
lives  far  removed  from  it,  and  there  is  little  of  it  in  Russia.  Only 
one-third  as  many  in  proportion  to  population  live  in  the  cities 
of  Russia  as  in  the  cities  of  the  United  States. 

Two-thirds  of  the  population,  including  all  the  Great  and  Little 
Russians,  live  in  the  black  zone,  with  Moscow  as  a center.  It 
is  estimated  that  over  six-eighths  of  these  are  either  serfs  them- 
selves or  are  the  children  of  serfs,  while  6,000,000  of  the  re- 
mainder are  Poles  and  2,000,000  .Jews. 

It  is  impossible  that  in  one  generation  such  a population  of 
freedmen  should  have  made  any  considerable  advance.  Their 
life  and  habits  are,  therefore,  mainly  such  as  they  were  as  serfs. 
It  should  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  while  these  are  descendants 
from  Aryans,  yet  this  blood  has  from  time  to  time  and  in  very 
mau}'^  generations  ])oen  mingled  with  the  blood  of  the  Asiatics, 
and  therefore  with  nations  less  civilized. 

The  highly  civilized  man  makes  nature  subordinate  to  his 


12 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


convenience  and  necessities,  but  with  uncivilized  nations  nature 
dominates  and  man  becomes  subject  to  its  influence.  The  char- 
acter and  habits  of  the  Russians  are  therefore  largely  fashioned 
by  their  environments,  which  vary  little  in  different  localities. 

Russia  has  only  two  seasons,  summer  and  winter.  During 
the  long  Arctic  winter  the  people  are  without  occu])ation,  save 
the  tending  of  flocks  morning  and  night ; the  days  are  short  and 
sunless  y*tlie  nights  long;  the  houses,  Avithout  ventilation,  are 
hot  and  close ; the  air  bad.  Even  in  my  room,  in  the  largest  and 
best  hotel  in  St.  Petersburg,  the  windows  in  early  November 
Avere  sealed  so  tight  that  a breath  of  air  could  not  get  in.  The 
rooms  Avere  heated  by  steam,  Avhich  could  not  be  shut  off,  and 
the  only  ventilation  Avas  by  a small  hole  in  the  Avail,  through 
Avhich  a little  fresh  air  could  enter.  The  peasants  Avear  the  same 
clothes  night  and  da}' ; all  sleep  together  on  the  large  stoves,  and 
are  required  by  their  ])riests  to  bathe  every  Saturday  evening, 
using  the  vapor  bath  instead  of  soap.  A large  room  or  cave  is 
dug  in  the  earth  and  heated  very  hot ; here  they  sit  or  lie  doAvn  ; 
fan  themselves  Avith  a Avhisk  brush  ; a profuse  perspiration  opens 
and  cleanses  the  pores  of  the  skin  ; they  then  often  plunge  into 
an  icy  stream  or  bathe  in  cold  Avater.  They  lead  idle,  listless  lives 
in  winter,  and  Avhen  Avinter  ends  are  little  inclined  to  Avork.  Then 
folloAv  the  long,  hot  summer  days,  the  heat  fully  as  enervating  as 
the  bitter  cold.  Without  mental  or  bodily  activity,  they  become 
heavy  and  lethargic.  Their  food  for  generations  has  been  mea- 
ger, of  the  poorest  kind,  almost  entirely  vegetal,  and  unsuitable 
to  the  climate.  Those  avIio  survive  to  mature  age  have  great 
})OAver  of  endurance,  Avhich  often  becomes  stolid  stubbornness  or 
passive  courage  and  resignation.  They  are  gentle-hearted,  have 
little  imagination,  and  therefore  no  inventive  faculty.  Every 
peasant,  Avhether  man  or  Avoman,  Avears  a shee[>skin  in  Avinter, 
bright  colors  in  summer,  the  garment  of  nomadic  triVjes,  not 
Avorn  by  any  other  Euroi)ean  race.  They  have  little  desire  to 
rule  others,  or  to  make  the  tril)es  Avhom  they  conquer  subserv- 
ient, and  are  therefore  admirably  fitted  for  the  Avork  of  })eaceful 
agricultural  colonization.  Wages  are  very  Ioav.  Tlie  manager 
of  the  telegraph  service  of  one  section  of  Russia,  Avith  twenty- 
tAVO  offices  under  him,  told  us  that  his  salary  Avas  1,100  rubles, 
or  about  S550,  a year ; that  the  operators  Avere  on  duty  tAventy- 
four  hours  every  other  day  and  received  15  rubles,  or  87.50, 
a month.  Wallace  tells  us  that  “ a family  of  five,  man  and 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


13 


.wife,  boy,  and  two  daughters,  actually  lived  in  the  northern 
part  of  Russia  on  sixty-one  dollars  a year.”  There  are  few  rail- 
roads in  Russia,  no  stage-coaches,  few  daily  and  weekly  pa])ers, 
neither  magazines  nor  books,  for  the  peasantry  can  neither  read 
nor  write.  They  have  little  more  knowledge  of  the  nearest  vil- 
lage than  we  have  of  the  moon. 

We  can  scarce!}^  comprehend  such  a people  or  such  a life  and 
are  not  surprised  to  learn  that  they  resort  to  cards  and  drink  as 
the  only  relief  from  the  dullness  of  the  interminable  winter. 
They  never  hurry,  for  time  is  not  money.  Among  professional 
men  and  merchants  in  St.  Petersburg  business  does  not  com- 
mence until  after  breakfast,  at  11  or  12  o’clock;  with  dinner  at  6 
o’clock,  little  time  is  left  for  work,  but  a long  evening  for  cards. 

A t}"pical  Russian  village  consists  of  two  lines  of  houses,  one 
on  either  side  of  the  street,  each  house,  built  of  pine  logs,  stand- 
ing alone,  from  ten  to  one  hundred  making  a village  ; each  cabin 
is  like  its  fellow  except  in  size ; when  you  have  seen  one  you 
have  seen  all.  The  floor  is  of  earth  ; the  walls,  rough  logs,  the 
crevices  stuffed  with  moss,  without  paint — the  type  of  houses  in 
England  in  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  At  one  end  of  the  vil- 
lage is  the  cruciform  church,  of  an  oriental  aspect,  a dome  gilded 
and  painted  in  bright  colors,  surmounted  by  a gilt  cross.  We 
visited  Rostoflf,  the  center  of  a large  commerce  with  the  interior  of 
Russia,  a city  with  a population  of  50,000,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Don,  inhabited  by  Russians  and  Cossacks.  It  has  a large  casino, 
containing  a ball-room,  gai'dens,  billiaixl  and  refreshment  rooms, 
where  all  grades  of  society  assemble  on  Sunday  to  dance  and 
hold  parties  of  pleasure.  We  spent  two  hours  here  and  took  a 
drosky  drive  to  the  town  about  a mile  distant.  It  is  a long,  dirty, 
.straggling,  unkempt  village,  with  broad  streets,  paved  in  the  time 
of  Peter  tlie  Great,  apparently  never  repaired  since  his  death  ; the 
onl  v difference  in  the  streets  is  that  some  are  worse  than  others  ; a 
few  large  stores  and  a great  market  place,  with  bread  enough  for 
an  army  ; potatoes,  quantities  of  beautiful-looking  tomatoes,  egg- 
plants, gra})es,  and  pears.  The  place  looked  as  though  it  had 
considerable  trade,  l>ut  is  devoid  of  all  interest.  A\'e  saw  no  new 
or  fine  buildings;  only  old  and  dilapidated  houses. 

In  Russia  there  is  no  nnddle  class  and  little  intercourse  be- 
tween the  officials,  who  are  the  highest  clas.s — the  nobles,  who 
are  the  upper  class — and  the  peasants.  They  live  in  a world  as 
distinct  as  Europe  and  Asia.  'I'he  ui)per  class  follow  the  customs 


14 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


and  manners  of  the  west.  Formerly  they  used  the  German  lan-» 
guage,  then  tlie  French,  taking  from  France  liberal  ideas,  but  now 
Ivussian  is  the  language  of  the  court  and  has  been  adopted  in 
polite  society.  The  upper  classes  are  as  highly  cultivated,  as 
honorable,  and  as  polished  as  any  of  the  upper  classes  in 
Europe. 

The  peasantry,  recently  serfs,  in  their  feelings  and  habits  are 
Asiatics,  fliithful  to  ancient  manners  and  customs.  They  look 
upon  innovation  or  change  with  distrust.  St.  Petersburg  is  the 
type  of  the  new  ideas,  IMoscow  of  the  old. 

We  now  turn  to  northern  and  Arctic  Russia,  a country  with 
inhabitants  very  different  from  that  we  have  just  described.  In 
the  west  is  Finland,  formerl}"  subject  to  Sweden,  but  annexed  to 
Russia  in  1800.  The  name  and  origin  of  the  Finns  is  an  ethno- 
logical problem.  They  are  supposed  to  be  of  the  same  race  as 
the  Hungarian  and  Bashkirs.  In  summer  the  sun’s  rays  are 
nearly  constant,  and  the  growth  of  vegetation  continuous  and 
ra})id. 

The  people  are  tall,  strongly  built,  and  well  proportioned,  with 
faces  rather  square  than  oval.  They  are  slow,  dull,  grateful  and 
honest,  industrious  and  energetic.  Their  peculiar  language  and 
literature  have  attracted  much  attention,  and  although  writing 
seems  to  have  been  introduced  onl}'-  al)out  three  hundi*ed  years 
ago  and  printing  about  one  hundred  years  later,  yet  nearly  all 
can  read  and  write. 

In  the  written  language  phonetic  spelling  is  employed  with 
almost  perfect  consistenc3^  One  celebrated  linguist  says,  “ it  is 
the  most  harmonious  and  sonorous  of  tongues.”  The}’’  are  better 
educated,  more  highly  civilized,  and  are  improving  more  rajndly 
than  the  Russians.  Serfdom  was  never  introduced  into  Finland, 
and  the  Finns  boast  that  the}’’  have  never  had  a slave  nor  a noble 
in  all  their  land.  From  these  causes,  while  we  regard  the  Rus- 
sians as  Asiatics,  we  must  look  upon  tlie  Finns  as  Europeans. 
Northeast  of  Finland,  on  the  Arctic  circle,  and  hir  to  the  north 
of  it,  wliere  the  shore-line  stretches  from  Archangel  toward  the 
sunrise  fifteen  hundred  miles,  bound  in  ice  chains  for  eight 
months  of  the  year,  where  on  the  cliffs  and  ledges  the  snow 
never  melts,  a wandering  tribe,  sometimes  called  Samoyeds, 
live  in  a desert  of  ice  and  snow — a land  without  a road,  with- 
out a field,  without  a name.  Tlieir  dwellings  are  tents  l)uilt 
of  poles,  open  at  the  to]>  to  let  out  the  smoke,  and  covered 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


15 


with  loose  reindeer  skins,  secured  by  thongs  of  seal  and  walrus 
hide;  within  are  small  compartments,  the  whole  warmed  by  a 
fire  in  the  center  of  the  tent  and  a seal-oil  lamp  in  each  com- 
partment. They  own  herds  of  reindeer,  which  alone  make 
the  region  habitable.  In  summer  they  move  frequently  for 
food  to  fresh  pastures  of  green  moss,  on  which  the  reindeer 
feed,  and  on  them  the  wild  men  of  the  country  live,  eating  their 
food  without  cooking.  In  the  winter  they  draw  near  the  shore 
and  live  on  seal  and  cod.  They  hunt  the  squirrel  and  fox  and 
sell  their  skins  to  the  Russians,  and  thus  purchase  a few  of  the 
necessaries  of  life.  Their  only  arms  are  the  bow  and  arrow.  The 
Samoyeds  are  believed  by  some  to  be  Finns,  who,  forced  far 
into  the  Arctic  -region,  have  degenerated  and  lost  most  of  the 
peculiar  habits  of  the  Finns. 

South  of  the  agricultural  zone  we  come  to  a third  civilization, 
to  another  and  different  life,  in  the  lands  of  the  southwest 
and  in  the  saline  steppes  in  the  southeast.  These  were  inhab- 
ited by  Cossacks,  Tartars,  Bashkirs,  Kalmucks,  and  other  no- 
madic tribes,  who  wandered  over  the  steppes  to  find  pasture 
for  their  cattle. 

Among  these  tribes  one  hundred  years  ago  Catherine  II 
planted  colonies  of  Germans  to  cultivate  the  land,  establish  set- 
tlements, intermingle  and  intermarry  with  the  people,  and  in- 
troduce agriculture,  thrift,  and  habits  of  industry.  This  experi- 
ment failed,  for  the  Germans  have  lived  almost  entirely  among 
themselves,  and,  while  acquiring  many  of  the  bad  habits  of  the 
people,  have  done  little  toward  improving  them.  Since  the  law 
compelled  the  Cossacks  and  Tartars  to  live  in  fixed  habitations 
many  have  migrated  intoTurania,  Armenia,  and  Turkey  in  Asia, 
while  from  Armenia  and  Turkey  Armenians,  Greeks,  Druses,  and 
other  Christians  have  come  and.'built  flourishing  towns  and  cities 
on  the  Black  and  Aral  seas  and  river  Volga.  These  new  settlers 
are  the  most  industrious  and  prosperous  of  the  Russians,  and 
immigration  will  continue  as  long  as  these  countries  are  under 
Mohammedan  rule.  Before  the  emancipation  of  the  serf,  in 
1861,  the  ])atriarchal  system  prevailed,  under  which  each  family 
was  its  ))roducerand  consumer.  Since  then  manufactures  have 
rapidly  increased  and  have  nearly  doubled  the  last  twelve  years. 
The  mining  interest  has  also  increased  with  like  rapidity  ; the 
annual  production  of  the  mines  is  $67,000,000. 

The  mercantile  or  trading  class  and  the  manufacturers,  usually 


IG 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


the  most  im])ortaiit  and  influential,  are  in  Russia  less  in  pro- 
portion tlian  in  other  civilized  countries,  and  have  little  influ- 
ence, either  witli  tlie  peasants,  as  they  represent  western  ideas, 
or  with  the  nobles,  avIio  look  down  upon  them  as  traders. 

This  completes  a general  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Russia.  We  have  described  the  lives  of  tlie  hunters  and  fisher- 
men of  the  north,  of  the  agricultural  laborers  of  central  Russia, 
of  the  nomadic  po})ulation  of  southern  and  southeastern  Russia, 
and  the  mercantile  or  trading  class  and  the  manufacturers,  who 
live  around  Moscow  and  Tula. 

• Under  one  czar,  Vladimir  the  Holy,  the  peasants  could  change 
their  religion  ; under  another,  Peter  the  Great,  they  could  change 
their  dress,  but  time  alone  can  change  the  Asiatic  to  the  Euro- 
pean. 

The  black  zone  of  Russia  is  as  rich  as  the  prairies  of  America ; 
the  lands  cost  no  more;  yet  the  inhabitants  of  Austria  and  Ger- 
many, contiguous  to  this  fertile  land,  immigrate  four  thousand 
miles  to  the  prairies  of  America  rather  than  cross  the  boundary 
line  into  this  rich  zone.  One  reason  for  their  preferring  America 
is  that  in  Russia  they  will  be  called  upon  to  serve  in  the  army. 
While  this  is  undoubtedly  one  cause  for  their  preference  of 
America,  yet,  as  the  Germans  and  Russians  have  never  mingled 
when  they  have  been  brought  into  contact,  it  is  probable  that 
the  difference  in  the  habits  and  customs  of  the  two  races — the 
one  European,  the  other  Asiatic — has  as  much,  if  not  more,  in- 
fluence in  preventing  the  Germans  from  emigrating  to  Russia. 


GOVERNMENT. 


The  diversity  of  races  and  languages  was  formerly  much 
greater  than  at  present,  when  each  tribe  had  its  ovm  laws,  re- 
ligion and  customs,  more  or  less  barbarous,  but  in  all  the  pa- 
ternal form  of  government.  The  head  of  the  family  and  chief  of 
th^  tribe  had  absolute  power  over  the  family  and  tribe  ; the 
czar  a like  absolute  power  over  all  the  tribes.  The  czar  is  the 
head  of  the  government,  and  the  peasants  believe  him  to  be  aj>- 
pointed  by  God  to  be  their  father  and  ruler.  A republican  form 
of  government  once  e.xisted  in  Novgorod  the  Great,  and  also  at 
Pskoff,  but  these  republics,  after  enduring  one  or  Uvo  hundi*ed 
years,  were  attacked  by  wandering  triljes  from  the  Orient  and  by 
armed  bands  from  Germany,  Sweden  and  Poland.  For  the 


BCSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


17 


purpose  of  repellinp;  these  invasions  these  cities  were  forced  to 
unite  with  various  tribes  of  Russia  and  form  a strong  imperial 
government  under  a czar. 

Peter  tlie  Great  organized  municipal  governments  for  towns 
and  cities  after  the  model  of  the  German  free  cities,  but  these 
institutions  having  no  root  in  the  traditions  and  habits  of  tlie 
people,  it  has  been  impossil)le  to  maintain  them  or  .to  interest 
the  people  in  them. 

For  many  generations  there  has  been  no  convocation  or  as- 
semblage of  the  people.  The  entire  civilization  has  been  Asiatic, 
differing  greatly  from  that  of  the  west.  There  was  formerly  no 
attempt  either  at  uniformity  in  the  government  of  the  different 
provinces  and  nationalities  or  of  symmetry  in  the  administra- 
tion. There  were  not  only  territorial  peculiarities,  but  different 
systems  in  the  same  territory.  Changes  in  the  laws  were  fre- 
quently made,  but  they  Avere  only  local. 

The  idea  of  an  united  Russia  belongs  to  Czar  Ivan  Kalita,  Avho 
reigned  in  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth,  century,  though  Peter 
the  Great  was  the  first  to  realize  the  necessity  of  a uniform  and 
central  administration  if  Russia  was  to  become  a great  nation. 
He  tried  to  bring  order  out  of  chaos  and  to  inti’oduce  Avestern 
civilization  among  the  barbarous  and  oriental  tribes  of  Russia, 
and,  as  there  Avere  no  persons  qualified  for  official  positions, 
schools  Avere  formed  to  train  men  for  office.  Peter  the  Great  had 
untiring  zeal,  perseverance,  great  ability,  and  genius.  He  tried 
many  experiments,  but  frankly  admitted  their  failure,  and  died, 
having  overthroAvn  many  institutions,  but  Avithout  creating  a 
system.  His  successors  took  up  the  Avork  and  carried  it  forward, 
each  according  to  his  ability,  and  by  sIoav  degrees  they  have 
created  a centralized  government,  Avith  a certain  uniformity  in  its 
administration.  There  are  ranks  of  nobility,  but,  unlike  those 
of  Avestern  Europe,  the  nobles  have  no  [)olitical  poAver  or  right 
of  primogeniture.  All  their  children  are  of  equal  rank,  so  that 
nobles  are  found  among  the  drosky  drivers  of  >St.  Petersburg ; 
their  influence  de[)ends  solely  on  Avealth  and  personal  character. 

A council  and  ministers  or  secretaries  for  the  different  de[)art- 
ments  of  government  have  been  established,  but  there  is  neither 
uniformity  of  action  betAveen  the  council  and  ministers  nor 
betAveen  the  several  members  of  the  council  or  ministry.  For 
the  i)urpose  of  obtaining  fuller  information  and  from  a greater 
variety  of  sources,  the  czar,  in  important  matters,  often  ap})oints 


18 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


committees  to  examine  and  report  directly  to  him  and  advise 
what  action,  if  any,  shall  be  taken. 

There  is  a code  of  laws,  full  of  commentaries,  with  a vast  num- 
l)er  of  orders,  decrees,  and  statutes  issued  by  the  czar  at  differ- 
ent times  and  under  different  circumstances;  also  innumerable 
circulars,  open  and  secret,  general,  special,  and  local,  forming  a 
tangled  growth,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  decide  either  what  the 
law  is  or  what  are  the  rights  of  the  individual.  It  is  difficult  for 
the  czar  or  his  ministers  to  know  how  far  an  order  has  been 
executed,  for  with  a censorship  of  the  press  it  is  impossible  for 
either  the  people  or  the  ruler  to  know  much  of  the  conduct  of 
affairs. 

Russia  is  divided  into  eighty-five  governments  and  six  terri- 
tories of  different  areas  and  population,  over  each  of  which  is  a 
governor,  responsible  to  the  czar,  and  a council,  wdth  a strong 
centralized  administration.  The  power  of  the  governor  is  nearly 
as  absolute  and  unlimited  in  his  territory  as  that  of  the  czar 
over  the  whole  empire.  Each  government  is  divided  into  dis- 
tricts. The  governor  appoints  officials  in  the  various  districts, 
who  are  responsible  to  him,  and  these  officials  appoint  jDolice 
officers  in  the  several  villages,  responsible  only  to  them.  The 
salaries  of  the  lower  officers  are  very  small,  and  as  thej’’  are 
barely  sufficient  for  their  support  this  has  led  to  more  or  less 
corruption,  although  in  Russia,  as  in  other  countries,  embezzle- 
ment has  not  been  confined  to  any  class  or  rank.  This  was 
greatly  lessened  under  the  late  czar,  Alexander  III,  in  the  cen- 
tral government  and  in  the  great  administrations. 

THE  MIR. 

In  Great  and  Little  Russia,  Avherever  the  Slav  inhaliits,  the  vil- 
lage community,  called  the  mir,  has  been  persistent  and  exists 
today  in  a form  not  widely  different  from  that  which  prevailed 
in  ancient  Arya  and  all  over  Europe  and  Asia.  There  are 
, 107,493  of  these  communes  in  Russia.  All  the  land  is  held 
by  the  mir,  owned  in  common,  and  is  divided  into  three  })or- 
tions — arable,  forest,  and  pasture.  The  homes  are  all  in  the 
village.  The  fields,  cut  into  long,  narrow  strips,  are  periodically 
divided  among  the  families,  so  that  each  family  shall  have  strips 
according  to  its  size  and  numbers.  There  is  a redistribution 
every  few  years.  Nearly  all  the  women  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  men  are  engaged  in  the  cultivation  of  the  land.  All  the 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


19 


affairs  and  business  of  the  mir  are  regulated  in  a council,  com- 
posed of  the  adult  men  and  of  the  adult  women  when  heads  of 
a famil3^  This  village  assembly  has  power  to  try  and  punish 
criminals,  and  can  even  send  them  to  Siberia.  It  is  the  only 
government  of  which  the  vast  majority  of  Russians  have  any 
experience  or  in  which  they  take  an  interest.  The  peasant  gov-' 
crning  the  world  in  which  he  lives  does  not  concern  himself 
with  the  unseen  and  far  away. 

The  mir,  with  the  exception  of  community  of  property  and 
judicial  authority,  is  the  counterpart  of  the  New  England  town 
meeting,  the  corner-stone  of  our  republican  institutions. 

The  brightest  men  leave  the  commune  and  go  to  the  cities  to 
work  as  artisans,  but  they  must  first  obtain  permission  from  the 
mir,  return  to  it  when  ordered,  and  send  a part  of  their  earnings 
to  the  village  treasury  or  forfeit  all  their  interest  in  the  com- 
munal property  and  all  connection  with  their  ancestral  home 
and  kindred.  The  land  and  property  being  held  in  common 
affords  little  opportunity  for  that  struggle  for  wealth  and  a better 
and  higher  life  absolutely  necessary  for  progress.  It  is  indeed 
a communistic,  socialistic  system,  which  some,  even  in  our  day, 
propose  to  engraft  upon  our  life. 

Within  fifteen  or  twenty  years  the  power  of  the  mir  has  been 
greatly  limited  by  the  establishment  of  the  provincial  govern- 
ment, with  its  police  officer,  the  representative  of  provincial 
government,  the  police  having  much  greater  jDower  in  his  vil- 
lage than  formerly. 

SERFDOM. 

Serfdom  and  slavery,  unknown  in  Russia  before  the  fifteenth 
century,  originated  from  several  i)eculiar  causes.  Prior  to  the 
conquest  of  Russia  by  the  Tartars,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  the 
condition  of  the  peasants  of  Russia  and  western  Europe  was 
in  many  respects  very  dissimilar.  Russia  never  felt  the  bene- 
fits either  of  Roman  law  and  civilization  or  of  the  Roman  Cath- 
olic church  ; neither  the  influence  of  large  towns  with  municipal 
rights  and  privileges  nor  of  the  feudal  system.  The  Teutons  had 
a sturdy  independence  and  asserted  their  rights,  while  the  most 
enterprising  of  the  Russians,  having  a i)redisi>osition  to  a vagrant 
life,  preferred  to  seek  independence  l)y  wandering  away  from 
tlieir  communes,  forming  Cossack  bands.  This  vagrancy  was  in- 
creased under  the  Tartar  rule,  when  the  ])resent  Asiatic  dress  of 
sheei)skin  was  adoi>ted  and  other  Asiatic  habits  accpiired. 


20 


PRUSSIA  IX  EUPOPE 


Another  marked  difference  between  eastern  and  western 
Europe,  which  also  led  to  serfdom,  arose  from  the  ownership 
of  the  land,  in  Avestern  Europe  held  in  comparatively  small  par- 
cels and  divided  between  the  church,  the  nobles,  and  the  people, 
Avhile  in  Russia  the  Czar,  as  owner  of  all  the  land,  gave  great 
ffracts  to  a few  families  or  to  religious  houses,  retaining  the  re- 
mainder ; hut  these  gifts  were  of  little  value  Avhile  the  peasantry 
were  allowed  to  roani  Avherever  and  whenever  they  i)leased. 

LaAVS  Avere  passed  to  remedy  tliis  evil  by  confining  the  peas- 
antiy  to  certain  parts  of  the  countiy,  and  subsequently  to  the 
estates  Avhere  thcA'  lived.  Conscription  of  the  serfs  for  the  army 
Avas  then  introduced,  the  proprietor  Avas  made  responsible  for  the 
entry  of  the  conscript  into  the  army,  and  from  that  arose  the  obli- 
gation of  the  serf  to  the  master.  As  the  serf  could  only  he  profit- 
ably employed  on  the  rich  black  lands  around  Moscoav  and  Kief, 
the  number  of  serfs  diminished  Avith  the  distance  from  the 
black  zone,  Avhile  in  the  extreme  north  and  the  steppes  of  the 
south  it  never  existed.  They  either  Avorked  three  days  in  the 
week  for  their  masters,  having  the  rest  of  the  Aveek  for  them- 
selves, or  they  gaA^e  a corresponding  portion  of  their  crops,  or 
else  one-half  of  their  Avages  to  their  masters.  It  Avas  by  sIoav 
degrees,  subsequent  to  1450,  that  serfdom  Avas  established  and 
the  serfs  became  ])ersonal  property.  With  this  right  of  projAcrty 
came  control  of  life  and  limb,  and  these  successive  changes, 
often  regulated  by  hiAvs  passed  for  the  relief  of  the  serf,  generally 
resulted  in  binding  his  chains  tighter. 

The  act  of  emancipation  in  1861  liberated  49,486,000  serfs,  of 
Avhom  23,022,000  belonged  to  the  nobles ; 23,138,000  to  the  state, 
and  3,326,000  to  the  departments. 

A portion  of  the  land  OAvned  by  the  state  and  of  that  OAvned 
by  the  nobles  and  religious  houses  Avas  by  the  act  of  emancipa- 
tion given  to  the  serfs.  The  government  paid  the  nobles  and 
religious  houses  sums  fixed  by  arbitration  for  the  lands  surren- 
dered by  them,  while  the  serfs  paid  the  state  for  the  land  given 
to  them  by  annual  payments  running  over  fifty  years,  secured  by 
the  land  and  also  by  the  other  property  of  the  serfs.  The  last 
of  these  payments  Avill  not  be  due  until  the  early  part  of  the 
next  century.  Even  noAv  40  per  cent  of  the  land  is  OAvned^hy 
the  state,  2 per  cent  by  the  imperial  family,  33  per  cent  by  the 
peasantry,  and  25  per  cent  by  private  owners. 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


21 


EDUCATION. 

There  has  never  been  any  national  system  of  education  in 
Russia.  Many  noble  and  wealthy  families  have  English  nurses 
and  French  or  German  tutors.  The  children  are  taught  to  speak 
French,  English,  and  German  and  formerl}’-  were  often  better 
educated  in  those  languages  than  in  their  native  tongue. 

There  are  nine  universities  in  Russia,  with  between  fifteen  and 
eighteen  thousand  students,  who  are  mostly  from  poor  families 
and  often  support  themselves  by  teaching.  They  strongly  de- 
sire to  reform  the  government,  but  are  ignorant  of  any  other  way 
of  accomplishing  their  object  than  by  its  overthrow.  They  have 
therefore  become  nihilists,  hoping  to  improve  the  people  with- 
out realizing  how  much  evil  they  do.  They  have  converted 
the  universities  into  hot-beds  of  nihilism.  The  government  has 
consequently  subjected  the  students  to  very  strict  regulations, 
not  only  in  their  study  but  in  their  life  outside  as  well  as  within 
the  university,  the  tendency  now  being  to  restrict  instruction  and 
confine  it  to  specified  lines. 

In  addition  to  these  nine  universities,  there  are  medical  and 
professional  schools  for  engineers,  electricians,  and  mechanics, 
not  included  in  the  above  enumeration.  Each  of  the  eighty-five 
governments  has  a grammar  or  high  school,  and  the  pupils  on 
graduating  from  these  schools  can  enter  the  higher  seminaries. 

There  are  also  secondary  common  schools  and  gymnasiums, 
with  2,o00,000  scholars,  while  there  are  15,000,000  of  school  age. 
Of  every  ten  Russian  men,  two  may  be  able  to  read,  but  of  eveiy 
ten  Russian  women,  hardl}^  one.  For  the  last  ten  years  consider- 
able sums  have  been  appro|)riated  by  the  government  for  edu- 
cational purposes,  and  in  1893  $31,000,000  by  the  general  and 
local  governments ; $175,000,000  a year  were  expended  on  the 
arm}’-  and  $22,000,000  on  the  navy,  while  in  the  United  States 
$150,000,000  are  annually  expended  for  education. 

Slight  as  are  their  educational  privileges,  and  probably  liecause 
they  are  so  slight,  the  ])eople  have  no  desire  for  a better  and 
fuller  system.  Daring  my  stay  at  Nijni  Novgorod  I was  invited 
to  go  over  the  house  of  one  of  the  wealthiest  men  in  the  ])lace. 
It  was  a very  magnificent  house,  with  a broad  marlde  stairway 
leading  to  the  salon,  the  floor  of  which  was  mosaic  and  the  hang- 
ings fine  tapestry.  I visited  every  room  in  the  house;  in  only 
one  did  1 see  a book,  ])aper,  or  Avriting  materials  of  any  kind, 
and  that  was  the  children’s  school-room.  I was  informed  that 


22 


nUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


neither  the  master  nor  mistress  could  read  or  write,  hut  I was, 
perhaps,  misinformed.  On  leaving  I kissed  the  hand  of  the  lady 
of  the  house,  and  in  return  she  kissed  rny  forehead,  the  invari- 
able custom  in  old  Russian  families  in  l)idding  adieu  to  guests 
with  Avhom  they  were  pleased.  The  family,  I was  informed, 
lived  in  two  or  three  small  rooms,  keeping  the  others  for  show 
and  an  occasional  party. 

Within  the  present  century  Russia  has  developed  a literature 
of  i^oetry  and  prose,  history  and  romance,  excelled  by  no  other 
nation.  Few  novels  are  more  read  today  than  those  of  Tour- 
geniefF  and  Tolstoi  and  other  Russian  Avriters.  Most  of  them 
recount  tales  of  Russia  and  Russian  life,  and  have  a Avide  circu- 
lation in  other  countries.  The  education  of  these  Avriters  and 
their  mental  training  have  been  essentially  Russian,  and  their 
Avritings,  therefore,  touch  the  heart  of  the  Russian  people,  and 
this  has  led  a constantly  increasing  number  to  learn  to  read- 
There  is  also  a large  number  of  folk  songs  and  tales  Avhich  are 
Avidely  sung  and  recited  among  the  jAeasantry.  Science  has  also 
made  as  rapid  progress  as  belles-letters.  There  are  no  better 
geologists  and  chemists  in  the  world  than  the  Russian,  Avhile 
other  scientists  are  not  far  behind.  In  1892,  9,588  books  Avere 
produced,  with  an  aggregate  of  30,000,000  copies. 

THE  FAIR  AT  NIJMI  NOA^GOROD. 

The  geographical  position  of  Nijni  Novgorod  is  most  favorable 
as  a gathering  place  for  people  from  all  parts  of  Russia  and  the 
Orient.  Situated  at  the  junction  of  the  Volga  and  Oka,  it  is 
easily  accessible  by  these  rivers  and  their  branches  and  canal 
connections  to  people  from  all  parts  of  Russia  and  from  some 
parts  of  Asia.  It  is  also  the  nearest  large  city  to  the  lowest 
passes  for  caraA^ans  between  Russia  and  China.  This  position 
makes  Nijni  NoA'gorod  the  natural  place  for  the  great  fair  of 
Russia.  These  fairs  Avere  formerly  held  in  all  the  countries  of 
Europe  and  Avere  largel}’^  attended,  but  Avith  good  roads,  steam- 
boats, and  railroads  the  necessity  for  them  has  ceased,  excepting 
in  Russia  and  some  parts  of  Asia. 

In  1881  I visited  the  fair  at  Nijni  NoA’^gorod.  Held  on  Ioav, 
flat  ground  opposite  the  city,  for  more  than  five  hundred  years 
this  fair,  though  not  ahvays  held  at  Nijni  Novgorod,  has  l^een 
the  great  mart  of  exchange  for  the  products  of  Russia,  Sil^eria, 
China,  Persia,  Turania,  and  the  Crimea.  The  fair  is  opened  in 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


23 


July  and  continues  through  August  and  September.  Some  of 
the  articles  for  sale  are  brought  by  rail,  but  most  by  barges  or 
steamboat.  I counted  fifty  tugs  from  one  point,  while  two  or 
three  times  as  many  were  anchored  in  other  parts  of  the  river. 

From  Siberia  are  brought  furs  and  diamonds,  precious  stones, 
fine-toned  bells,  iron  and  wooden  utensils,  Siberian  shoes,  made 
of  felt,  impervious  to  snow  or  water,  heat  or  cold.  From  China 
come  caravan  tea,  worth  $2.50  per  pound,  the  finest  tea  that  is 
drunk,  and  brick  tea,  the  poorest,  worth  only  15  cents  per 
pound.  From  Persia  come  precious  stones,  fruits,  carpets,  and 
silks ; from  Circassia,  shawls,  slippers,  and  oils ; cotton  from 
Khiva  and  Bokhara ; oil  and  wool  from  Astrakhan ; from  west- 
ern Russia,  woolen,  linen,  and  vast  quantities  of  hardware,  nails, 
and  steel,  while  Germany,  France,  and  England  sell  their  goods 
by  sample.  There  is  a palace  with  salons  for  great  and  small 
balls  and  dinners.  There  are  streets  with  buildings  and  stores 
of  stone,  brick,  and  iron.  These  were  found  insufficient,  and 
three  thousand  bazaars  of  a temporary  nature  are  often  erected. 
The  same  merchants  come  year  after  year,  and  often  from  gen- 
eration to  generation,  and  occupy  the  same  buildings.  Some 
come  on  horseback  with  their  stores,  others  with  steam-tugs 
towing  barges  filled  with  merchandise.  Near  by  on  the  rivpr 
Oka  are  sheds,  nearly  a mile  in  length,  filled  with  Siberian 
iron,  rolled,  bar,  and  cast  iron  rods,  plate  iron,  and  boiler 
plates,  wire,  hollow-ware,  stoves,  nails,  and  all  descriptions  of 
rough  iron-work.  Here  also  are  churches  for  all  creeds — Rus- 
sians, Chinese,  Tartars,  Buddhists,  Catholics,  and  Lutherans. 

After  the  fair  is  over,  by  the  middle  or  last  of  September,  the 
place  is  deserted,  stores  and  houses  closed,  the  goods  are  taken 
away,  and  not  a soul  is  seen  in  the  place  where  only  a few  days 
before  three  or  four  hundred  thousand  people  were  gathered. 
The  bridge  of  boats  which  connects  the  fair-ground  with  Nijni 
is  taken  down  and  removed  for  the  winter. 


TRAVELING. 

The  different  methods  of  traveling  show  the  habits  and  civiliza- 
tion of  a people.  In  the  far  north  of  Russia  the  sledge  and  tlie 
reindeer  are  only  used  ; in  Finland,  steam  or  sail  lioat  or  sledge. 
Travel  in  summer  by  land  is  unusual ; they  wait  for  sleighing 
or  go  by  boat.  In  central  Russia  they  travel  by  railroad  or 


24 


RUSSIA  IX  EUROPE 


tarantass ; over  the  Caucasus  and  generally  through  the  country 
by  tarantass. 

In  southeastern  Russia  the  horse  and  camel  are  the  sole  means 
of  locomotion,  and  travel  is  generally  l)y  caravan.  In  several  of 
the  large  cities  there  are  hotels,  as  in  other  parts  of  Euro])e,  but 
in  tlie  country  hotels  are  unknown  ; only  rooms  are  furnished  at 
khans  or  caravansaries,  as  all  travelers  carry  their  servants,  pro- 
visions, bed,  and  bedding.  Everywhere  is  found  the  samovar,  a 
large  copper  vessel,  with  a long  tube  or  funnel  extending  to  the 
bottom,  kept  filled  with  charcoal,  which  when  lighted  smoulders 
all  day  long,  keeping  the  water  hot  day  and  night,  ready  for 
making  tea.  In  the  conveyances  for  travel,  in  the  hotels,  and 
in  everything  else  outside  the  large  cities  Asiatic  customs  pre- 
vail. There  are  regular  stations  where  horses  are  kept,  but  they 
cannot  be  obtained  without  a prodovoina — a paper  signed  by 
the  proper  officer — which  gives  the  traveler  a right  to  claim  the 
horses  at  a price  fixed  in  the  paper,  which  is  usually  very  low. 

From  Berlin  to  St.  Petersburg  and  INIoscow  the  sleei)ers  are 
large,  roonyv,  and  clean ; the  accommodations  for  sleeping  are 
excellent ; the  stations  and  restaurants  are  well  appointed,  large, 
and  handsome.  After  leaving  Moscow,  the  first  night  we  liad 
pillow-cases  and  mattress  in  the  sleepers,  but  no  sheets ; the 
second  night  neither  pillow-cases  nor  mattress. 

South  of  Moscow,  when  I was  tliere  the  stations  were  poor, 
without  restaurants,  and  even  without  water  for  washing.  M'e 
reached  Vladikavkaz  at  night  and  drove  direct!}^  to  a hotel 
which  we  understood  was  kept  by  a Frenchman,  but  he  had 
left,  and  there  was  no  one  in  the  hotel,  or  apparently  in  the  vil- 
lage, who  could  speak  either  French,  German,  or  English.  For- 
tunately we  found  a l)oy  from  one  of  the  neighboring  German 
settlements  who  could  speak  German. 

The  next  morning  we  started  on  our  tri}>,  through  the  Dariel 
pass,  across  the  Caucasus  in  a tarantass,  a boat-shaped,  covered 
carriage  without  springs  or  seats,  for  the  roads  are  so  rough  that 
springs  would  soon  break,  without  opportunit}"  for  repairs.  We 
leaned  against  our  trunks  in  the  back  of  the  carriage,  filled  with 
straw.  We  started  with  four  horses  abreast,  dilven  with  six 
reins,  one  to  each  of  the  outside  horses  and  the  other  four  to  the 
pole-horses.  We  drove  rapidly,  but  were  often  delayed  at  post- 
stations waiting  for  horses.  While  we  were  stopping,  more  than 
once,  an  official  drove  up.  Horses  Avere  immediately  harnessed 


RUSSIA  IN  EUROPE 


25 


and  he  drove  on,  although  we  had  been  told  that  there  were  no 
horses  in  the  stables.  We  took  a few  provisions  with  us  and 
found  something  to  eat  at  one  or  two  of  the  stations.  At  night 
there  was  only  one  common  room,  where  all  lodged  and  slept 
on  the  floors  or  benches,  and  as  this  is  also  used  as  a waiting- 
room  for  travelers  by  night  while  their  horses  are  being  changed, 
there  was  little  opportunity  for  sleeping.  The  Russians  carry 
their  own  beds  and  provisions,  but  we  were  not  so  fortunate,  and 
so  were  obliged  to  lie  on  the  boards,  with  straw  for  our  beds. 

At  the  end  of  the  second  day  we  were  over  the  mountains  and 
in  Asia.  We  stopped  at  the  post-station.  Our  provisions  were 
gone,  and  we  could  get  nothing  at  the  station  but  a samovar  with 
hot  water ; so,  late  at  night,  we  drove  on  to  Tiflis,  a city  of  over 
one  hundred  thousand  inhabitants. 

Through  Tiflis  the  river  Kur  runs,  with  beautiful  views  of 
mount  Kazbek  and  the  snow  peaks  of  the  Caucasus  to  the  north. 
Steep  banks  on  either  side  divide  the  city  into  two  parts,  the  one 
new,  with  fine  boulevards,  European  civilization,  and  handsome 
houses,  occupied  solely  by  Russian  officials  ; the  other,  the  old 
part,  on  hilly  ground,  inhabited  by  Persians,  Armenians,  Geor- 
gians, and  others  from  the  many  different  tribes  of  the  Caucasus. 
Here  are  bazaars  like  those  of  Constantinople,  Cairo,  or  Damas- 
cus, where  goods  from  all  parts  of  the  Orient  are  sold. 

CONCLtSION. 

Many  causes  have  been  and  are  still  at  work  that  must  arouse 
the  Russians.  Tlie  first  great  impulse  arose  in  the  early  part  of 
the  iH’esent  century,  during  the  Napoleonic  wars,  when  the  Rus- 
sian armies  gathered  from  all  parts  of  the  kingdom,  marched  to 
Berlin  and  Vienna,  and  mingled  with  the  armies  of  Prussia  and 
Austria.  Then  came  the  invasion  of  Russia  by  Napoleon,  the 
burning  of  Moscow,  followed  l)y  the  second  march  of  the  Rus- 
sian armies  through  Europe,  and  their  entry  into  Paris  in  1814, 
in  each  case  coming  home  with  enlarged  vision  and  new  ideas. 
Second,  the  introduction  of  steamboats  on  the  rivers;  third,  the 
Crimean  war  and  fall  of  Sebastopol,  which  aroused  tlie  ruling 
class  to  the  ncce.ssity  for  railroads  and  better  intercommunica- 
tion between  the  different  parts  of  the  empire,  and  led  to  the 
construction  of  three  lines  of  railroad  from  the  north  to  the  south 
through  the  length  of  Russia,  and  three  lines  from  its  western  to 


2(3 


nUSSlA  IX  EUROPE 


its  eastern  boundary,  thus  inviting  the  people  to  travel  from 
place  to  i^lace  and  to  see  more  of  the  world;  fourth,  as  a second 
result  of  the  Crimean  war  was  the  freedom  of  the  serfs  in  1861 
from  a slavery  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  years ; fifth,  the  con- 
struction of  the  railroad  across  the  Ural  mountains  to  Siberia^ 
and  its  subsequent  extension  east,  through  the  southern  part  of 
the  country,  to  the  Pacific,  through  the  rich  agricultural  region 
of  Siberia ; sixth,  the  trans-Caspian  conquest  and  the  construc- 
tion of  the  railroad  along  the  borders  of  Persia  and  Afghanistan, 
across  the  desert  and  the  river  Oxus  to  Samarcand,  opening  up 
several  countries  and  a large  population  to  the  manufactures 
and  commerce  of  Russia  ; thus  a large  and  profitable  commerce 
has  been  created  or  diverted  from  England  to  Russia,  which 
must  greatly  benefit  Russia  and  trans-Caspia ; seventh,  the  ex- 
port of  grain  and  petroleum  from  Russia  to  Europe,  which  is 
rapidly  increasing,  and  the  money  obtained  in  exchange  niust 
greatly  benefit  the  Russian  farmer. 

The  destinies  of  Asia  are  in  the  hands  of  Russia  and  England, 
and  are  more  intimately  connected  with  Russia  than  with  Eng- 
land, for  the  Russians  have  greater  affinity  with  the  Asiatics 
than  the  English,  their  influence  over  them  is  greater,  and  the 
Asiatics  are  more  easily  reconciled  to  the  government  of  Russia 
than  to  that  of  the  English. 

This  contact  and  intercourse  tend  to  develop  both  Asiatics  and 
Russians.  The  day  of  awakening,  of  progress,  of  education,  of 
prosperity  to  the  Russian  peasant  is  sure  to  come ; but  whether 
this  civilization  shall  be  that  of  Europe  and  America  or  Asia  and 
China  is  uncertain.  Russia,  with  her  empire  extending  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  Avill  become  the  leading  nation  of  the 
Orient. 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL  II. 


U.  S.  REVENUE-MARINE  STEAMER  “ BEAR  ” MOORED  TO  A FIELD  OF  ICE  IN  BERING  SEA. 


ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  REVENUE  CUTTER  ^‘BEAR^^  27 


THE  ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 
REVENUE  CUTTER  “BEAR” 

By  Dr  Sheldon  Jackson,  United  States  General  Agent  of  Edu- 
cation in  Alaska 

Expeditions  to  the  Arctic  have  alwa}^s  had  a fascination  for 
mankind.  From  the  early  voyages  of  the  Norsemen  down 
through  the  successive  expeditions  of  Davis,  Baffin,  and  Ross  to 
that  of  Peary  the  world  has  honored  the  men  who  have  braved 
the  dangers  of  the  Arctic  in  voyages  of  discovery  lasting  from 
one  to  three  years,  but  little  account  has  been  made  of  the 
whalers  who  have  encountered  these  same  dangers  for  many 
3’ears  in  succession,  and  particularly  of  the  United  States  reve- 
nue cutter  service  that  has  annually  ventured  into  these  icy  re- 
gions for  sixteen  years  past.  The  service  began  in  1880  with  the 
sending  of  the  little  cutter  Corwin  into  the  Arctic  in  search  of 
the  Jeannette,  and  an  Arctic  cruise  has  been  made  each  season 
since  that  time.  In  1883  the  steamer  Bear,  after  the  rescue  of 
General  Greely  and  party  of  the  Lady  Franklin  bay  expedition, 
was  turned  over  to  the  United  States  Treasury  Department  and 
detailed  for  the  Arctic  service.  She  is  a barquentine-rigged 
steamer,  198  feet  long,  30  feet  wide,  and  18.5  feet  deep,  with  a 
capacity  of  714  tons.  She  was  built  at  Greenock,  Scotland,  for 
the  Dundee  sealing  and  whaling  fleet,  and  is  .an  excellent  sea 
boat — in  fact  the  best  in  the  Arctic  ocean  for  work  in  the  ice. 
The  commanding  officer  from  1884  to  the  present  time  has  been 
Captain  Michael  A.  Healy,  an  officer  justlv^  rendered  famous  by 
his  long,  successful,  and  in  many  ways  remarkable  service  in  the 
dangerous  waters  of  Arctic  Alaska. 

The  annual  cruise  of  the  Bear  to  the  Arctic  ocean  is  unique  in 
its  multifarious  duties  and  its  practical  usefulness.  In  addition 
to  the  ordinary  duties  of  a revenue  cutter  in  protecting  the  in- 
terests of  the  customs,  more  particularly  Ijy  the  prevention  of 
smuggling  l)y  the  whaling  fleet,  this  steamer  has  performed  the 
duty  of  a traveling  life-saving  station.  During  these  twelve 
years  it  has  rescued  from  the  l)leak  and  sterile  coast  of  western 
and  Arctic  Alaska  a thousand  shipwrecked  whalers  and  desti- 
tute mariners.  Not  a season  passes  without  one  or  more  whalers 


28  ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  REVENUE  CUTTER  ^‘BEAR'^ 


being  wrecked  and  relief  being  furnished  by  the  Bear.  In  addi- 
tion to  affording  relief  to  the  whaling  fleet  in  times  of  disaster 
and  peril,  its  record  is  equally  brilliant  in  the  protection  of  thou- 
sands of  half-civilized  natives  from  the  rai)acity  of  the  white 
man  and  the  demoralization  that  comes  from  the  white  man’s 
rum.  Along  vast  stretches  of  coast  ( from  10,000  to  12,000  miles) 
unknown  to  civilization,  the  flag  of  the  revenue  steamer  is  the 
only  evidence  of  the  authority  of  the  Government  that  is  ever 
seen  and  the  only  protection  ever  afforded.  The  cruiser  Bear  also 
furnishes  the  only  medical  attendance  which  the  natives  living 
along  thousands  of  miles  of  coast  ever  receive.  In  1890  the 
importance  of  its  annual  cruise  was  still  further  increased  by  its 
affording  transportation  to  the  United  States  general  agent  of 
education  in  Alaska  in  his  establishment  and  supervision  of 
Government  schools  in  western  and  Arctic  Alaska,  and  in  1891 
still  another  addition  was  made  to  its  usefulness  by  its  being 
employed  in  the  transportation  of  domestic  reindeer  from  Siberia 
to  Alaska.  Its  visits  to  the  native  villages  upon  the  American 
coast  and  the  search  for  reindeer  along  the  coast  of  Siberia  bring 
it  into. many  bays  and  regions  little  known  to  the  geogra})hic 
world.  During  the  establishment  of  schools  and  the  introduc- 
tion of  domestic  reindeer  into  Alaska  the  writer  was  enabled, 
by  the  permission  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  and  the 
courtesy  of  Captain  Healy,  to  make  five  consecutive  annual 
cruises  along  the  Arctic  coasts  of  Siberia  and  Alaska.  The  work 
being  now  well  under  way,  his  place  was  this  season  taken  by 
the  assistant  agent,  Mr  William  Hamilton.  The  cruise  of  the 
Bear  in  1895  was  over  much  the  same  course  as  in  previous  years. 

After  }»atrolling  the  North  Pacific  during  IMay  and  June  the 
Bear  left  the  wharf  at  Dutch  harbor,  Unalaska,  on  June  24  for 
her  Arctic  trip.  The  next  day  she  sighted  through  the  fog  first 
St.  George  island  and  then  St.  Paul.  The  sea  being  too  rough 
to  land,  the  ship  pushed  on  to  the  northwest,  passing  St.  IMat- 
thew  island  on  June  26,  and  reaching  anchorage  at  St.  Law- 
rence island  on  June  28.  Very  soon  the  natives  swarmed  on 
board,  bringing  tidings  that  IMr  and  Mrs  Gamble,  in  charge  of 
the  Government  school  on  the  island,  were  in  excellent  health 
and  had  had  a very  successful  year.  A sewing  machine  aftid  a 
cabinet  organ  for  Mrs  Gamble,  with  supplies  for  the  family  and 
a twelve  months’  mail,  were  landed  safely  through  the  surf. 
Hoisting  anchor  on  June  30  the  Bear  crossed  over  to  Indian 


HERD  OF  REINDEER  LYING  DOWN. 
Photographed  hi/  .4.  L.  Broadhent,  U.  B.  i 


VOL.  VII,  1896.  PL.  III. 


ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  REVENUE  CUTTER  ^‘BEAR"  29 


point,  Siberia,  about  40  miles  distant.  There  two  Cossack  officers 
of  the  Russian  arm 3^  were  found  taking  a census  of  the  village. 
This  was  the  first  visit  of  Russian  officials  to  that  section  of  the 
Siberian  coast  in  many  years,  and  the  natives  brought  the  Russian 
coins  they  had  received  from  them  over  to  the  ship  to  sell  as 
curios.  Here,  as  elsewhere  on  the  ti’ip,  the  ship’s  surgeon  went 
ashore  to  treat  the  sick  and  ailing.  The  principal  native  of  the 
village  is  Koharri,  who  is  a noted  trader  all  along  the  coast.  He 
has  a little  frame  whale-house  filled  from  floor  to  ceiling  with 
tobacco,  flour,  and  looking-glasses,  which  he  has  obtained  from 
the  whalers  and  from  which  he  sui)plies  the  country  for  hun- 
dreds of  miles  around.  This  man  has  been  known  to  have  as 
much  as  §75,000  worth  of  whalebone  in  his  storehouse  at  one 
time.  He  does  a business  of  probably  §100,000  a year,  and  yet 
not  a single  coin  of  gold  or  silver  nor  a single  bank  note  or  bank 
check  is  used,  nor  are  any  books  kept.  All  transactions  are  by 
barter,  furs  and  whalebones  being  exchanged  for  tobacco,  flour, 
and  whisk\^  This  wholesale  merchant  of  the  North  Siberian 
coast  can  neither  read  nor  write,  nor  can  any  one  associated  with 
him.  Although  so  wealthy,  he  lives  in  an  ordinary  tent  and 
sleeps  on  the  ground,  on  a pile  of  reindeer  skins. 

On  several  occasions  the  Bear,  in  search  of  reindeer,  has  turned 
southward  from  Indian  point  and  sailed  up  Holy  Cross  sound, 
at  the  head  of  Anadir  gulf,  some  300  miles  into  Siberia.  In 
1893,  while  in  search  of  reindeer,  Ave  discovered  a large  river 
emptying  into  Holy  Cross  sound.  After  visiting  a herd  of  rein- 
deer, an  officer  and  crew  entered  the  mouth  of  this  stream,  the 
Bear  being  the  first  ocean  steamer  that  had  ever  ploAved  those 
waters.  This  season  the  Bear,  turning  northward,  anchored,  on 
July  1,  off  South  head,  St.  Lawrence  bay.  Peter  and  Kaimok, 
the  leading  men  of  that  section,  came  on  board  and  sold  40  head 
of  reindeer.  The  herd,  however,  Avas  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
baj'  and  could  not  be  reached  until  the  ice  should  go  out,  a month 
later.  Being  unAvilling  to  Avait,  the  captain  set  sail  for  King 
island,  Avhich  Avas  reached  the  next  morning.  At  tins  point  dur- 
ing two  previous  seasons  the  Bear  Avas  caught  and  imprisoned  in 
large  ice  floes. 

Leaving  the  island  at  8 a.  m.,  the  Bear  soon  encountered  large 
cakes  of  ice  at  the  entrance  to  Port  Clarence.  Forcing  her  Avay 
through  the  ice,  she  found  seven  Avhalers  at  anclior  inside,  and 
news  Avas  receiA’cd  of  the  successful  winter  of  the  reindeer  herds. 


30  ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  REVENUE  CUTTER 


The  4th  of  July  was  spent  with  the  whaling  fleet,  at  anchor.  .A 
baseball  game  on  shore  and  a salute  of  twenty-one  guns  at  noon, 
with  a dinner  on  the  Bear  to  the  whaling  captains,  comprised 
the  public  celebration  of  the  day.  On  July  5 the  Bear  left  for 
St.  Michael,  where  she  arrived  the  following  day.  On  July  8 
anchor  was  hoisted  and  a trip  was  made  to  the  native  village  on 
Sledge  island.  On  July  9 the  steamer  made  Bering  straits, 
calling  at  East  cape,  where  four  or  flve  influential  natives  were 
taken  on  board  to  aid  in  procuring  reindeer.  Learning  that 
there  was  a large  herd  about  50  miles  to  the  northward,  the  vessel 
entered  the  Arctic  ocean.  Early  in  the  morning  of  Juh'  11  the 
Bear,  picking  and  pushing  her  way  through  the  ice,  reached  Utan 
At  this  place  16  deer  Avere  purchased  and  brought  on  board. 
Continuing  the  trip  up  the  coast,  the  Bear  tied  up  to  a huge  ice 
floe  near  caj)e  Serdz;e,  Siberia.  ^Vhile  there  target  practice  was 
had  at  distant  pieces  of  ice.  On  the  14th,  learning  that  there 
were  some  deer  at  Chacoran,  the  vessel  steamed  over  to  that 
village,  Avhere  22  deer  were  secured.  The  ice  closing  in,  the 
cutter  was  compelled  to  move  a few  miles  forther  south.  At  this 
point  73  head  of  deer  Avere  purchased,  and  at  midnight  the  Bear 
got  under  Avay  for  the  reindeer  station  at  Port  Clarence,  passing 
through  a gale  on  the  16th  and  reaching  point  Spencer  on  the 
17th,  Avhere  she  anchored.  About  noon  on  the  20th,  the  gale 
haA'ing  subsided,  the  Bear  steamed  over  to  the  station  and  landed 
the  deer.  The  brig  W.  U.  Meyer,  Avith  the  annual  supi)lies  for 
the  several  stations  and  schools,  Avas  found  Avrecked  on  the  beach 
in  front  of  the  station,  having  gone  ashore  during  the  gale  on 
the  night  of  the  17th.  The  supplies  for  the  reindeer  station  had 
fortunately  all  been  landed,  but  those  for  the  schools  at  cape 
Prince  of  W'ales  and  point  BarroAV  Avere  lost. 

On  .July  22  the  Bear  Aveighed  anchor  and  headed  for  Siberia 
for  another  load  of  reindeer,  and  on  July  23  she  reached  St.  LaAV- 
rence  bay.  On  the  24th  she  steamed  to  the  head  of  the  bay, 
Avhere  43  head  Avere  secured.  The  next  day  she  returned  to  the 
reindeer  station,  Avhere  the  deer  Avere  landed  on  the  26th.  On  the 
28th,  the  Bear  having  taken  on  board  Mr  and  Mrs  Hanna,  Avho 
had  been  Avrecked  on  the  IF.  H.  Meyer,  Avith  their  supplies  re- 
ceived from  reindeer  station,  sailed  for  cape  Prince  of  Whiles, 
Avhere  they  Avere  landed  that  afternoon.  Again  hoisting  anchor 
the  steamer  left  for  Kotzebue  sound.  On  the  Avay  the  schooner 
Jessie  Avas  boarded  and  examined.  On  J uly  30  the  Bear  anchored 


SCENE  AT  POINT  BARROW  IN  APRIL. 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG.  VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  IV. 


ARCTIC  CRUISE  OF  THE  REVENUE  CUTTER  ^HEAPU' 


31 


in  the  lee  of  Chamisso  island.  On  the  31st,  while  the  vessel  was 
lying  windbound,  Dr  Sharp  and  Mr  Justice,  of  the  Philadelphia 
Academy  of  Sciences,  and  Mr  William  Hamilton,  of  the  Bureau 
of  Education,  together  with  a party  of  officers,  made  an  excur- 
sion to  Choris  peninsula.  On  August  5 the  steamer  left  for  point 
Hope,  where  it  arrived  next  day.  Here  the  school  and  whaling- 
stations  were  visited,  and  Dr  Driggs.  one  of  the  teachers,  who 
had  been  in  that  country  for  five  years,  was  taken  on  board  to 
return  to  the  states  for  a vacation. 

On  August  7 the  Bear  started  up  the  coast  for  point  Barrow, 
wending  its  way  through  large  packs  of  floating  ice,  and  on  the 
following  day  caught  up  with  the  whaling  fleet  at  anchor  near 
Icy  cape,  at  the  southern  edge  of  the  great  Arctic  ice  pack.  The 
whaling  fleet  had  been  at  anchor  for  19  days,  waiting  lor  the  ice 
to  open.  The  Bear  lay  there  for  14  days  longer,  waiting  for  an 
opportunity  to  get  farther  north.  Parties  from  point  Barrow, 
who  came  down  the  coast  for  their  mail,  reported  that  the  past 
■wdnter  had  not  been  very  cold,  the  lowest  temperature  being  30° 
below  zero.  Giving  up  all  expectation  of  getting  farther  north, 
young  ice  forming  oil  the  sea  and  on  the  rigging  of  the  vessel, 
the  captain  concluded  to  turn  southward,  which  he  did  on 
August  22.  The  following  day  a shoal  of  walrus  was  sighted 
several  miles  away,  and  hunting  parties  were  sent  out  and  secured 
10  of  them.  Picking  up  the  walrus,  the  vessel  continued  south- 
i\'ard,  calling  at  point  Hope  the  next  day  and  reaching  the  rein- 
deer station  August  27.  Two  days  were  spent  in  securing  requisi- 
tions and  finishing  up  the  business  of  the  year.  On  September 
1 the  steamer,  while  near  St.  Michael,  took  on  board  16  desti- 
tute miners  from  the  Yukon  region.  On  the  evening  of  Septem- 
ber 4 the  vessel  anchored  off  the  St.  Lawrence  island  village. 
The  evening  was  spent  in  closing  up  the  season’s  business  at  the 
station.  Requisitions  were  made  out  for  another  year’s  supplies, 
last  letters  were  received,  urewells  were  spoken,  and  Mr  and 
Mrs  Gamlffe  were  again  cut  off  from  all  communication  with  the 
outside  world  for  another  year.  At  4 a.  m.  on  September  5 tlie 
Bear  was  again  under  way.  September  6 St.  Matthew  and 
Hall  islands  were  }>assed,  and  on  the  7th  anclior  was  droi>ped 
at  St.  Paul  island,  where  on  the  8th  a landing  was  made  for  a 
few  hours.  On  Sei)tember  9 a similar  landing  was  made  at  St. 
George  island,  and  at  noon  on  September  11  anchor  was  dropped 
in  Dutch  harbor,  Unalaska,  closing  the  Arctic  cruise  of  1895. 


32 


SCOPE  AND  VALVE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


THE  SCOPE  AND  VALUE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS^ 
By  General  A.  W.  Greely 

In  a brief  twenty  minutes  one  can  touch  only  in  a desultory 
wa}’’  on  this  great  topic  that  engages  the  thought  and  attention 
of  so  many  famous  members  of  the  Geogra])hical  Congress,  yet 
a somewhat  general  outline  of  the  scope  and  value  of  Arctic  ex- 
ploration may  not  he  amiss. 

This,  however,  is  neither  time  nor  place  to  present  in  detail 
those  phases  of  Arctic  exploration  that  appeal  so  strongly  to  the 
popular  fancy.  If  one  would  gain  an  adequate  idea  of  the  true 
aspects  of  such  voyaging,  he  must  turn  to  the  original  journals, 
penned  in  the  great  White  North  by  brave  men  whose  “ purpose 
held  to  sail  beyond  the  sunset.’’ 

In  these  volumes  will  be  found  tales  of  ships  beset  not  only 
months,  but  years ; of  ice  packs  and  ice  fields  of  extent,  thick- 
ness, and  mass  so  enormous  that  description  conveys  no  just 
idea ; of  boat  journeys  where  constant  watchfulness  alone  pre- 
vented instant  death  by  drifting  bergs  or  commingling  ice  floes  ; 
of  land  marches  when  exhausted  humanity  staggered  along, 
leaving  traces  of  blood  on  snow  or  rock ; of  sledge  journeys  over 
chaotic  masses  of  ice,  when  humble  heroes,  straining  at  the  drag- 
ropes,  struggled  on  because  the  failure  of  one  compromised  the 
safety  of  all ; of  solitude  and  monotony,  terrible  in  the  weeks  of 
constant  polar  sunlight,  but  almost  unsettling  the  reason  in  the 
months  of  continuous  Arctic  darkness ; of  silence  awful  at  all 
times,  but  made  }mt  more  startling  by  astounding  i^henomena 
that  appeal  noiselessly  to  the  eye ; of  darkness  so  continuous 
and  intense  that  the  unsettled  mind  is  driven  to  wonder  whether 
the  ordinary  course  of  nature  will  bring  back  the  sun,  or  whether 
the  world  has  been  cast  out  of  its  orbit  in  the  planetary  universe 
into  new  conditions ; of  cold  so  intense  that  any  exposure  is  fol- 
lowed by  instant  freezing;  of  monotonous  surroundings  that 
threaten  with  time  to  unsettle  the  reason ; of  deprivations  wast- 

* Address  delivered  before  the  Sixth  International  Geographical  Con- 
gress, London,  at  the  Polar  Session,  July  29,  1895. 


SCOPE  AND  VALUE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


83 


ing  the  body,  and  so  impairing  tlie  mind ; of  failure  in  all  things, 
not  only  of  food,  fuel,  clothing,  and  shelter,  for  Arctic  service 
foreshadows  such  contingencies,  but  the  bitter  failure  of  plans 
and  aspirations,  which  brings  almost  inevitable  despair  in  its 
train. 

Failure  of  all  things,  did  I say  ? Nay ; failure,  be  it  admitted, 
of  all  the  ph}^sical  accessories  of  conceived  and  accomplished 
action,  hut  not  failure  in  the  higher  and  more  essential  attri- 
butes— not  of  the  mental  and  moral  qualities  that  are  the  foun- 
dation of  fortitude,  fidelity,  and  honor.  Failure  in  this  latter 
respect  has  been  so  rare  in  Arctic  service  as  to  justly  make  such 
offender  a byword  and  scorn  to  his  fellow-laborers  and  suc- 
cessors. 

Patience,  courage,  fortitude,  foresight,  self-reliance,  helpful- 
ness— these  grand  characteristics  of  developed  humanity  every- 
where, but  which  we  are  inclined  to  claim  as  special  endowments 
of  the  Caucasian  race — find  ample  expression  in  the  detailed 
history  of  Arctic  exploration.  If  one  seeks  to  learn  to  what  ex- 
tent man’s  determination  and  effort  dominate  even  the  most 
adverse  environment,  the  simple  narratives  of  Arctic  exploration 
will  not  fail  to  furnish  striking  examples. 

There  is  a ^\it^espread  impression  that  all  Arctic  voyages  have 
been  made  for  practically  the  same  general  purpose,  whereas 
polar  research  has  passed  through  three  distinctive  phases  : First, 
for  strictly  commercial  purposes  in  connection  with  trade  to  the 
Indies  ; second,  for  advancement  of  geographical  knowledge, 
and,  third,  for  scientific  investigations  connected  with  physical 
sciences. 

Commercial  interests  dictated  the  grand  series  of  vo}^ages 
wherein  England,  competing  with  Spain  from  the  period  of  the 
ventures  of  the  Cabots  to  the  discoveries  of  Baffin,  sought  for  a 
short  route  to  the  Indies  across  the  pole  or  by  a northwest  pas- 
sage. As  the  futility  of  efforts  by  these  routes  became  more  or 
less  aj>parent,  and  as  the  naval  strength  of  Spain  and  Portugal 
ensured  their  continued  monopoly  of  the  growing  and  valuable 
trade  of  the  Orient,  the  attention  of  England  was  turned  in  sheer 
desperation  to  the  northeast  ])assage  as  possibly  offering  a com- 
]>eting  route.  While  this  quest  j)roved  impracticable  for  the 
sailing  ships  of  the  sixteenth  century,  yet  its  prosecution  inured 
to  the  great  financial  advantage  of  England  through  the  estah- 


34 


SCOPE  AND  VALUE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


lishmenttliereby  of  intimate  and  exclusive  commercial  relations 
with  the  growing  and  hitherto  inaccessible  empire  of  Russia. 

The  renewal  of  the  true  spirit  of  geographical  exploration  in 
the  early  part  of  the  present  century  gave  rise  to  a series  of  un- 
paralleled voyages  in  search  of  the  northwest  })assage,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  most  splended  geographical  achievements  of  the 
century.  These  voj^ages  were  not  splended  alone  from  the  defi- 
nite results  attained,  nor  from  the  almost  sui)erhuman  efforts 
that  ensured  success,  but  also  from  the  lofty  spirit  of  endeavor 
and  adventure  that  inspired  the  actors.  The  men  wdio  strove 
therein  were  lured  by  no  hope  of  gain,  influenced  by  no  spirit 
of  conquest,  but  were  moved  solely  by  the  belief  that  man  should 
know  even  the  most  desolate  regions  of  his  abiding  place,  the 
earth,  and  the  determination  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  should  do 
his  part. 

Franklin  said : “Arctic  discoveiy  has  been  fostered  from  mo- 
tives as  disinterested  as  they  are  enlightened  ; not  from  any 
prospect  of  immediate  benefit,  but  from  a steady  view  to  the 
acquirement  of  useful  knowledge  and  the  extension  of  the  bounds 
of  science,  and  its  contributions  to  natural  history  and  science 
have  excited  a general  interest.  The  loss  of  life  in  the  i)rosecu- 
tion  of  these  discoveries  does  not  exceed  the  average  deaths  in 
the  same  population  at  home.”  Parry  adds  : “ Such  enterprises, 
so  disinterested  as  well  as  useful  in  their  object,  do  honor  even 
when  they  fail.  They  cannot  but  excite  the  admiration  of  every 
liberal  mind.” 

Of  Chancellor’s  voyage  to  the  northeast  Milton  said : “ The 
discovery  of  Russia  by  the  northern  ocean  . . . might  have 

seemed  an  enterprise  almost  heroic  if  any  higher  end  than  exces- 
sive love  of  gain  and  traffic  had  animated  the  design.”  Modern 
critics  except  from  dispraise  the  gallant  men  who  in  this  centuiy 
have  given  their  lives  from  no  sordid  motive,  and  so  merit  Milton’s 
full  praise. 

If  not  all,  certainly  some  of  these  arctics  have  been  animated 
with  the  noble  thought  of  the  poet : 

And  this  gray  spirit  yearning  in  desire 
To  follow  knowledge  like  a shining  star 
Beyond  the  utmost  bound  of  human  thought. 

Suffice  it  is  to  say,  for  geographic  research,  that  it  has  remained 
for  the  nineteenth  century,  with  its  wealth  of  industrial  inven- 


SCOPE  AND  VALUE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


35 


tioiis  and  store  of  indomitable  energy,  to  make  the  northwest 
and  northeast  passages,  to  outline  the  northern  coast  of  America, 
and  to  discover  the  archipelagoes  and  islands  situated  poleward 
from  the  three  continents  of  the  northern  hemisphere. 

Hudson’s  voyage  to  the  Greenland  sea,  in  1607,  was  of  vast 
industrial  and  commercial  importance,  for  his  discovery  and 
reports  of  the  incredible  number  of  walruses  and  whales  that 
frequented  these  seas  gave  rise  to  the  Spitzbergen  whale  fishery. 

The  voyage  of  Poole  for  walruses  and  exploration,  in  1610, 
was  followed  by  the  establishment  of  the  whale  fishery  by  Edge 
in  the  following  year.  Enterprising  Holland  sent  its  ships  in 
1613,  later  bringing  in  its  train  whalers  from  Bremen,  France, 
and  other  maritime  centers.  The  whale  fishery,  as  the  most 
important  of  Arctic^industries,  from  which  Holland  alone  drew 
from  the  Spitzbergen  seas  in  one  hundred  and  ten  years,  1679- 
lf78,  products  valued  at  about  $90,000,000,  merits  at  least  our 
brief  attention. 

Grad  writes : “ The  Dutch  sailors  saw  in  Spitzbergen  wateTs 
great  whales  in  immense  numbers,  whose  calch  would  be  a 
source  of  apparently  inexhaustible  riches.  For  two  centuries 
fleets  of  whalers  frequented  its  seas.  The  rush  to  the  gold-bear- 
ing placers  of  California  and  the  mines  of  Australia  afforded  in 
our  day  the  only  examples  at  all  comparable  to  the  host  of  men 
attracted  by  the  northern  fishery.” 

Scoresby  says:  “ In  a short  time  (whaling)  proved  the  most 
lucrative  and  the  most  important  branch  of  national  commerce 
which  had  ever  been  offered  to  man.”  This  emphatic  statement 
is  devoid  of  exaggeration  in  the  slightest  degree.  Scoresby  gives, 
year  by  year,  the  products  of  the  Dutch  whale  fishery  in  the 
Arctic  seas  from  1668  to  1778,  which  aggregate  in  value  over 
$100,000,000.  When  it  is  known  that  Scoresl)y  himself  caught 
in  thirty  voyages  fish  to  the  value  of  $1,000,000,  it  will  not  be 
considered  extravagant  to  place  the  products  of  the  British 
whale  fishery  at  $250,000,000.  Starbuck  gives  the  ])roduct  of 
the  American  whale  fisliery  from  1804  to  1877  as  $332,000,000, 
making  the  aggregate  of  three  nations,  America,  England,  and 
Holland,  more  than  $680,000,000.  How  far  this  amount  should 
be  increased  on  account  of  .seal,  walrus,  and  other  strictly  Arctic 
sea  game  need  not  be  considered,  but  Norwegian  and  Bussian 
fishers  have  successfully  exploited  these  sources  for  the  past 
century. 


36 


SCOPE  AED  VALCE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATlOyS 


The  visit  of  Laikoff  to  the  New  Siberian  islands  added  eventu- 
ally a wealth  of  fossil  ivory  to  Siberian  trade  that  was  onl}'’ 
second  in  value  to  the  extraordinary  stock  of  furs  that  grew  out 
of  the  explorations  of  the  Arctic  valley  of  the  Kolinia  by  Rus- 
sian hunters.  From  Hudson’s  voyage  to  the  bay  of  his  name 
are  attributable  the  initiation  and  development  of  the  extremely 
valuable  fur  trade  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  Bering  failed 
to  outline  the  definite  geographic  relations  of  the  contiguous 
shores  of  Asia  and  America,  but  his  voyages  directl}’^  resulted  in 
the  very  extensive  sea  and  land  fur  trade  which  has  proved  so 
profitable  through  a century  and  a half. 

Altogether,  it  may  be  assumed  that  in  a little  over  two  centu- 
ries the  Arctic  regions  have  furnished  to  the  civilized  world  pro- 
ducts aggregating  twelve  hundred  millions^of  dollars  in  value. 

Norshoulditbe  inferred  that  commercial  ends,  scientific  knowl- 
edge, or  the  glory  of  effort  crystallized  in  accomplishment  have 
alone  turned  man  to  the  j^olar  regions.  The  altruistic  spirit  of 
Egede  lavished  its  wealth  of  effort  in  the  turning  of  the  Greenland 
Eskimo  to  Christianity  and  civilization,  and  it  enkindled  the 
flame  of  Christian  endeavor  that  Crantz  and  the  Moravian  breth- 
ren kept  alive  during  the  critical  phases  of  Greenland’s  history. 
As  Cowper  says ; 

See  Germany  send  forth 

Her  sons  to  pour  it  on  tlie  fartliest  north. 

Fired  with  a zeal  j>eculiar,  they  defy 
The  rage  and  rigor  of  a polar  sky 
And  plant  successfully  sweet  Sharon’s  rose 
On  icy  plains  and  in  eternal  snows. 

In  recent  days  Great  Britain  has  had  its  Duncan,  France  its 
Petitot,  and  the  United  .States  its  Jackson,  Avhose  evangelizing 
labors,  acting  through  the  more  successful  method — that  of  in- 
culcating civilization  and  helpfulness — are  a ]>art  of  the  glory  of 
this  time.  The  residence  of  Holm  among  the  east  Greenland 
natives  and  of  Peart'  with  the  Etah  Eskimo  have,  it  is  to  be  hoi)ed, 
not  been  fruitless  along  these  lines  and  should  stimulate  human 
sympathy  for  these  dwellers  on  the  northern  edge  of  the  world. 
Evert'  lover  of  mankind  will  rejoice  that  Denmark,  with  the 
Christian  solicitude  that  has  always  marked  its  polic}'  towards 
the  Greenlanders,  has  extended  its  unprofitable  trade  relations 
to  east  Greenland  and  established  a missionary  station  at  Ang- 
inagsalik  for  the  benefit  of  the  natives.  May  we  not  hope  that 


SCOPE  AND  VALIE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


37 


some  religious  association  may  likewise  plant  the  seeds  of  civil- 
ization and  Christianity  amon'g  the  Cape  York  Eskimo? 

There  is  neither  intent  nor  time  to  worthily  eulogize  the  deeds 
of  living  Arctic  men,  nor  even  to  stimulate  the  eager  rising  youth 
who  shall  outdo  all  that  has  gone  before ; rather  would  this  brief 
word  add  a leaf  of  laui’el  to  the  crowned  dead  whose  Arctic  fame 
forms  part  of  each  nation’s  historic  heritage — hallowed  for  the 
j)ast,  priceless  for  the  present,  indispensable  for  successful  fu- 
turity. 

Shall  I name  the  soldiers  or  sailors,  the  explorers  or  scientists, 
the  trader  or  the  whaler?  Rather  all,  since  science  knows  neither 
station  nor  profession,  neither  dialect  nor  nationality. 

In  the  roll-call  of  the  dead  Austria-Hungary  answers  with 
’\Ve}"precht,  whose  greatest  fame  will  ever  be  associated  with  the 
establishment  of  the  international  })olar  stations. 

Denmark  follows,  equally  at  home  in  Ainerican,  Asiatic,  or  Eu- 
ropean waters,  through  Munk  and  Hamke,  Jan  Mayen  and  Vitus 
Bering. 

Then  France  wdth  De  la  Croyere,  Pages,  Blosseville,  Fabre, 
Ctaimard,  Marmier,  Martins,  and  Bellot,  the  last  a name  ever 
grateful  to  English  ears. 

Germany  has  generously  loaned  her  talent  to  insure  success 
Avherever  sound  and  important  scientific  work  is  to  be  done. 
Baer,  Bessell,  Petermann,  and  Steller  are  Avortny  successors  to 
Frederick  Martens,  of  the  seventeenth  century — men  and  Avork 
of  Avhich  any  nation  may  be  proud. 

Holland,  in  Barents,  Nay,  Tetgales,  Rip,  and  Heemskerck,  pre- 
sents a roll  of  honor  Avell  in  keeping  Avith  the  notable  Avork  of 
the  thousands  of  Dutch  Avhalers  that  exploited  the  Spitzbergen 
seas. 

The  Italian  contingent,  from  the  Zeni  of  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury through  the  Cabots  toBoveof  our  OAvn  day,  maintain  here, 
as  elseAvhere,  their  geographic  standing. 

Norwegian  Othere  set  in  the  ninth  century  the  ])ioneer  standard 
of  Arctic  ex[)loration,  Avhich  later,  combined  Avith  the  labor  of 
exploiting  the  northern  seas,  has  Mattilas,  Carlsen,  Tol)iesen,  and 
a score  of  others  as  Avorthy  successors. 

Russia  finds  the  Arctic  problem  a domestic  ([uestion,  and  from 
the  time  of  Peter  tlie  Great  to  today  has  done  an  amount  of  Avork 
not  generally  ai)preciated  or  known.  'I’he  Laptietts  and  Desh- 
neff,  Tchirikof,  and  IJakoff’,  Anjou  and  Wrangell,  Kotzebue  and 


38 


SCOPE  AND  VALVE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


Liitke,  Pachtussof,  Krusenstern  and  Zivolka,  stand  forth  in  the 
annals  of  the  world. 

In  Hedenstrdin  and  Torrell  Sweden  finds  examples  that  have 
borne  such  abundant  fruit  in  the  late  active  labors  of  her  en- 
thusiastic sons. 

Once  it  was  said  that  the  almighty  dollar  was  the  object  and 
end  of  American  endeavor,  but  when  American  treasure — not  by 
the  millions  but  b}'’  the  billions — was  poured  out  and  lives  by 
the  hundreds  of  thousands  were  joyfully  given  for  an  idea  tlie 
men  of  the  new  world  rose  to  a higher  place  in  Euroj)ean  esti- 
mation. 

A fellow-townsman  of  mine  was  a petty  officer  under  Sir  John 
Franklin,  and  among  the  hundreds  engaged  in  tlie  Franklin 
search  none  had  a more  altruistic  and  generous  spirit  than  the 
American  Elisha  Kent  Kane.  Hayes  left  no  danger  undared  to 
reach  his  “ Open  Polar  Sea.”  Rodgers  dared  all,  in  Arctic  ice  as 
in  the  War  for  the  Union.  De  Long  and  Ambler  knew  how  to 
die,  but  not  how  to  desert  a helpless  comrade.  Hall  followed  the 
Arctic  sledge  to  his  veiy  death.  Lockwood,  whose  personal  toil 
and  suffering  accomplished  the  farthest  north  and  set  the  goal 
beyond  which  some  more  fortunate  rival  will  soon  pass,  met 
with  fortitude  and  sweetness  the  harsh  fate  which  debarred  the 
world  from  placing  its  laurel  wreath  save  on  his  grave. 

I can  scarcely  say  aught  of  British  effort  in  a field  that  has 
been  peculiarly  England’s  for  the  past  three  centuries.  And 
how,  among  her  innumerable  Arctic  dead,  shall  I single  out 
representatives,  worthy  exam  piers  of  British  courage  and  effort? 
Like  Macbeth’s  kings,  the  line  stretches  out  to  crack  of  doom. 

Great  were  the  daring  navigators  of  the  sixteenth  and  seven- 
teenth centuries — Chancellor  and  Davis  and  Frobisher,  Hudson 
and  Waymouth,  Bylot  and  Baffin ; but  were  they  greater  than  in 
their  way  were  Cook,  Hearne,  and  Mackenzie  in  the  eighteenth  ? 

And  when  we  come  to  their  worthy  compeers  of  this  century, 
there  is  barely  room  for  the  names  of  these  daring  spirits.  Here 
is  Britain’s  unequaled  roll : 

Austin,  Back,  Beechey,  Buchan,  Clavering,  Collinson,  Crozier, 
Forsyth,  Goodsir,  Inglefield,  Kellett,  Kennedy,  Lefroy,  Lyon, 
McClure,  Maguire.  Mecham,  Moore,  the  immortal  Nelson,  Os- 
born, Penny,  Pirn,  Rae,  Richardson,  James  C.  Ross.  Jolm  Ross. 
Sabine,  Saunders,  Scoresby,  father  and  son ; Simpson,  and 
Stewart. 


SCOPE  AND  VALVE  OF  ARCTIC  EXPLORATIONS 


39 


Close  communion  in  spirit  and  thought  with  their  recorded 
labors  for  many  years  has  made  for  me  many  friends  among  the 
great  Arctic  dead,  and  so  particularly  segregates  in  my  mind,  from 
this  alphabetical  list,  the  twin  Arctic  compeers,  Franklin  and 
Parry,  sls  facile  princeps  in  this  great  company. 

But  the  history  of  these  men  is  inextricably  interwoven  with 
the  wonderful  development  of  the  British  Empire,  and  their 
deeds  forever  abide  to  the  glory  of  the  English-speaking  race. 

And  of  the  Arctic  dead  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  America,  from 
the  earliest  Othere  of  Norway  and  the  Zeni  of  Italy  to  the  latest 
fallen  in  Sweden,  Nordenskiold  the  younger,  promising  son  of 
his  distinguished  father,  there  may  well  be  quoted  the  words  of 
an  American  soldier : 

On  Fame’s  eternal  camping  ground 
Their  silent  tents  are  spread, 

And  Glory  guards  with  solemn  round 
The  bivouac  of  the  dead. 

Storm-stayed  and  ice-beset  no  longer,  their  dust  awaits  the 
change  and  fate  ordained  by  God’s  eternal  laws. 

The  end  they  sought,  the  work  they  wrought,  the  courage  and 
devotion  they  showed  should  stand  as  ideals  and  patterns  for 
the  men  of  the  future  in  the  accomplishment  of  the  great  Arctic 
work  which  it  shall  be  their  good  fortune  to  undertake. 

But  now  we  look  again  to  England  to  retake  its  former  place 
in  Arctic  research.  Shall  we  look  in  vain  ? I believe  not.  ' 

Let  her  remember  that  the  beginning  of  the  end  will  have 
come  for  the  ever  extending  and  ever  developing  British  power 
when  this  insular  people  would  ever  consent,  for  any  sum  in 
pounds  and  pence,  that  the  Arctic  relics  of  Greenwich  should 
be  scattered,  or  that  there  should  ever  be  removed  from  West- 
minster Abl)ey,  rich  with  its  clustering  memories  and  gathered 
treasures  of  a thousand  years,  the  tribute  of  genius  to  heroism, 
of  England’s  poet  laureate  to  its  Arctic  dead. 

Well  has  it  been  for  Britain  that  hundreds  of  its  youth  have 
imbibed  together  learning  and  patriotism,  love  of  the  beautiful 
and  admiration  for  glory,  while  translating  into  classic  verse 
these  immortal  words : 

N(jt  here.  Tlie  white  north  lias  tliy  bones,  and  thou. 

Heroic  sailor  .soul. 

Art  passing  on  thine  hapjtier  voyage  now 
Towards  no  earthly  pole. 


40 


OBITUARY— GEOGliAPIIIC  LITER  A TIRE 


OBITUARY 

Dr  Robert  Brown,  the  distinguished  botanical  geographer,  died  Octo- 
ber 20.  He  was  in  command  of  the  Vancouver  island  exj)loration  of  1804 
and  was  in  the  Whymper  West  Greenland  expedition  of  1867,  his  glacial 
and  natural  history  work  attracting  much  attention.  His  “Manual  of 
Botany”  is  his  best  work,  although  it  is  less  widely  known  than  are  his 
“Peoples  of  the  World,”  “Countries  of  the  World,”  “Our  Earth  and 
its  Story,”  “Africa,”  and  “ Science  for  All,”  which  aggregate  24  volumes. 

Admiral  R.  B.  Pearse,  R.  N.,  died  in  November.  He  served  as  mate  in 
H.  M.  S.  Resolute,  1850-’51,  and  made  a sledge  journey  of  208  miles,  from 
Griffith  to  Bathurst  island,  during  which  he  and  one  of  his  men  were 
badly  frozen.  He  rendered  distinguished  service  to  his  country  during 
the  Chinese  war  of  1858-’60. 

Henry  Seebohm,  the  eminent  ornithologist,  died  November  20.  His 
investigations  carried  him  over  the  greater  part  of  the  world.  Two  of  his 
most  interesting  works,  “ Siberia  in  flurope  ” and  “ Siberia  in  Asia,”  were 
the  outcome  of  his  bird  trips  to  the  Lower  Petchora  in  1875  and  the 
Yenisei  in  1877,  his  ship  being  wrecked  on  the  latter  occasion.  Seebohm’s 
great  works  are  the  “ History  of  British  Birds,”  “ Geographical  Distribu- 
tion of  Plovers,”  and  “ Birds  of  Japan.” 

Rear  Admiral  Shufeldt,  U.  S.  N.,  who  died  November  7,  has  left  a record 
of  unusual  brilliancy.  His  most  important  geogra^ihical  work  was  done 
while  he  was  in  command  of  the  Tehuantepec  and  Nicaragua  surveying 
expeditions.  His  reports,  valuable  documents  illustrated  by  plates  and 
maps,  were  printed  by  the  Government  in  1872  and  1874.  The  greatest 
service  that  Shufeldt  rendered  to  .America,  and,  it  may  be  added,  to  the 
world  in  general,  was  the  negotiation,  in  1882,  of  the  treaty  by  which 
Korea  was  thrown  open  to  tlie  commerce  of  the  United  States,  first  of  all 
nations. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 

Elemeniar;/  Physical  Geofimphy.  By  Ralph  S.  Tarr,  Assistant  Professor  of 

Dynamic  Geology  and  Physical  Geography  at  Cornell  University.  Pp. 

488,  with  maps  and  267  illustrations.  New  York : Alacmillan  & Co. 

1895.  ?1.40. 

This  book  appears  well  adapted  to  serve  as  a text-book  of  physical 
geography.  It  will  commend  itself  by  its  perspicuous  style  to  the  favor- 
able attention  of  those  who  may  desire  information  concerning  the  most 
recent  developments  in  this  important  field,  without  the  labor  of  examin- 
ing ptirely  professional  papers,  and  who  do  not  care  to  depend  on  irre- 
sponsible newspaper  reports.  The  chapters  devoted  to  geology  are,  as 
might  be  e.xpected,  unexceiJtionable.  In  its  treatment  of  ocean  currents,. 


GEO  GRAPHIC  LI  TER  A TURE 


41 


however,  the  work  is  open  to  criticism.  With  regard  to  the  temperature 
and  wind  theories  the  author  fails  to  make  himself  clear.  He  also  omits 
^iny  explanation  of  the  important  part  the  salts  play  in  the  matter  of 
ocean  currents,  and  he  entirely  ignores  the  Yucatan  channel  current,  the 
strongest  one  in  existence.  The  general  appearance  of  the  book  is  excel- 
lent. The  illustrations,  with  but  few  exceptions  (as,  for  example,  that  of 
mount  Vesuvius,  on  page  376),  are  very  good  and  the  price  is  exceed- 
ingly reasonable. 

The  Gold  Diggings  of  Cape  Horn:  A Study  of  Life  in  Tierra  del  Fuego  and 
Patagonia.  By  John  R.  Spears.  Pp.  319,  with  illustrations.  New 
York  : G.  P.  Putnam’s  Sons.  1895. 

So  few  books  have  been  written  about  the  terra  incognita  between  cape 
Horn  and  the  straits  of  Magellan  that  a new  one  by  so  well  known  an 
author  as  Mr  John  R.  Spears  will  be  heartily  welcomed.  It  is  written 
in  the  author’s  usual  quaint  style,  with  a vein  of  humor  running  all  the 
way  throiigh;  and  while  it  does  not  claim  to  be  a record  of  personal  e.x- 
ploration  like  Beerbohm’s  or  Lady  Brassey’s,  but  merely  a collection  of 
newspaper  sketches  written  up  at.homefrom  data  gleaned  during  a cruise 
around  the  edges,  it  is  full  of  valuable  information.  While  the  author’s 
ideas  of  the  gold  diggings  are  a trifle  too  sanguine,  his  account  of  the  Ona, 
Yahgan,  Tehuelche,  Alaculoof,  and  other  Indians,  as  well  as  of  the  mis- 
sionaries who  are  tr}dng  in  vain  to  tame  them,  of  the  famous  Welsh 
colony  on  Chubut  river,  of  the  general  resources,  and  also  of  the  birds, 
beasts,  and  reptiles,  of  lands  at  thetii^  end  of  the  hemisphere  is  extremely 
interesting. 

*Stan ford’s  Compendium  of  Geography  and  Travel  {new  series).  Africa. 
Volume  II,  South  A frica.  By  A.  H.  Keane,  F.  R.  G.  S.,  etc.  Pp.  671, 
with  11  maps  and  92  illu.strations.  London  : Edward  Stanford.  1895. 
American  agents,  J.  B.  Lippincott  Co.,  Philadelphia.  $4.50. 

This  admirable  volume,  fresh  from  the  press,  gives  an  authentic,  “up 
to  date  ” account  of  the  geography,  history,  and  political  complexion  of 
South  Africa.  It  is  illustrated  by  nearly  100  admirably  chosen  plates  and 
text  figures  and  a dozen  excellent  colored  maps.  Perhaps  no  part  of  the 
world  has  ever  undergone  so  rapid  and  fundamental  a metamorphosis  as 
has  South  Africa  “ since  the  leading  powers  resolved,  a few  years  ago,  to 
transform  this  continent  to  a political  dependency  of  Europe.’’  “ Occur- 
rences of  far-reaching  consequence,”  says  the  author,  “ have  followed  in 
«uch  swift  succession  that  in  the  preparation  of  this  work  the  chief  dilli- 
culty  has  been  to  keej)  i)ace  with  the  shifting  scenes.  In  some  instances 
many  carefully  prepared  pages  have  had  to  he  greatly  modified,  and  even 
rewritten,  owing  to  the  unexpected  turn  taken  by  events  in  vanous  parts 
of  the  continent.”  ^Madagascar,  ^Mauritius,  and  other  islands  of  the 
Indian  ocean  are  included  in  the  book,  and  the  author  adopts  the  very 
modern  view  of  an  “ Indo-African  continent ” connecting  South  Africa 
through  Madagas(!ar  with  the  Indian  peninsula.  While  the  work^deals 
mainly,  as  wouhl  be  expected,  with  the  more  purely  geograi)hic  and 


42 


GEOGRAPHIC  LIT ERA TURE 


political  questions,  it  still  bestows  some  attention  on  the  fauna  and  flora, 
and  it  would  have  been  well  if  these  subjects  had  been  referred  to  some 
of  the  eminent  British  naturalists  who  are  so  well  qualified  to  speak  on 
these  topics. 

National  Geographic  Monographs,  published  under  the  auspices  of  the 
National  Geographic  Society.  Pp.  .S36,  illustrated.  New  York : 
American  Book  Co.  1895.  $1.40. 

The  first  series,  comprising  Nos.  1-10,  ends  with  December.  It  consists- 
of  memoirs  by  Powell,  Shaler,  Russell,  Willis,  Diller,  Davis,  Gilbert,  and 
Hayes  on  geographic  topics  of  primary  importance.  All  geographers  will 
find  much  that  is  interesting  and  instructive  in  these  memoirs,  but  to- 
American  teachers  and  students  they  will  be  especially  valuable.  They 
have  been  published  by  the  American  Book  Company  in  the  hope  that 
memoirs  by  authors  ranking  among  the  most  eminent  of  American  scien- 
tists would  by  their  intrinsic  worth  and  scientific  interest  advance  the- 
cause  of  higher  education  in  the  United  States. 

I'ihet.  Notes  on  the  Ethnology  of  Tibet.  Based  on  Collections  in  the 
United  States  National  Museum.  By  W.  W.  Rockhill.  Report  of  United 
States  National  IMuseum  for  189.3.  Pp.  665-747,  pis.  1-52.  Washingtoiir 
1895. 

Readers  of  these  interesting  pages  will  be  gratified  that  so  extensive  a, 
collection  from  this  comparatively  unknown  country  has  been  made  by 
the  National  IMuseum.  It  is  fortunate  that  the  description  of  the  different 
objects  has  fallen  into  the  hands  of  one  so  competent  by  acquirements  and 
experience  as  Mr  Rockhill. 

Chili.  Republique  de  Chili.  Cartes  commerciales,  physiques,  etc.  Par 
F.  Bianconi.  Librairie  Chaix.  Paris,  1895. 

A valuable  addition  to  the  Chaix  series,  giving  the  latest  information 
regarding  the  agricultural  and  mineral  resources,  commerce,  railways,, 
etc.,  of  Chili,  with  a map,  1:2,500,000,  embodying  the  latest  surveys. 

Special  Consular  Reports,  Vol.  12 — Highways  of  Commerce.  The  ocean- 
lines, railways,  canals,  and  other  trade  routes  of  foreign  countries. 
Washington,  1895.  Pp.  763,  with  9 maps. 

A timely  publication,  whose  value  is  materially  increased  by  a nundier 
of  ma])s,  of  which  the  most  important  sliow  the  railways  of  IMexico,  Si- 
beria, Natal,  and  India.  Some  of  the  data,  as  seems  unavoidable  in  Gov- 
ernment publications,  are  nearly  two  years  old.  The  railway  mileage  of 
the  world  on  December  31, 1894,  was  423,923,  of  which  189,576  were  in  the 
TTuited  States.  At  the  end  of  1892  tlie  mileage  of  the  princijial  countries 
and  the  average  cost  per  mile  as  given  by  the  German  Minister  of  Publie 
Works  were  as  follows : United  States,  174,747  miles,  $.59,300;  Germany, 
27,451  miles,  $95,200;  France,  24,014  miles,  $131,900;  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland,  20,321  miles,  $131,000;  Russia,  19,622  mile.s,  $90,400;  Austria- 
Hungary,  17,621  miles,  $95,400 ; Canada  and  other  British  American  prov- 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATLRE 


43 


inoes,  14,866  miles,  857,600;  Italy;  8,496  miles,  8114,600;  Argentine  Re- 
public, 8,161  miles ; Mexico,  6,624  miles ; Brazil,  6,388  miles ; Spain,  6,169 
miles;  Belgium,  3,379  miles,  8131,000. 

The  information  concerning  the  railways  of  South  and  Central  Africa 
is  of  especial  interest,  although  great  progress  has  been  made  in  the  ex- 
tension of  transportation  lines  during  the  past  year.  The  value  of  the 
report  is  enhanced  by  the  insertion  of  the  well  known  map  of  the  world 
issued  by  the  Hj'drographic  Office  of  the  United  States  Navy  Department 
in  June,  1891,  which  shows  tracks  of  full-powered  steam  vessels,  with  dis- 
tances, and  probably  contains  a larger  amount  of  information  on  this 
subject  than  can  be  found  elsewhere  within  an  equally  limited  space.  Its 
presentation  on  the  map  in  both  graphic  and  tabular  form  increases  its 
usefulness.  The  distances  between  different  ports  on  the  east  and  west 
coasts  of  North  and  South  America  and  the  shores  of  the  gulf  of  Mexico 
and  Caribbean  sea  are  also  shown.  The  volume  contains  a full  topical 
index. 


EXECUTIVE  REPORTS 

The  annual  reports  of  the  cabinet  officers,  recently  transmitted 
by  the  President  to  Congress,  contain  some  items  of  geographic 
interest. 

War  Depart.mext. — The  Secretary  of  War  states  that  since  1879 
829,500,000  has  been  appropriated  for  the  improvement  of  the  Mississipi^i 
river,  of  which  88,400,000  has  been  directly  applied  to  general  improve- 
ments to  aid  navigation.  The  greater  jmrt  of  this  amount  has  been  spent 
on  two  reaches  of  the  river,  each  20  miles  long,  one  situated  80  miles  above 
Memphis  and  the  other  80  miles  above  Vicksburg.  The  result  has  only 
been  to  increase  the  depth  of  the  river  at  low  water  by  18  inches.  For 
the  improvement  of  the  IMissouri  river,  which  for  years  has  had  practi- 
cally no  navigation,  88,900,000  has  been  appropriated.  The  Secretary 
questions  the  propriety  of  further  appropriations  for  this  river. 

With  regard  to  the  propo.sed  Chicago  drainage  canal,  a board  of  engi- 
neer officers  state  that  the  abstraction  of  10,000  cubic  feet  of  water  ]ier 
second  from  lake  Michigan  will  lower  the  level  of  all  the  great  lakes  ex- 
cept Superior,  and  reduce  the  navigable  capacity  of  all  harbors  and  shal- 
lows, but  to  what  extent  cannot  be  foretold  at  this  time. 

The  Yellowstone  National  Park  has  now  170  miles  of  good  highways, 
permitting  easy  acce.ss  from  the  railways  to  the  principal  points  of  interest. 
It  is  proposed  that  25  miles  of  additional  roads,  now  impassable  for  ve- 
hicles, be  opened,  which  will  complete  the  general  scheme  of  highways. 

Tlie  .\pache  Indian  jirisoners,  comprising  about  70  families,  have  been 
removed  to  the  Fort  Sill  reservation,  which  is  being  gradually  brought  to 
a self-sustaining  basis. 

The  defensele.‘<s  coinlition  of  the  principal  harbors  is  dwelt  upon  and 
the  nece.ssity  of  liberal  aj)p  ropriations  strongly  ju-esented. 


44 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITER  A TURE 


Navy  Depaiitmext — Surgeon  General. — Among  valuable  special  reports 
are  those  of  Surg.  Gen.  Tryon,  on  “The  Relation  of  Naval  Architecture 
to  projjer  Sanitation;  Dr  H.  G.  Beyer,  on  “Normal  Growth  under  the 
Influence  of  Exercise,”  and  Dr  E.  K.  Stitt,  on  “The  Medical  Aspect  of 
tlie  Nicaraguan  Canal.”'  Dr  Stitt  believes  that  while  the  construction  of 
the  canal  would  temporarily  increa.se  the  prevailing  malarial  diseases,  it 
would  ultimately  remove  the  most  potent  pestilential  forces  through 
changes  in  swamps  and  in  the  level  of  lake  Nicaragua. 

Po.sT  Office  Departmext. — The  Postmaster  General  states  that  the 
revenue  of  his  department  for  the  year  lS94-’95  was  in  round  numVjers 
$77,090,000,  and  that  the  expenditures  amounted  to  $87,000,000.  ^lail 
service  has  been  established  on  electric  and  cable  lines  in  Boston,  Brooklyn, 
Chicago,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  and  St.  Louis.  The  net  increa.se  in 
the  number  of  po.st-offices  is  429,  principally  in  Oklahoma,  Indian  Terri- 
tory, and  Virginia.  Cape  Colony  has  joined  the  postal  union,  leaving 
Korea,  China,  and  the  Orange  Free  State  the  only  civilized  nations  not 
embraced  therein. 

Departme.xp  of  the  Ixterior. — The  Secretary  of  the  Interior  covers  in 
his  report  the  operations  of  many  bureaus,  of  which  the  more  important 
are  treated  under  the  following  heads : 

Patent  Office.— There  were  3(3,972  applications  for  patents,  20,465  pat- 
ents were  granted,  12,906  expired,  and  .3,208  were  forfeited  for  nonpay- 
ment of  fees. 

Indian  Bureau. — There  are  161  Indian  reservations,  on  which  the  prob- 
lem of  making  tbe  ahiorigines  self-supporting  is  progressing  with  more  or 
less  rapidity.  For  schools  alone  $2,060,695  was  appropriated,  and  nearly 
$7,000,000  for  payment  for  lands  and  other  treaty  obligations.  The  school 
pupils  have  increa.^ed  by  1,417  during  the  year.  The  total  enrollment 
was  23,036,  of  whom  4,673  are  in  industrial  training  schools.  Lands  have 
been  patented  to  6,851  Indians  during  the  year. 

Generfd  Land  Office. — Of  public  lands  there  have  been  disposed  of  to 
Indians  42,000  acres;  by  sale,  417,000;  miscellaneous  entries,  7,947,000. 
There  remain  undisposed  of  599,000,000  acres,  exclusive  of  Alaska.  The 
vacant  public  lands  are  largely  in  the  arid  regions,  and  from  8 to  25  per 
cent,  according  to  various  e.stimates,  may  ultimately  be  cultivated  by  irri- 
gation. The  Laud  Commi.ssioner  recommends  the  establishment  of  forest 
re.ser  vat  ions,  and  that  legislation  be  enacted  relative  to  public  timber,  to 
the  surveying  of  public  lands  through  the  Geological  Survey,  and  to  the 
estiiblishment  of  a district  land  office  in  Alaska. 

Bureau  of  Educ'Uion. — The  number  of  pupils  enrolled  in  schools  in  1894 
was  15,5.30,000,  or  22.9  per  cent  of  the  entire  population. 

yationul  Parka  and  Forest  Resermtions. — There  are  si.xteen  reservations, 
with  a total  area  of  16,325,000  acres,  embracing  parts  of  Arizona,  Cali- 
fornia, Colorado,  New  Mexico,  Oregon,  and  Washington.  The  more  im- 
portant Yellowstone,  A^osemite,  and  Sequoia  parks  are  protected  b\'  mili- 
tary guards. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


45 


Geological  Surven. — The  operations  of  this  important  bureau  are  left  for 
review  until  the  publication  of  the  full  report  of  the  Director  of  the  Surve}'. 

Censuf!. — The  cost  of  the  Eleventh  Census  to  June  30,  1895,  was  $10,- 
531,141.  ’ Of  25  volumes,  with  22,000  pages,  all  are  printed  or  in  })ress, 
except  parts  of  volumes  on  Population  and  Vital  Statistics. 

IxTER-STATE  COMMERCE  COMMISSION. — The  total  number  of  miles  of  rail- 
way in  the  United  States  on  June  30,  1894,  was  178,708,  an  increase  of 
2,247  miles  in  twelve  months.  Miles  of  line  per  100  square  miles  of  ter- 
ritory, 6.02  ; per  10,000  inhabitants,  20.3(5.  Stock  capital,  $4,834,075,6.59  ; 
funded  debt,  $5,356,.583,019 ; other  indebtedness,  $605,815,135;  total, 
$10,796,473,813,  or  $62,951  per  mile.  Passenger  receipts  in  1893-’94, 
$285,349,558;  freight  receipts,- $699,490,913 ; other  income,  $231,338,131; 
total,  $1,216,178,602.  Expenditures,  including  fixed  charges,  $1,160,422,- 
632.  Number  of  passengers  carried,  540,688,199;  average  number  per 
train,  44;  average  journey  per  passenger,  26.43  miles. 


NEW  MAPS 

Western  Hemisphere  Charts,  published  by  the  Hydrographic  Office,  United 
States  Navy,  July-December,  1895,  with  size,  scale  in  inches,  and  price. 

Great  Lakes,  No.  1462,  Lake  Ontario,  Toronto  Harbor,  22.6  x 27.5  ; M.  = 
3.377 ; $0.50.  No.  1469,  Lake  Huron,  Georgian  Bay,  Cabot  Head  to 
Boucher  Point,  29.6  X 39.7 ; M.-=0.75;  $1.00.  No.  1475,  Lake  IMichigan, 
24.4  X. 34. 5;  D.  Lat.  =5.91;  $0.75.  No.  1477,  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario, 
23.4x23.7 ; D.  Lat.  =5.80;  $0.75.  E,  The  Great  Lakes,  Index  to  Coast, 
Special  and  Harbor  Charts,  9x  15.2;  D.  Long.  =0.6;  $0.10. 

Mexico,  No.  1494,  San  Ignacio  Lagoon,  26.3  .x  37 ; M.  = 1.5;  $0.75. 
Bermuda,  No.  1495,  Bermuda  and  Great  Sound,  including  Grass\^  and 
Port  Royal  Bays  and  Hamilton  Harbor,  21  x 25.75;  M.  =4.0;  $0.50. 

Xiearagua,  No.  1510,  Entrance  to  Pearl  Cay,  16.6x22.6;  M.  =4.0; 
$0.50.  No.  1517,  Approaches  to  Pearl  Cay  Lagoon,  with  plans  of  Great 
and  Little  Corn  Islands,  24.0  .x  37.4  ; M.  = 1.0 ; $0.75. 

Guiana,  No.  1512,  Corentyn  River,  Approaches  to  Nickerie  River,  16.5  x 
20.7;  :\L  = 4.0;  $0.25. 

Guiana,  No.  1513,  Entrance  to  Corentyn  River,  7.1  x 9.4;  M.  = 0.5,  and 
Entrance  to  tlie  Coppename  and  Sarainacca  Rivers,  7.1  x 9.4  ; M.  = 0.25  ; 
.$0.25. 

Argentina,  No.  1515,  Port  San  Julian,  14.3  x 18.6  ; M.  = 2.0 ; $0.25.  No. 
1516,  Port  Santa  Elena,  13x17.5;  M.  = 3.0;  $0.25.  No.  1518,  Port  San 
Antonio,  10.2  x 13.3;  .M.  = 1.0;  $0.25.  No.  1519,  Rio  Negro,  11.1  x 12.6; 
M.  = 1.0;  $0.2-5.  No.  1521,  San  Bias  Harbor,  13.1  x 14.8  ; M.  = 1.0 ; $0.25. 

Brazil,  No.  1520,  Port  Camamu,  21.2  x 30.4  ; M.  = 2.0  ; $0.50.  No.  1522, 
From  Bahia  to  Ilheos  .\nchorage,  28.5  .X  38.8 ; M.  =0.25;  $1.00.  No.  1524, 
Port  Tamandare,  9.7  x 11.4  ; 51.  = 4.0;  $0.25. 


40 


XATIOXAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY: 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY,  SESSION  i895-’96 

Special  Meeting,  October  11,  lS9o. — President  Hut>bard  in  the  chair.  Vice- 
l^resident  Greely  delivered  an  address  on  The  Si.vth  International  Geo- 
graphical Congress,  London,  1895. 

Special  Meeting,  October  25,  1895. — President  Iluhhard  in  the  chair.  Mr 
Ernest  Flagg,  Architect  of  tlie  new  Corcoran  Art  Gallery  and  of  the  Wash- 
ington Episcopal  Cathedral,  read  a paj)er,  illustrated  hy  lantern  slides,  on 
The  Development  of  the  Mediteval  Cathedral. 

Regular  Meeting.  Xovemberl,  1895. — Vice-President  Gannett  in  the  chair. 
Vice-President  Ogden  addressed  the  Society,  giving  a narrative  of  explo- 
rations on  the  isthmus  of  Darien. 

Special  Meeting,  Xovember  8,  /^.95. — President  Iluhhard  in  the  chair. 
]\Iajor  Alfred  F.  Sears,  C.  E.,  read  a paper,  illustrated  hy  lantern  slides, 
on  The  Geographic  Conditions  that  Create  Great  Commercial  Centers. 

Regular  Meeting,  Xovember  15,  1895. — Vice-President  Gannett  in  the 
chair.  General  topic : The  H vdrography  of  the  United  States,  divided  as 
follows:  Hydrographic  Investigations,  hy  5Ir  F.  II.  >»ewell.  Chief  Hy- 
drographer,  L".  S.  Geological  Survey;  The  Work  of  the  Weather  Bureau 
relating  to  Hydrography,  hy  Prof.  W.  L.  Moore,  Chief  of  the  Bureau  ; 
Stream  Measurements  in  the  West,  hy  5Ir  A.  P.  Davis;  Hydnjgraphic 
Studies  in  the  .\ppalachian  Area,  hy  Mr  C.  C.  Bahh,  and  Hydrography 
of  the  Xavigiihle  Waters,  hy  ]\Ir  Marcus  Baker.  Each  paper  was  illus- 
trated l)y  maps  and  diagrams. 

Special  Meeting,  Xovember  22,  1895. — President  Huhhard  in  the  chair. 
5Ir  E.  L.  Corthell,  D.  Sc.,  C.  E.,  read  a paper,  illustrated  by  lantern  slides, 
on  The  Tehuantepec  Route. 

Regular  Meeting,  Xovember  29,  i59.5. —President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
;Mr  Marcus  Baker  read  a paper  on  Alaska  and  her  Boundary,  illustrating 
his  remarks  hy  a series  of  historical  maps.  The  discussion  that  followed 
was  participated  in  hy  Hon.  .1.  R.  Procter,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  and  Dr 
AV.  H.  Dali. 

Special  Meeting,  December  6,  1895. — President  Hubbard  iu  the  chair. 
Mr  C.  M.  Ffoulke  read  a paper  on  The  Tapestry-Producing  Nations,  and 
exhibited  a number  of  tyjjical  i)ieces  of  tapestry  from  his  valuable  col- 
lection. 

Regular  Meeting,  December  1.3,  1895. — Vice-President  Dabney  in  the 
chair.  Dr  C.  Hart  Merriam  read  a paper  on  The  Life  of  the  Desert, 
with  special  reference  to  the  fauna  of  the  desert  regions  of  the  United 
States.  Dr  ^lerriam  illustrated  his  remarks  hy  means  of  a number  of 
skins  and  of  stuffed  animals  and  birds;  also  hy  lantern  slides  of  animals 
and  of  desert  scenery. 


ITS  PROCEEDINGS 


47 


Special  Meeting,  December  SO,  ^<955.— President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Admiral  E.  AV.  Meade,  U.  S.  N.,  delivered  an  address,  illustrated  by  maps 
and  lantern  slides,  on  The  Caribbean  Sea:  the  Mediterranean  of  the 
AVestern  \A'orld. 

Elections. — New  members  have  been  elected  as  follows  : 

October  14. — AA’’alter  C.  Allen,  Joseph  A.  Arnold,  Gustav  Ayres,  Maj. 
Cbas.  Bendire,  U.  S.  A.,  Frederick  Benjamin,  John  H.  Brickenstein, 
Prof.  J.  F.  Chamberlain,  Henryk  M.  Chapman,  Miss  Josephine  A.  Clark, 
AA^.  AV.  Cheshire,  Miss  Virginia  E.  Dade,  T.  H.  Davies,  John  T.  Devine, 
Mrs  A.  G.  Draper,  AV.  AA'^.  Duffield,  Jr.,  Prof.  M.  J.  Elrod,  Alaj.  F.  L. 
Evans,  E.  E.  Ewell,  Prof.  D.  C.  Farr,  Charles  AV.  Fisher,  Mrs  Alary  E. 
Gilpin,  Dr  Geo.  0.  Glavis,  Capt.  C.  H.  Gordon,  U.  S.  A.,  Edward  P.  Hall, 
John  H.  Hinton,  Aliss  Alartha  N.  Hooper,  Richard  L.  Howell,  Ernest  \ . 
Janson,  Thos.  Kirby,  Prof.  F.  Lamson-Scribner,  John  E.  Lyons,  J.  T. 
Alacey,  AVm.  J.  Alarsh,  Airs  Cornelia  N.  Alason,  Philip  Alauro,  Chief 
Engineer  Fred.  G.  AIcKean,  U.  S.  N.,  Airs  Y.  AV.  Aliller,  Airs  V.  A.  Aloore, 
Prof.  AVillis  L.  Aloore,  Dr  A.  C.  Patterson,  Daniel  A.  Ray,  Dr  E.  AAh 
Reisinger,  N.  H.  Shea,  Chas.  AA^.  Smiley,  Capt.  J.  G.  Sobral  (Spanish 
Kavy),  Dr  A.  C.  True,  Dr  F.  W.  True,  Dr  J.  Van  Rensselaer,  Aliss  Alahel 
L.  AA^hite,  President  B.  L.  AAdiitman,  John  C.  AA'ilson,  Hon.  AVm.  L.  AVil- 
son,  J.  AA".  AA'^itten. 

October  So. — Edmund  Becker,  Airs  Isabella' AI.  Bittinger,  AlercerD.  Blon- 
del,  Eugene  C.  Brown,  O.  B.  Brown,  Airs  J.  Alills  Browne,  Hon.  AAhn.  R. 
Castle  (Hawaiian  Alinister),  James  H.  Crew,  Surg.  S.  H.  Dickson,  U.  S.  N., 
Airs  Alary  Fuller,  S.  C.  Gilman,  Col.  A.  Heger,  U.  S.  A.,  Airs  Julia  Hen- 
derson, E.  C.  How'land,  AA''m.  A.  Hungerford,  Col.  D.  L.  Huntington, 
U.  S.  A.,  George  H.  Judd,  Aliss  Tessa  L.  Kelso,  J.  R.  Alarshall,  AAhn.  H. 
AIcKnew,  Airs  L.  R.  Alessenger,  Dr  AA''.  F.  Alorsell.  Thos.  Nelson  Page, 
Aliss  Josephine  Pickles,  Airs  Fannie  AI.  Reynolds,  Rev.  J.  Havens  Rich- 
ards, S.  J.,  Albert  N.  Seip,  Airs  A.  AI.  Shaw,  Aliss  Juliet  Solger,  Baron 
Thielmann  (German  Ambassador),  L.  L.  Thompson,  Frank  ATncent,  Geo. 
AA’^.  AA’’eber,  H.  A.  AA'ierwille,  Alonzo  C.  Yates. 

November  8. — Chas.  B.  Bailey,  AA^m.  H.  Beck,  B.  AA'.  Beebe,  P.  C.  Claf- 
lin,  Arthur  J.  Dillon,  Aliss  J.  C.  Donovan,  George  E.  Emmons,  Aliss 
Frances  Graham  French,  Gen.  L.  P.  Graham,  U.  S.  A.,  H.  A.  Griswold, 
Aliss  Alamie  E.  Hale,  Dr  Theo.  G.  Hoech,  A.  B.  Hoen,  Dr  AA'm.  H. 
Holmes,  Henry  AI.  Hubbard,  F.  A.  Kendall,  AIi.«s  Carrie  AI.  Lash,  C.  R. 
Richards,  AAhn.  P.  Richards,  C.  E.,  Chas.  J.  Tilden,  Homan  D.  AA'al- 
hridge,  Daniel  AA'ehster. 

November  18. — Chief  Justice  Edward  F.  Bingham,  Capt.  G.  Rodney 
Burt,  Mr  Justice  Shepard,  John  K.  Souther. 

November  SO. — Senor  Jac<)ho  Blanco,  Prof.  L.  C.  Glenn,  Rev.  Allen 
Hazcn,  Alaj.  A\'.  P.  Hu.xford,  U.  S.  A.,  S.  A.  Aloreland,  AA'alter  F.  Rogers, 
Elmer  G.  Runyan,  James  C.  Spriggs,  Jr.,  AVhn.  P.  Steam,  Gen.  Richard 
A'illafranca. 


48 


yOliTir  AMERICAN  NOTES 


December  iJ.— Hon.  C.  B.  Beach,  ]\I.  C.,  Dr  J.  L.  M.  Curry,  Hon.  C.  E, 
Foss,  ^I.  C.,  Dr  E.  31.  Gallandet,  Baron  Beno  von  Herman  (German  Em- 
bassy), W.  J.  3Iartin,  3Iaximilien  de  3Ieck  (Secretary,  Russian  Legation), 
Pak  Yong  Kin  (Chai'ge  d’Affaires  Korean  Legation),  Sefior  Don  Edmundo 
J.  Plaza  (Mexican  Legation),  Dr  J.  L.  Reeves,  Rev.  Prof.  Rene  de  Saussure, 
Alexander  de  Somoft’ (Charge  d’Affaires  Russian  Legation). 

The  following  delegates  from  The  N.\tiox.\l  Geogr.m’hic  Society  at- 
tended the  Sixth  International  Geographical  Congress,  held  in  London  in 
July  last:  General  A.  W.  Greely,  Assistant  Secretary  of  State  Rockhill, 
Miss  E.  R.  Scidmore,  3Iiss  Aileen  Bell,  3Iiss  Lilian  Hayden,  Lieut.  Com- 
mander W.  S.  Cowles,  IT.  S.  N.,  Lient.  Everett  Hayden,  U.  S.  N.,  Cyrus 
C.  Adams,  and  W.  C.  Whittemore. 


NORTH  AMERICAN  NOTES 

The  convention  between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  to.provide 
the  requisite  topographical  data  to  determine  the  lioundary  between 
Alaska  and  British  Columbia  expired  by  limitation  December  31.  An- 
other commission  will  determine  the  location  of  the  line. 

Gkeenland.  The  National  Geographic  Society  welcomes  back  one  of 
its  members,  Engineer  R.  E.  Peary,  U.  S.  Navy,  from  his  perilous  and 
terrible  journey  across  Greenland.  If  he  failed  to  surpass  his  own  record 
of  18i)2  he  paralleled  it,  thus  emphasizing  a success  far  beyond  that  of  any 
other  explorer  of  the  inland  ice.  Ethnologists  look  contidently  for  impor- 
tant data  relative  to  the  Etah  Eskimo,  and  American  universities  have 
profited  largely  by  the  natural  history  collections. 

Rhode  Island.  According  to  the  state  census  of  1895  the  population 
of  the  state  is  384,758,  as  against  304,284  in  1885  and  345,506  by  the  fed- 
eral enumeration  of  1890.  Cities  over  20,000  are  as  follows:  Providence, 
145,472;  Pawtucket,  32,577;  Woonsocket,  24,468;  Newport,  21,537,  and 
AV'arwick,  21,168.  The  drift  of  migration  is  from  agricultural  districts  to 
manufacturing  centers. 

Florida.  Palm  Beach,  the  terminus  of  the  Florida  East  Coast  Railway, 
has  been  created  a port  of  entry  in  connection  with  a line  of  steamers, 
which  leaving  in  the  afternoon  reach  Nassau  the  next  morning,  thus  open- 
ing a new  route,  important  both  to  commerce  and  tourists. 

Block  Island.  A land-locked  liarbor,  1,600  acres  in  area,  has  been  con- 
structed in  the  interior  of  Block  island  at  a cost  of  §100,000.  The  channel 
to  the  Atlantic  is  12  feet  deep  at  low  water  and  300  feet  Avide,  with  a break- 
water extending  600  feet  into  the  sea.  It  is  proposed  to  doulde  the  depth 
and  width  of  the  channel. 


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THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine, 

PUBLISHED  ON  THE  FIRST  OF  EVERY  MONTH, 

numbers  among  its  contributors  the  following  well-known  writers 
,on  the' different  branches  of  geographic  science: 


IMr.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

Dr.  Cyrus  Adler,  vSmithsoniaii  Institution. 

Mr.  Marcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Theol.  Seminary. 

Mr.  E.  h.  Corthell,  C.  E.,  New  York. ' 

Dr.  Elliott  Coues. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  .Assistant  Secre- 
tary ot  Agriculture  and  President  (on  leave) 
of  the  Tennessee  State  University. 

Dr.  Wm.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  Institution, 
Pres,  of  the  Phil.  Society  of  Washington. 

Dr.  George  Davidson,  I’resident  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

^Ir.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Wm.  M.  Davis,  Professor  of  Physical  Geog- 
raphy in  Harvard  Universit)'. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Statistics  and  Technology,  U.  S.  Geol.  Sur. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Hon.  John  W.  Foster,  e.v-.Secretary  of  ,State. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Chief  Topographer,  U.  S. 
Geol.  Sur.  anrl  Geographer  of  nth  Census. 

Mr.  G.  K Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey, 
Pres,  of  the  Geol.  Society  of  Washington. 

Gen.  A.  W.  Greel}',  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  (Society. 

Dr  Mark  W.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the' State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  Everett  Hayden,  U.  vS.  N.,  Secretary  of 
I the  National  Geographic  Society. 

I ^Ir.  Wm.  II.  Holmes.  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  An- 
I thropology,  Field  Colum.  Museum,  Chicago. 
i Dr.  ISinil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austiia. 

IDr.  Sheldon  Jackson,  U.  S.  Commissioner  of 
Education  for  Alaska. 


Mr.  George  Kennan. 

Prof.  William  Libbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Eth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  E.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Admiral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Mass. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Ornithologist  and  Mam- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Hon.  John  H.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  vS. 

Prof.  W.  L-  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

Mr.  Frederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hydrographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  .Survey. 

Mr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Lieut.  Robert  E.  Peary,  U.  S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Peary. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  S. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Profe.ssor  of  Astron- 
omy in  Harvard  University. 

Major  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology  and  President  of  the 
Anthropological  Society  of  Washington. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  .Superintendent  ot  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  S. 
Civil  Service  Commission. 

Mr.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Profe.ssor  of  Geology  in 
the  Universit}'^  of  Michigan. 

Dr.  N.  S.  Shaler,  Profes.sor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sigsbee,  Hydrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy  Dept. 

Miss  Eliza  Ruhamah  Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L Tanner,  U.  .S.  N. 

Mr.  Frank  Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.  S. 
Geological  .Survey. 

IMrs.  Fannie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


Among  the  contents  of  forthcoming  numbers  will  be  articles,  for 
the  most  part  illustrated,  on  the  Panama,  Nicaragua,  and  T'ehuantepec 
routes  ; on  Venezuela,  by  Mr.  W.  \i.  Curtis,  late  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of 
j the  American  Republics;  on  the  Geography,  Peo})le,  and  Resources  of 
s Costa  Rica,  by  General  Richard  Villafranca,  Commissioner-General  to 
I the  Atlanta  Ivxposition  ; on  S(^me  Recent  Explorations  in  the  Foothills 
U of  the  Andes  of  Ecuador,  by  Mr.  Mark  B.  Kerr;  and  on  Some  Physical 
I Features  of  Lake  Superior,  by  President  M.  W.  I larrington. 


The  February  Number 


. . . OF  . . . 


WILL  CONTAIN  SPECIAL  ARTICLES  ON  THE 


PANAMA,  NICARAGUA,  and 
TEHUANTEPEC  ROUTES. 

ALSO  AN  ARTICLE  ON 

F V E N E Z U E 1.  A , 

. . . BY  . . . 

Mr.  WM.  E.  CURTIS, 

Late  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  the  American  Republics. 


Entered  at  the  Post-office  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  as  •second-class  mail  matter. 


JUDD  & DETWEII.KR,  PRINTERS,  W.\SHINGTON,  D.  C. 


FEBRUARY,  1896 


No.  2 


CONTENTS  j 

YBJTEZUElJ^  : HER  t^OVERNiMENT,  ^EOPLE,  |aND  B0UNDARt/  - 

’ - --  william  e.  Curtis 


Egbert  Tv^^lLL 

//  ^ >-•  I 


ELMER  L.  CORTHELL. 


THE  ?p|»tJANTBPEO  S^IP  RaIeLWA 

With  mapsA  \ — } / 

the  present  nicaraqu^  canae,  / 

\ \ \ ! /iv''  GEN.  A.  W.  OREELY 

exploration^  the  EUlfeAU  OF  AMBI^i 


IN  18954T 


Qeograpb^y^^iterature,  p.  y ;^Pro^dUgg  of  th/  Na^lWl  Geographic  Society. 
P'  Geograpbic~!^Ote8,  p.  87  ; ' Tho  V^ley  cf  the  Orinoco,  p.  92 


OF  AMBHfiCAN  ETHNOLOGY 


W J McGee 


73 

77 


/ 

\\\pmfs<yrc^' 

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THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine 

VoL.  VII  FEBRUARY,  1896  No.  2 


VENEZUELA;  HER  GOVERNMENT,  PEOPLE,  AND 
BOUNDARY 

MTlliam  E.  Curtis, 

Ex-Director  of  the  Bureau  of  the  American  Republics 

Along  the  Spanish  main,  from  Trinidad  to  the  isthmus,  is  a 
mixture  of  Florida  and  Switzerland,  where  one  can  find  'wdthin 
the  radius  of  a single  day’s  journey  any  climate  or  scene  to  suit 
his  taste,  from  a tropical  jungle  swai'ining  with  tigers  and  ’gators 
to  mountain  crests  crowned  with  eternal  snow.  The  Andes  and 
the  Cordilleras,  fonning  a double  spinal  column  for  the  continent, 
split  and  scatter  and  jump  into  the  sea.  At  the  very  edge  of  the 
ocean,  within  view  of  passing  vessels,  are  jreaks  whose  snow- 
capped summits-seem  to  hang  in  the  air.  •The  Nevada  de  la  Santa 
ISIarta,  17,500  feet  high,  affords  one  of  the  most  majestic  spectacles 
in  ail  nature.  Tourists  are  always  incredulous  when  the  peak  is 
pointed  out  to  them,  for  it  resemliles  a hank  of  clouds,  Imt  they 
are  finally  compelled  to  admit  the  truth  of  geogra]>hy,  for  clouds 
do  not  stand  transfixed  in  the  sky,  unchangealile  and  immovalile, 
like  this  phenomenon. 

Between  these  mountains  and  along  the  coast  are  narrow  val- 
leys of  luxurious  troi)ical  verdure  and  a rich  soil — valleys  which 
yield  three  harve.sts  annually  and  are  densely  populated.  Coffee, 
sugar,  and  chocolate  are  the  staples  of  the  lower  region,  called 
tierre  calicntei  hoi  earth) ; corn,  beans,  and  other  ])roducts  of  the 
temperate  zone  are  raised  upon  the  mountain  sides,  and  higher, 
seven  or  eight  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  am  herds 
of  goats  and  cattle. 


50 


VENEZUELA : 


The  population  of  Venezuela  is  about  two  and  one-half  mill- 
ions, not  including  260,000  Indians,  and  there  are  nine  states,  one 
federal  district,  and  five  territories.  The  country  is  still  in  a 
|)rimitive  and  com})aratively  undeveloi)ed  condition.  Outside 
the  principal  cities  it  has  made  little  or  no  progress  since  the  yoke 
of  Spain  was  thrown  off,  and  the  population  is  believed  to  Ije  less 
than  it  was  then. 

Agricultural  and  industrial  development  has  been  retarded  by 
political  revolutions  and  a lack  of  lalj)or  and  ca])ital,  hut  the 
])i’operty  of  foreigners  who  do  not  meddle  with  local  affairs  is  sel- 
dom disturljed  and  the  government  offers  lil^eral  inducements 
for  colonization  and  investment.  IManufacturing  estal.)lishments 
are  almost  unknown.  There  is  little  machinery  in  the  country, 
and  industry  is  generally  carried  on  in  the  households  and  by 
the  most  primitive  processes.  There  is  an  abundance  of  conven- 
ient water  power,  hut  fuel  is  scarce  and  ex^jensive;  therefore  the 
future  wealth  of  Venezuela,  as  well  as  her  })resent  prosi)erity,  lies 
in  the  development  of  her  agricultural  resources,  which  are  almost 
l)oundless,  and  her  mineral  deposits,  which  are  among  the  richest 
and  most  accessible.  Coffee  is  the  great  staple,  and  the  product 
is  unsurpassed. 

It  has  been  the  unhapjiy  lot  of  Venezuela  to  have  been  the 
scene  of  almost  constant  warfare.  There  is  not  a country  in 
the  world  whose  history  is  more  stained  with  blood.  She  is 
tlie  Hungary,  the  Poland,  of  South  America.  There  is  scarcely 
a city  or  a settlement  within  the  limits  of  the  rei)uhlic  which  at 
some  time  or  another  has  not  suffered  total  or  i)artial  destruction, 
and  scarcely  a mountafti  to])  from  which  some  ])attlefield  may 
not  l3e  seen.  During  colonial  times  Venezuela  was  cuffed  and 
kicked  about  by  Spain  so  that  her  peoi>le  were  in  almost  con- 
stant rebellion,  and  since  her  independence  was  estal)lished,  three- 
([uarters  of  a century  ago,  her  political  leaders  have  ke})t  her  like 
an  armed  camp.  Most  of  her  rulers  have  l)een  elected  l>y  l)ullets 
and  bayonets  instead  of  by  ballots,  and  most  of  her  great  men 
have  died  in  exile,  to  have  their  l)ones  brought  home  in  after 
years  with  tremendous  honors  and  buried  under  monuments  of 
marble  and  statues  of  hronz(\ 

The  president  of  Venezuela  is  assisted  in  the  performance  of 
his  duties  by  a cabinet  of  eight  memljers.  He  receives  a salary 
of  a thousand  dollars  a month,  a house  to  live  in,  honses  and  car- 
riages, servants  and  furniture,  and,  in  fact,  everything  except  Ids 
food.  He  conducts  himself  verv  much  like  the  President  of  the 


HER  GOVERNMENT,  PEOPLE,  AND  BOUNDARY 


51 


United  States ; his  daily  routine  is  similar,  and  he  is  annoyed  by 
office-seekers  to  about  the  same  degree.  He  commences  business 
at  half-past  six  o’clock  in  the  morning,  and  often  has  cabinet 
meetings  as  early  as  seven.  The  government  offices  open  at  seven, 
when  all  the  clerks  and  officials  are  expected  to  be  on  hand,  no 
matter  how  late  they  were  dancing  or  dining  the  night  before,  but 
they  knock  off  work  at  eleven  for  their  breakfast  and  siesta,  and 
do  not  return  to  their  desks  again  until  two. 

Cabinet  ministers  are  paid  $6,000  a year  and  congressmen 
$2,500,  without  any  additional  allowances,  but  the  sessions  do 
not  last  more  than  three  months  usuall}'',  so  that  they  may  engage 
in  their  regular  occupations  the  rest  of  the  year. 

The  standing  army  is  composed  of  five  battalions  of  infantry, 
1,842  men;  one  battery  of  artilleiy,  301  men,  and  one  regiment 
of  cavalry,  325  strong.  Besides  these  regulars,  who  garrison  the 
capital  and  the  several  forts  throughout  the  country,  there  is  a fed- 
eral militia  which  is  drilled  annually  and  required  to  respond  to 
the  call  of  the  government  at  any  time. 

The  rank  and  file  of  the  army  is  composed  exclusively  of  In- 
dians, negroes,  and  half-breeds.  They  are  obedient,  faithful,  and 
good  fighters.  Some  of  the  fiercest  battles  the  world  has  ever 
known  have  taken  place  in  Venezuela  with  these  poor  fellows 
on  both  sides.  Their  uniform  in  the  field  is  a pair  of  cotton 
drawers,  a cotton  shirt,  a cheap  straw  hat,  and  a pair  of  sandals, 
hut  when  they  come  to  occupy  the  barracks  in  town  and  do  guard 
duty  around  the  government  buildings  they  are  made  to  wear  red 
woolen  trousers,  blue  coats,  and  caps  of  red  and  blue,  with  regular 
army  shoes. 

The  officers  are  generally  good-looking  young  fellows  of  the 
Ijest  families,  who  take  to  military  service  and  enjoy  it.  They 
wear  well  kept  uniforms,  have  good  manners,  and  are  usually 
graduates  of  the  university. 

The  government  has  estaldished  a school  of  industry  for  the 
education  of  the  Indian  children,  and  every  year  a commission 
is  sent  to  obtain  recruits  for  the  army  among  tliem.  The  boys 
are  tauglit  trades  and  all  sorts  of  handicraft,  as  well  as  reading, 
writing,  and  arithmetic,  and  the  girls  are  drilled  in  the  duties  of 
the  brnne.  When  they  have  reached  an  age  when  their  faculties 
are  fully  develo])cd  and  their  habits  fixed  they  are  sent  hack 
among  their  tribe  as  missioiiaries,  not  to  teach  religion,  hut  civili- 
zation, and  the  Indians  are  said  to  he  imja'oving  ra})idly  under 
the  tuition  of  their  own  daughters  and  sons. 


VENEZUELA : 


52 


The  chief  towns  of  Venezuela  are  Caracas,  the  capital,  and  La 
Guayra,  its  seaport ; Valencia,  which  lies  upon  a curious  lake,  one 
of  the  most  interesting  of  natural  phenomena  ; Puerto  Cabello, 
where  Sir  Francis  Drake  dief]  and  was  dropped  into  the  water 
with  a l)ag  of  shot  at  his  heels,  and  Maracail)o,  upon  the  lake  of 
the  same  name,  from  which  we  get  much  of  our  coffee. 

The  chief  seajjort  of  Venezuela,  La  Guayra  hy  name,  has  the 
rci)Utation  among  sailors  of  having  the  worst  harbor  in  the  world. 
It  is  merely  an  open  roadstead,  beset  by  almost  all  the  dangers 
and  difficulties  which  seamanship  can  encounter.  Even  in  calm 
weatlier  the  surf  rolls  up  with  a mighty  volume  and  dashes  into 
S})ray  against  the  rocks  uj)on  which  the  toAvn  is  ljuilt ; but  when 
a breeze  is  blowing,  and  one  comes  almost  every  afternoon,  the 
waves  are  so  liigh  that  loading  or  unloading  vessels  is  dangerous 
and  often  impossible. 

Between  La  Guayra  and  Caracas  is  a mountain  called  La  Silla, 
whicli  reaches  nearly  9,000  feet  toward  the  sky  and  springs  di- 
rectly from  tlie  sea.  There  is  only  a beach  about  two  hundred 
feet  in  width  at  the  foot  of  the  peaks,  along  which  La  Guayra  is 
stretched  two  miles  or  so — a .single  street.  Part  of  the  town  clings 
to  the  side  of  the  momster  like  a creeper  to  the  trunk  of  a tree, 
and  one  wonders  tliat  the  earthquakes,  which  are  common  there, 
do  not  shake  the  houses  off  into  the  ocean. 

The  distance  in  a straight  line  through  the  l)ase  of  the  moun- 
tain would  be  only  about  four  miles,  and  a Washington  engineer 
once  made  ])lans  for  a tunnel  and  a calde  railway,  but  it  was  too 
exi)ensive  an  undertaking.  Over  the  dip  in  the  saddle  is  an 
Indian  trail  about  eight  miles  long,  and  in  1883  English  engineers 
and  capitalists  l)uilt  a railroad  twenty-four  miles  long  between 
the  two  ])laces,  which  climbs  3,600  feet  in  about  twenty  miles, 
and  cree])S  through  a pass  to  the  valley  in  which  the  ca})ital  is 
situated.  It  is  a remarkalile  piece  of  engineering  and  offers  the 
traveler  a scenic  view  whose  i)icturesqueness  and  grandeur  have 
})een  extolled  from  the  time  the  Si)anish  invaders  came,  in  1520, 
until  now.  IIunil)oldt  says  there  is  no  picture  combining  the 
scenery  of  the  mountains  and  the  ocean  so  grand  as  this,  except 
the  i)eak  of  Teneriffe.  It  is  as  if  Pike’s  peak  rose  abruptly  from 
the  beach  at  Long  Branch. 

There  is  nothing  Indian  about  Caracas  except  its  name,  and 
it  is  one  of  the  finest  cities  in  South  America.  The  climate  is 
superb,  being  a perpetual  spring,  the  thermometer  seldom  rising 
above  85  degrees  and  seldom  falling  below  60 ; there  is  not  a 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG.  VOL.  VII,  1B96,  PL.  VI. 


LA  GUAYRA  — FROM  THE  EAST. 


HER  GOVERNMENT,  PEOPLE,  AND  BOUNDARY 


53 


stove,  nor  a fireplace,  nor  a chimney  in  the  town ; there  is  no 
glass  in  the  windows ; the  nights  are  always  cool,  and  in  the  day- 
time there  is  a difference  of  ten  or  twelve  degrees  in  temj)erature 
between  the  shady  and  the  sunny  sides  of  the  street. 

In  1812  the  city  was  entirely  destroyed  by  an  earthquake  and 
twenty  thousand  people  were  killed.  It  came  on  Holy  Thurs- 
day, when  the  citizens  were  pre]>aring  for  the  great  religious 
fiesta  of  the  year.  There  was  not  a cloud  in  the  sky  and  not  a 
thought  of  danger  in  the  minds  of  the  people,  when  suddenl}’  the 
town  l)egan  to  rock,  the  church  hells  tolled  voluntarily,  and  a 
tremendous  explosion  was  heard  in  the  Ijowels  of  the  earth.  In 
a second  the  city  was  a heap  of  blood-stained  ruins  and  the  air 
Avas  filled  with  .shouts  of  horror  and  the  shrieks  of  the  dying. 

There  have  been  several  earthquakes  since,  attended  with  se- 
rious casualties,  and  Avhile  the  people  profess  not  to  fear  them 
they  build  the  walls  of  their- houses  three  and  four  feet  in  thick- 
ne.ss  and  seldom  make  them  more  than  one  story  high. 

The  })eople  of  Caracas  have  an  opera  supported  l;)y  the  govern- 
ment, a university,  art  galleries,  public  buildings  that  are  beau- 
tiful and  expensive,  and  homes  in  which  one  can  find  all  the 
evidences  of  a refined  taste  that  are  knoAvn  to  civilization.  While 
in  some  res})ccts  the  people  are  two  hundred  years  behind  our 
own,  and  while  many  of  their  manners  and  customs  appear  quaint 
and  odd  Avhen  judged  by  our  standard,  there  is  no  social  station 
in  America  or  Plurope  which  the  educated  Venezuelan  Avould  not 
adorn.  Their  women  are  proverlnal  for  their  beauty  and  grace 
and  their  men  for  their  dei)ortment. 

There  is  no  convenient  Avay  of  getting  from  Caracas  to  the 
Orinoco  country  exce})t  by  sea.  Of  course,  one  can  “cut  across 
lots,”  and  many  peoi)le,  armies,  indeed,  have  gone  tliat  Avay, 
but  it  is  a long,  tedious,  and  diflicult  journey,  and  dangerous  at 
times,  because  of  the  mountains  to  be  climbed,  the  forests  to  bo 
])enetrated,  the  rivers  to  be  forded,  and  the  trackless  swani|)s. 
To  a naturalist  the  trip  is  full  of  fascination,  for  the  trail  leads 
through  a region  ])rolific  with  curious  forms  of  vegetable  and 
animal  life. 

To  reach  Ciudad  bolivar,  formei’ly  known  as  Angostura,  the 
])olitical  ca])ital  as  well  as  the  comimircial  metropolis  of  the  Ori- 
iVK-o  country,  is  neither  diHicult  nor  expensive,  and,  aside  from 
the  heat,  the  journey  is  eomfortabh*.  It  is  like  going  from  New 
York  to  .Memphis  by  sea,  how(“V(-r,  although  not  s<t  great  a dis- 
tance. 'I’here  are  no  native  means  of  transportation,  but  you  can 


54 


VENEZUELA : 


take  any  of  the  English,  French,  or  German  steamers,  and  they 
are  usually  leaving  La  Guayra  as  often  as  twice  a week  to  Port- 
of-Spain,  on  the  British  island  of  Trinidad.  At  least  once  a week, 
and  generally  twice,  a steamer  leaves  Port-of-Spain  for  the  upper 
Orinoco.  The  time  required  to  make  the  journey  depends  upon 
the  season  of  the  year  and  the  condition  of  the  river.  If  Amu  are 
going  during  the  rainy  season — that  is,  from  the  first  of  IMay  tO' 
the  first  of  November — you  can  reach  Ciudad  Bolivar  in  three 
days ; hut  during  the  dry  season,  when  the  river  is  low,  naviga- 
tion is  slow  and  difficult  because  of  snags,  bars,  and  other  ob- 
structions. At  Ciudad  Bolivar  the  traveler  shifts  his  baggage  to- 
a smaller  craft,  similar  to  those  that  ply  the  Ohio,  Tennessee, 
and  other  streams  of  the  United  States,  and  starts  onward  for  the 
head  of  navigation,  A\dierever  that  may  he. 

It  is  possil)le  to  go  within  two  days’  journey  on  mule-back  of 
Bogota,  the  capital  of  Colombia,  by  taking  the  Meta,  one  of  the 
chief  affluents  of  the  Orinoco,  and  by  passing  southward  through 
the  Cassiquiare  the  Amazon  can  be  reached.  Few  people  are 
aware  that  a boat  entering  the  mouth  of  the  Orinoco  can  emerge 
again  into  the  sea  through  the  Amazon  Avithout  leaving  the  Avater. 
This  passage  is  not  naA'igahle  for  large  steamers  because  of  rapids- 
and  obstructions,  I)ut  it  might  he  made  clear  at  an  expense  that 
Avould  be  very  slight  in  comparison  Avith  the  advantages  gained.. 

Another  branch  goes  nearly  to  Quito,  the  capital  of  Ecuador,, 
and  in  fact  its  affluents  are  so  numerous  and  so  large  that  in  all 
the  five  hundred  thousand  square  miles  of  territory  drained  by 
the  Orinoco  there  is  scarcely  a point  more  than  three  or  four 
days’  journey  l)y  mule  from  navigable  Avaters,  and  there  are  said 
to  l>e  four  hundred  and  thirty  navigable  branches  of  the  river. 

From  the  Atlantic  to  the  Andes,  from  the  chain  of  the  Cordil- 
leras that  hugs  tire  coast  of  the  Caribbean  to  the  legend-haunted 
Sierra  de  la  Parima,  there  is  an  area  as  large  as  the  valley  of  the 
INIississippi,  and  similar  in  its  configuration,  capable  of  producing 
mighty  crops  of  nearly  CAmrything  the  Avorld  feeds  on,  and  afford- 
ing grazing  ground  for  millions  upon  millions  of  cattle.  From 
the  foothills  of  the  mountains  in  Avhich  the  sources  of  the  river 
are,  tAvo  thousand  miles  to  the  sea,  are  great  plains  or  llanos,  like 
those  of  loAAai  and  Illinois,  almost  entirely  destitute  of  timber, 
exce])t  along  the  courses  of  the  rivers,  Avhere  A^aluable  trees  are 
found. 

The  scenery  for  the  greater  part  of  the  voyage  is  interesting,, 
but  as  you  reach  the  upjAer  Avaters  and  enter  the  foothills  of  the 


VALLEY  OF  CARACAS,  EAST  OF  THE  CAPITAL,  WITH  COFFEE  AND  SUGAR  PLANTATIONS. 


Jr-, 


HER  GOVERNMEXT,  PEOPLE,  AND  BOUNDARY  55 

Andes  it  l>econies  sublime;  but  there  steam  navigation  ceases, 
and  canoes  j>addled  by  Indians  are  the  onh"  means  of  transporta- 
tion. The  heat  along  the  lower  river  is  intense,  but  the  boats 
are  built  so  as  to  protect  the  traveler  from  the  sun  and  afford  tlie 
greatest  degree  of  coolness  possible.  The  water  is  turbid  and 
muddy;  the  banks  are  low,  and  the  Orinoco,  like  the  Missouri, 
often  tires  of  its  old  course  and  cuts  a new  one  through  fields  or 
forest;  on  either  side  the  coarse  grass  and  reeds  grow  tall,  and 
toward  the  end  of  the  season  are  topped  with  tassels  that  nod 
and  droop  in  the  sun. 

At  daybreak  long  lines  of  pelicans  and  other  water  birds 
awakened  1 >y  the  breathing  of  the  steamer  go  clanging  out  to  sea, 
and  as  morning  wakens,  the  thin  blue  mist  that  nature  nightly 
hangs  upon  the  river  rises  and  leaves  the  slender  rushes  that  line 
the  banks  to  quiver  in  the  burning  glare.  Toward  noonday  a 
breeze  springs  up,  which  is  as  regular  and  faithful  as  the  stars  ; 
it  cools  the  atmosphere,  covers  the  surface  of  the  river  with  pretty 
ripples,  and  makes  life  possible  under  a tropic  sun.  There  is  no 
twilight ; the  sun  jumps  up  from  below  the  horizon  in  the  morn- 
ing and  jumps  down  again  at  night,  and  then  tor  a few  moments 
the  sky,  the  river,  and  the  savannahs  are  one  vast  rainbow,  livid 
with  colors  so  spread  and  blended  that  the  most  unpoetic  eyes 
cannot  behold  it  without  admiration  and  awe. 

The  smaller  streams  are  sheltered  by  flower-bespangled  walls 
of  forest,  gay  with  innumerable  insects  and  birds,  while  from  tlie 
branches  which  overhang  them  long  trailers  droop  and  admire 
their  own  gorgeousness  in  nature’s  mirror.  Majestic  trees  whose 
solitude  was  undisturl^ed  for  centuries  are  covered  with  decora- 
tions that  sur))ass  the  skill  of  art;  their  trunks  and  limbs  con- 
cealed by  garlands  finer  tlian  were  ever  woven  for  a bride — masses 
of  scarlet  and  jnirple  orchids,  orange  and  crimson,  l)lue  and 
gold — all  the  fantastic  forms  and  lines  with  which  nature  liedecks 
her  robes  under  the  fierce  suns  and  the  faltering  rains  of  the 
tropics. 

The  onl}’’  jilace  of  real  importance,  the  entreiiot  of  all  com- 
merce, the  headquarters  of  all  trade,  the  source  of  all  supplies, 
and  the  political  as  well  as  the  commercial  capital  of  lU'arly  half  of 
the  re])ublic  of  Venezuela,  is  (dudad  Bolivar.  It  has  about  12,000 
inhabitants,  representing  almost  every  nation  on  earth  ; it  is  built 
upon  a clay  bluff  about  seventy  feet  aliove  high-water  mark,  so 
that  it  is  in  no  danger  of  being  swept  away.  During  the  six 
months  of  dry  season,  when  the  water  is  low,  most  of  the  ship- 


56 


VENEZUELA : 


])ing  business  is  transacted  upon  the  beach.  The  government 
lias  concentrated  at  Ciudad  Bolivar  the  civil  and  military  au- 
thority. It  has  the  only  custom-house  upon  the  entire  Orinoco 
system  and  practically  the  only  courts. 

The  city  resemhles  other  Spanish-American  towns,  for  they  are 
all  alike,  has  a number  of  jiretty  foliage-shaded  squares,  several 
rather  imposing  government  buildings,  a cathedral,  a puldic 
market,  a theater,  a college,  and  the  inevitable  statues  of  Bolivar, 
the  liberator,  and  Guzman-Bianco,  the  regenerator  of  Venezuela. 
The  volume  of  business  done  there  is  enormous  in  jiroportion  to 
the  jiopulation,  as  it  is  the  supply  iioint  and  the  })ort  of  shipment 
for  a large  and  productive  area.  Within  the  last  few  years  the 
exports  of  gold  alone  from  that  little  town  have  been  valued  at 
8oh,0( )0,( )00.  The  ])rincipal  merchants  are  Germans,  the  restau- 
rant keepers  are  Italians,  and  the  lal)oring  classes  are  negroes 
from  the  West  Indies  or  Canary  islands.  Shii)s  from  all  ports 
in  the  world  land  at  the  i>iers,  and  the  flags  of  every  nation  may 
he  seen  floating  from  the  poles  on  the  house-tops.  The  manu- 
facture of  cigars  is  extensive,  as  excellent  tobacco  is  cultivated  in 
the  neighl)orhood,  and  in  almost  every  household  the  women 
emjtloy  their  sjiare  time  rolling  the  leaves  into  what  are  known 
in  the  nomenclature  of  N(wth  America  as  “ Wheeling  stogas.” 
These  are  u.sed  in  amazing  quantities  by  the  negro  roustabouts, 
and  are  sent  down  the  river  to  Los  d'aljlas,  from  whence  they  are 
carried  on  mule-hack  150  miles  into  the  interior  to  the  mines. 

The  most  })rofitahle  mine  in  Venezuela,  and  one  that  is  famous 
all  over  the  world,  is  El  Callao,  situated  on  the  borders  of  the 
dis])uted  territory,  in  the  state  of  Bolivar,  al»out  one  hundred 
and  fifty  miles  south  of  the  Orinoco  river. 

I suppose  that  the  richest  gold  mine  ever  discovered  Avas  the 
Consolidated  ^hrginia,  the  mine  from  which  so  many  of  the  Cali- 
fornia mining  kings  drcAV  their  enormous  fortunes.  It  is  diffi- 
cult to  calculate  the  output  of  the  old  Spanish  mines  in  South 
America,  hut  El  Callao  is  reckoned  second  to  the  Consolidated 
Virginia  in  the  amount  of  g(fld  ])roduced,  and  I understand  that 
it  has  already  produced  more  “ free  gold  ” than  any  other  eA’er 
o])ened.  It  was  Avorked  Ijy  the  Indians  long  ago ; at  least  its 
location  corresponds  Avith  that  of  a legendary  de})Osit  fi’om  Avhich 
the  saA'ages  of  Venezuela  got  much  of  the  gold  taken  from  them 
by  the  S])aniards,  hut  after  the  latter  took  possession  of  the  coun- 
try its  existence  AA'as  a matter  of  much  doubt,  until  four  Jamaica 
negroes  hajq)ened  to  run  across  it  on  a prospecting  tour. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  VIII. 


VALLEY  OF  CARACAS,  WEST  OF  THE  CAPITAL,  WITH  PLANTATIONS  AND  SUGAR  FACTORY. 


HER  GOVERXMEXT,  PEOPLE,  AXD  BOUXDARY 


57 


Three  agreed  to  sell  their  share  in  the  discovery  to  a party  of 
Corsicans  for  a nominal  price.  The  fourth  negro  decided  to 
keep  his  interest,  and  has  ahvays  been  glad  that  he  did  so,  for 
vithin  the  next  two  or  three  years  he  was  able  to  return  to  his 
native  island,  where  he  has  since  lived  like  a nabob  at  the  city 
of  Kingston,  the  richest  man  in  Jamaica. 

The  Corsicans,  when  the}’  began  to  realize  the  value  of  the 
jiroperty,  sent  two  of  their  number  to  England,  and  succeeded 
in  raising  sufficient  money  to  build  a stamp-mill  and  introduce 
other  necessary  machinery ; 1nit  they  did  not  capitalize  their 
com])any  at  ten  or  tAventy  millions  of  dollars,  as  is  customary  in 
the  United  States,  nor  did  they  put  any  of  their  stock  on  the 
market.  They  issued  only  thirty-tAvo  shares,  Avhich  Avere  sold 
originally  at  S2,500  a share  cash,  making  their  entire  capital 
$80,000.  These  shares  have  since  sold  for  half  a million  dollars 
each,  at  Avhich  rate  the  mine  Avould  1>e  AA’orth  $16,000,000;  Imt 
most  of  them  are  still  in  the  possession  of  the  original  suliscribers. 

There  is  little  immigration  and  labor  is  scarce.  Most  of  the 
miners  are  negroes  from  Jamaica,  Trinidad,  and  other  A\'est 
India  islands.  They  appear  to  be  the  only  class  of  human 
beings  Avho  can  endure  the  climate,  for  the  land  is  Ioav  and  the 
mines  are  situated  almost  directly  on  the  equator.  The  country 
is  comparatiA'ely  healthy,  but  the  rays  of  the  sun  are  intense, 
and  until  a man  liecomes  acclimated  he  is  easily  })rostrated  by 
e.xposure.  Wood  is  the  only  fuel,  and  a A'ery  poor  quality  costs 
seven  dollars  a cord. 

Some  of  the  mines  are  Avithin  and  some  Avithout  the  territory 
claimed  by  Elngland,  l)ut  Great  Britain  has  tAvo  gunboats  ujxrn 
the  Orinoco,  and  at  the  first  possil>le  excuse  Avill  tak(*  })ossession 
of  the  entire  mineral  district.  Such  an  act  Avould  be  audacious, 
but  AA’ould  l)c  lieartily  Avelcomed  by  the  i)Cople,  Avho  AA'ould  A’ery 
much  |)referan  English  colonial  goA’ci'innent  to  Venezuelan  rule. 
I have  l^een  told  by  dozens  of  men — .Americans,  Germans,  natiA’c 
Venezuelans,  and  representatives  of  other  nations — that  if  the 
<|Uestion  Avere  subnutted  to  the  miners  the  decision  Avould  lu? 
almost  unanimously  in  favor  of  England.  JJie  most  poi)ular 
and  po])ulate<l  diggings  are  on  the  Harima  liver,  in  the  disputed 
territory,  Avhere  several  million  dollars  of  foreign  ca]tital,  mostly 
British,  is  invested,  and  some  twenty  thousand  miners  are  at  AVork. 

The  colonial  authorities  of  fJuiana  liaA’e  calmly  occu]»ied  this 
territory,  organizing  jxdice,  appointing  local  magistrates,  assum- 
ing legislative  as  Avell  as  cxecutiA'c  jurisdi<-tion,  providing  hiAvs 


58 


YESEZUELA 


and  regulations  for  the  government  of  the  mining  camps,  requir- 
ing prospectors  to  obtain  licenses  from  the  colonial  officials  at 
Georgetown  before  commencing  work,  and  to  advertise  their 
claims  and  locations  in  the  Official  Gazette  of  the  colony. 

These  regulations  have  been  imposed  by  the  British  colonial 
authorities  within  a territory  to  Avhich  they  did  not  claim  owner- 
shi}>  until  the  discovery  of  gold,  and  over  which  they  did  not 
attempt  to  exercise  jurisdiction  until  1883 ; and  as  new  mines 
have  been  discovered  they  have  gradually  pushed  their  frontier 
line  westward  until  it  now  includes  nearly  twice  as  much  terri- 
tory as  they  claimed  twenty  years  ago  and  seven  times  as  much 
as  was  ceded  to  Great  Britain  by  Holland  in  1814.  It  is  true  that 
the  Venezuelans  have  shown  no  enterprise  or  activity  in  develop- 
ing their  own  resources.  They  have  permitted  foreign  prospectors 
to  enter  and  occupy  the  mining  districts  at  their  will,  and  have 
never  attempted  to  exercise  police  or  even  administrative  control 
in  the  mining  camps.  The  original  })rospectors,  being  English- 
men, naturally  looked  to  the  colonial  government  at  Georgetown 
for  ]>rotection,  and  the  other  foreigners  fell  in  without  a question,, 
acknowledged  British  sovereignty  and  obeyed  British  law. 

It  was  within  this  disputed  territory,  between  the  Orinoco  and 
the  Amazon,  that  the  ancient  voyageurs  located  the  mythical  city 
of  Manoah,  the  El  Dorado  upon  which  the  wonder  and  greed  of 
two  centuries  were  concentrated.  Tidings  of  its  barbaric  splen- 
dor were  brought  home  by  every  voyageur,  and  each  caravel  that 
left  the  shores  of  Europe  carried- ambitious  and  avaricious  men,. 
Avho  ho})ed  to  share  its  plunder  before  their  return  to  Spain ; but 
the  alluring  El  Dorado  was  not  a place  ; it  was  a man.  The  term 
signifies  “ the  gilded,”  and  was  originally  applied  to  a mythical 
king  who  every  morning  was  sprinkled  with  gold  dust  by  hi.s 
slaves.  The  nuggets  of  gold  and  the  rudely  wrought  images  which 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh  laid  at  the  feet  of  Queen  Elizabeth  when  he 
returned  from  his  exploration  of  the  Orinoco  doubtless  came  from 
the  noAV  famous  mine  of  El  Callao.  But  the  El  Dorado  was  never 
found ; no  courage  could  overcome,  no  persistence  could  dis- 
cover, what  did  not  exist,  and  the  fabulous  king  of  the  fabulous 
island  still  sits  on  his  fabulous  throne,  covered  from  his  fabulous 
crown  to  his  fabulous  sandals  with  the  fabulous  dust  of  gold. 


[Note  — The  foregoing  article  is  an  abstract  of  a lecture  delivered  before  The  National 
Geographic  Society  by  Mr  Curtis,  January  10,  1896.  The  lecture  itself  consisted  of  se- 
lected extracts  from  Mr  Curtis’  book,  “V’enezuela:  A Land  Where  it’s  Always  Sum- 
mer,” which  will  shortly  be  published  by  Harper  k Brothers.] 


THE  PANAMA  CANAL  ROUTE 


B}"  Robert  T.  Hill, 

United  Stales  Geological  Survey 

Within  the  space  assigned  to  me  for  the  discussion  of  the  most 
unpopular  of  the  three  rival  isthmian  routes,  I can  do  little  more 
than  present  a brief  summary  of  the  facts  concerning  the  Panama 
canal.  At  the  outset  it  ma3"be  stated  that  if  the  Nicaragua  route 
could  he  exclusive!}"  controlled  by  the  United  States,  even  if  it  was 
far  more  costly,  my  personal  preference  would  be  for  it.  In  no 
case,  however,  does  such  personal  preference  necessitate  or  justify 
misstatements  as  to  the  rival  Panama  route,  concerning  which, 
since  it  was  allowed  to  pass  out  of  American  control  into  the 
hands  of  the  French  and  to  become  involved  in  serious  financial 
difficulties,  imblic  opinion  in  this  country  seems  to  be  singularly 
misinformed. 

That  this  route  is  in  control  of  a foreign  power ; that  it  is  a 
rival  enterprise  to  one  supposedly  controlled  by  a private  corpo- 
ration in  which  American  citizens  and  officials  are  interested,  and 
that  it  has  fallen  into  ill  repute  through  scandalous  mismanage- 
ment are  facts  which  are  undeniable. 

These  questions  of  adiuinistration  have,  however,  little  to  do 
with  the  purely  scientific  problem  of  what  constitutes  the  most 
feasible  route  for  uniting  the  two  oceans  by  a maritime  canal. 
Some  ])atriotic  Americans,  while  admitting  that  national  preju- 
dices draw  them  to  a preference  for  the  rival  route,  can  yet  see 
the  arguments  on  both  sides  of  the  question  and  can  di.stinguish 
the  proposition  that  the  financial  failure  of  the  Panama  Canal 
Company  in  Paris  is  no  condemnation  of  the  feasibility  of  the 
Panama  canal  route. 

The  engineering  investigations  that  liavc  been  conducted  since 
the  ])ractical  susj)ension  of  operations  on  any  extensive  scale  on 
the  canal  itself  have  been  singularly  overlooked.  At  least  three 
thoroughly  e(iuip|)ed  eorj)S  of  engineers  have  resurveyed  the 
entire  route  and  recommended  modifications  in  the  plans.  The 
rejiorts  of  two  of  these  commissions  descrihing  the  ini|)roved 
lock-level  .system  are  in  print.  'I’he  third  and  more  recent  com- 
mi.ssion  was  engaged  in  studying  the  canal  during  my  visit  to  tin; 

6'J 


60 


THE  PANAMA  CANAL  ROUTE 


isthmus  in  January,  1895.  It  comprised  a large  and  competent 
Imdy  of  skilled  engineers,  and  my  final  word  must  V>e  held  in 
reserve  until  this  commission  has  made  its  report. 

In  the  meantime,  what  are  the  principal  facts  concerning  the 
feasibility  of  the  Panama  route? 

1.  It  is  the  shortest  of  all,  being  only  42 1 miles  from  sea  to 
sea,  across  about  20  miles  of  which  the  canal  has  been  completed 
to  28  feet  Ijelow  sea  level,  making  the  actual  present  distance  I)e- 
tween  the  two  oceans  less  than  25  English  miles,  or  about  one- 
seventh  of  the  actual  distance  (170  miles)  to  he  overcome  between 
Greytown  and  San  Juan  in  the  case  of  the  Nicaragua  route. 

2.  It  is  the  only  ])ossil)le  tide-water  route  in  the  whole  isthmian 
region.  To  accom])lisli  it  would,  it  is  true,  require  great  engi- 
neering and  constructional  feats,  but  in  no  respect  impossilde 
ones. 

8.  It  is  said  by  competent  and  reliable  engineers  to  he  feasible 
for  a lock-level  route.  The  plan  ]woposed  involves  the  construc- 
tion of  a dam  at  Bujio  or  San  Pahloa  of  about  the  same  size  as 
that  which  is  admitted  to  he  necessary  at  San  Carlos  on  the  Nica- 
ragua route,  together  with  six  locks.  The  construction  of  this 
dam  would  create  a summit  lake  125  feet  above  tide  water  and 
12  miles  in  len<rth  if  placed  at  San  Pahloa,  or  21  miles  if  located 
at  Bujio.  In  addition  to  giving  free  summit  navigation,  such  a 
lake  would  control  the  floods  of  the  Up])er  Chagres,  storing  tliem 
in  the  rainy  season  and  supplying  water  to  the  summit  lock- 
levels. 

4.  It  is  in  a region  comparatively  free  from  seismic  disturb- 
ance and  one  in  which  no  volcanic  action  has  occurred  since  late 
Tertiary  time.  The  Nicaragua  route  is  within  a zone  of  topo- 
gra])hically  destructive  volcanic  disturbance,  where  earthquakes 
are  frequent. 

5.  It  has  what  no  other  route  possesses : excellent  terminal 
harbor  facilities,  with  anchorage  at  both  oceans  so  improved  that 
ships  can  enter  and  leave  at  will. 

fi.  It  has  been  minutely  surveyed.  Every ^foot  of  the  “ trace  ” 
has  been  cleared  of  vegetation  and  ]mrtially  excavated  and  tested 
I)v  ])onngs,  so  that  the  actual  problems  of  construction  are  ap- 
proximately known.  As  to  problems  that  will  surely  arise  in  the 
Avork  on  the  other  route  Ave  liaA’e  absolutely  no  data. 

7.  It  has  on  the  Caribbean  side  only  31  miles  of  flooded  thahveg 


THE  PvlJNM.Y.l  CANAL  ROUTE 


61 


(21  of  the  Chagres  and  10  of  the  Obispo)  to  be  threaded  and  con- 
trolled, against  111  miles  in  the  case  of  the  rival  route.  It  is  true 
that  the  Nicaragua  route  proposes  to  avoid  a part  of  the  San  Juan 
1)V  a cut  of  40  miles,  but  the  control  of  the  remainder  will  be  a 
similar  and  probably  as  serious  a problem  as  that  2)resented  by 
the  Chagres.  From  10  to  15  miles  of  the  latter  have  been  coni- 
l)letely  diverted  and  the  remainder  can  be  controlled  by  the  i)ro- 
l)Oscd  summit-level  lake.  In  the  case  of  a sea-level  plan  the  di- 
version would  still  be  a great  problem,  but  by  no  means  an  insur- 
mountable one. 

8.  It  will  be  the  cheapest  route  to  construct.  The  plant  already 
furnished,  with  two-fifths  of  the  excavation  now  completed  for  a 


PANAMA  CANAL, 

SHOWING  A PORTION  OF  THE  13^  MILES  COMPLETED  ON  THE  CARIBBEAN  SIDE. 
WIDTH,  80  FEET.  TOPOGRAPHY  OF  CENTRAL  PORTION  VISIBLE  IN  BACKGROUND. 

sea-level  route,  including  (;x])cnse  of  administration  and  ma- 
chinery, lias  actually  cost  8 150,00! ),()()().  Fpon  this  basis  it  is 
estimated  that  the  entire  length  of  421  miles  will  cost  81 1(),00<),000 
more  U]»on  the  lock-level  plan.  A sea-level  route  would  cost 
82< M ),( M )0,000  more.  1'lie  amount  of  work  necessary  to  complete 
the  Fanama  canal  is  far  le.ss  than  would  be  required  to  construct 
the  Nicaragua  route.  Engineers  admit  that  40  miU*s  of  excava- 
tion— almost  equivalent  to  the  entire  length  of  the  Panama 
eaiial — are  necessary  along  tlu;  rival  route.  What  the  cost  of  the 


62 


THE  PANAMA  CANAL  ROUTE 


construction  of  the  Nicaragua  route  will  be  can  never  be  told 
until  the  actual  work  is  well  under  way. 

9.  It  is  nautically  the  most  important  route,  being  more  cen- 
trally situated  relatively  to  the  two  continents.  Its  Carilibean 
terminus  is  as  near  by  sailing  and  steaming  routes  both  to  the 
North  Atlantic  and  European  ports  as  is  Greytown,  while  its 
Pacific  terminus  is  far  more  convenient  to  the  South  American 
trade. 

10.  Politically  it  is  the  only  route  at  present  possessing  treaty 
rights  under  guaranteed  neutrality  with  any  isthmian  country  by 
which  canal  construction  can  be  i^ermitted.  The  region  through 
which  it  passes  is  American  in  interest  and  practically  under  our 
protectorate,  and  a neutral  canal  across  it,  even  though  the  French 
construct  it,  would  give  us  all  the  privileges  now  apparently  to 
l)e  obtained  via  Nicaragua  under  the  Bulwer-Clayton  treaty. 

The  foregoing  are  the  salient  facts  concerning  the  Panama 
route.  An  ini])ortant  point  to  remember  is  that  underground 
conditions,  l)oth  favorable  and  unfavoraI)le,  and  which  were  not 
antici])ated  from  the  preliminary  surveys,  have  Iieen  encountered 
in  the  course  of  construction.  For  instance,  the  25  kilometers  of 
the  canal  on  the  Caril)hean  side  were  contracted  for  and  paid  for 
as  rock-cutting,  when  the  material  ]>roved  to  be,  for  the  most  part, 
the  easiest  kind  of  earth  excavation.  On  the  other  hand,  an 
utterly  unlooked-for  obstacle  developed  in  the  creeiDing  of  the 
clays  for  al)out  a mile  along  the  Culebra  summit.  These  are 
geological  considerations  with  regard  to  which  we  have  alisolutely 
no  information  along  the  Nicaragua  line,  and  it  is  urgently 
needed. 

Although  not  essentially  pertinent  to  the  subject  of  feasibility, 
a few  words  concerning  the  actual  present  status  of  the  canal  con- 
struction may  he  of  interest.  The  com})any  has  passed  through 
the  ordeal  of  experimentation  and  financial  fiiilure  and  its  affairs 
are  now  in  the  French  courts,  under  whose  direction  accurate  re- 
searches have  been  ])rosecuted  during  the  past  year  to  ascertain 
the  exact  expenditures  of  the  late  company  and  to  determine 
what  steps  are  necessary  to  complete  the  work.  Upon  the  report 
of  the  commission  will  depend  the  completion  of  the  canal.  The 
French  people  have  put  too  much  money  into  the  enterprise  not 
to  complete  it,  and  Americans  need  not  deceive  themselves  with 
the  expectation  that  the  work  is  abandoned  or  that  the  company 
is  utterly  bankrupt.  Almost  the  entire  plant,  including  dredges. 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


CONSTRUCTION  WORK  ON  THE  PANAMA  CANAL,  NEAR  THE  SUMMIT, 
Photographed  by  Robert  T.  Hill. 


THE  CAXAL  ROUTE 


63 


raihvay  locomotives  and  other  machiner}^  track,  barges,  steam 
vessels,  pontoons  and  locks,  houses,  shops,  etc.,  for  the  comple- 
tion of  the  v'ork  is  on  the  ground,  and  this  alone  represents  a 
large  proportion  of  the  money  expended  hy  the  old  company. 
This  plant  is  not  undergoing  the  ruinous  decay  that  has  been 
represented  in  this  country,  but,  on  the  contrary,  it  is  kept  in 
scrupulously  good  order  and  will  be  available  for  the  completion 
of  the  work. 

The  old  Panama  Company  was  responsible  for  nearly 
6266,000,000,  of  which  it  spent  6150,000,000  upon  the  plant 
and  construction  and  criminally  distributed  nearly  6100,000,000 
among  the  dishonest  parties  who  brought  the  company  into  dis- 
rei)Ute.  In  the  hands  of  the  courts,  however,  there  still  remains 
some  820,000,000  awaiting  the  reorganization  of  the  company. 
That  the  present  commission  does  not  consider  the  route  im- 
practicable is  attested  by  tlie  fact  that  they  have  kept  the  work 
progressing,  al)out  2,000  laborers  having  been  employed  upon  the 
construction  of  the  canal  during  the  past  year.  When,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1895, 1 took  the  photograph  reproduced  as  an  illustration 
to  this  article  I counted  five  locomotives  at  work  cariying  away 
the  excavations  from  the  Culebra  summit. 

No  available  news  comes  to  this  country  from  France  concern- 
ing the  operations  of  the  canal.  The  Outlook,  however,  in  a recent 
issue,  makes  the  following  statement: 

“It  was  announced  recently  that  the  French  company  in  charge  of  the 
work  on  the  Panama  canal  is  now  collecting  2,000  more  men  from  Jamaica 
and  other  West  Indian  islands  to  add  to  the  1,800  now  at  work,  and  that 
it  is  intended  eventually  to  increase  the  force  to  6,000  men.  The  New 
York  Evening  Poet  declared  that  it  had  received  information  which  it 
considered  trustworthy  that  the  money  to  finish  the  work  on  the  j)resent 
plan  has  all  been  furnished,  and  that  nothing  can  prevent  the  opening  of 
the  canal  at  the  appointed  time,  e.vcept  accidents  and  obstacles  not  now 
anticipated.  The  managers  even  expect  that  the  work  will  be  completed 
in  six  years.  This  is  (juite  in  line  with  the  report  maile  by  Sir  Henry 
Tyler,  the  late  president  of  the  Grand  Trunk  railway,  who  has  been  visit-' 
ing  Panama.  He  .says  that  it  is  propt)sed  to  construct  two  large  dams, 
one  across  the  Upper  Chagres  and  one  on  the  Lower  Chagres  river.  Two 
lakes  will  thus  be  formed,  the  upper  one  siijiplying  water  to  the  higher 
portion  of  the  canal,  while  the  lower  one  will  be  mainly  usc<l  to  furnish 
water  for  the  navigation  of  the  lower  j)art.  Ten  locks  will  be  built,  en- 
abling the  canal  to  reach  a height  of  170  feet  above  the  sea  level.  Sir 
Henry  bolds  that  there  is  no  insiijauable  didiculty  in  the  compUdion  of 
the  canal  in  six  years,  at  a cost  of  .filOO, 000,000,  by  utilizing  the  w<wk 
already  done  for  a distance  of  sixteen  ndles  from  C<don  ami  four  miles 
from  Panama.” 


64 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWAY 


COMPARATIVE  TABLE:  NICARAGU*A  AND  PANAMA  ROUTES. 


Nicaragua. 


Panama — Lock- 
level  plan. 


Natural  distance,  sea  to  sea miles. . 

Present  distance,  sea  to  sea miles. . 

Natural  altitude,  continental  pass feet.  . 


Same,  as  reduced  by  artificial  cutting,  .feet. . 

Miles  of  river  course,  Caribbean  side 

iVIiles  of  river  course  below  site  of  propo.sed 

dams 

Proportion  of  above  diverted  bj'  artificial  cut- 
ting  

Proposed  height,  summit  level feet. . 

Proposed  dams  to  create  summit  level 

Miles  of  proposed  summit  navigation 

Proposed  locks 

Excavation  (miles  originally  proposed) 

iNIiles  of  excavation  completed  for  lock  plan. 
Miles  of  excavation  to  be  completed  for  lock 

plan 

Terminal  harbors 

Plant  on  ground  for  completion. . 

Estimated  cost  to  complete  canals 


169.5 

169.5 

147 

147 

111 

32 


110 

1 

144.8 

7 

40.3 

0 


40.3 

None. 

$133,500,000 


42.5 

25 

260 

246 

31 


21 


10 

125 

1 

12  or  21 
6 

42.5 

15-20 

101 

Completed. 

All. 

$116,000,000' 


1 Tlie  adoption  of  tlie  lock-level  plan  will  avoid  several  miles  of  e.xcavation  originally 
contemplated  in  sea-level  plan.  2 U.  S.  Commission. 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWAY 
By  Elmer  L.  Corthell,  C.  E.,  D.  Sc.,  etc. 

The  Avoiid  is  still  discussing  the  question  of  the  best  route  by 
Avhicli  to  fiicilitate  interoceanic  traffic  bettveen  the  Atlantic  and 
the  Pacific.  Coniinercial  interests  now  center  on  three  routes — 
Panama,  Nicaragua,  and  Tehuantepec.  The  first  has  entailed 
enormous  exiienses  on  France  and  involved  many  of  its  promi- 
nent citizens  in  serious  conqdications ; the  second  has  been  spe- 
cially urged  on  the  United  States  as  the  Ameriean  route;  the 
third,  advocated  for  many  years  by  a great  genius,  has  been  ad- 
vanced to  snch  a stage  liy  Mexico  as  to  be  the  only  Avork  that 
jiresent  conditions  haA'e  justified. 

Addressing  ourselves  to  the  advantages  of  the  Tehuantepec 
route,  its  interesting  construetive,  commercial,  and  geographic 
features  must  be  prefaced  by  a brief  historical  resume.  The 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  PAILWAY 


(55 


Mexican  republic  in  1824  invited  proposals  to  open  the  isthmian 
route,  but  internal  dissensions  delayed  action.  In  1842  Santa 
Anna  granted  a charter  to  Jose  de  Garay,  but  the  only  tangible 
result  was  the  complete  survey  of  the  isthmus  by  Gaetano  iNIoro, 
an  able  Italian  engineer.  In  1850  efforts  to  negotiate  treaty 
rights  for  the  United  States  in  this  respect  failed ; but  by  the 
Tehuantepec  Railroad  Company,  chartered  l)y  Mexico,  exhaust- 
ive surveys  of  the  route  were  made,  under  the  direction  of  Gen. 
J.  G.  Barnard,  U.  S.  A.,  hy  Mr  J.  J.  Williams,  whose  report  of  1852 
is  the  most  complete  ever  published.  In  1868  the  Loui.siana 
Tehuantei)ec  Company  conducted  a large  trans])ortation  Imsi- 
ness  of  freight  and  passengers  over  a partly  built  Avagon  road, 
but  its  charter  of  1857  AA^as  soon  forfeited.  The  life  of  tlie  La 
Sere  grant  of  1867,  nullified  in  1879,  AA^as  marked  l)y  the  active 
interest  of  the  United  States  in  the  proldem  of  interoceanic  com- 
munication. In  1870  Commodore  Shufeldt,  sailing  Avith  an  able 
corj)s  of  army  and  navy  assistants,  exhaustively  surveyed  Te- 
lAuantepec  and  Nicaragua,  and  in  his  report  strongly  advocated 
the  Tehuantepec  route  for  its  many  adA'antages.  Mexico  coop- 
erated in  an  independent  survey  under  Sehor  M.  F.  Leal,  noAV 
her  secretary  of  })ublic  Avorks. 

It  Avas  President  Diaz  Avho  initiated  railroad  construction  and 
has  so  earnestly  persisted  in  efforts  to  open  an  international  route 
aenjss  this  isthmus.  Under  the  charter  of  1878  Mr  EdAvard 
Learned,  an  American,  constructed  22  miles,  receiving  a sul)sidy 
of  812,000  })er  mile,  but  in  1882  he  surrendered  his  charter  to 
tlie  Mexican  go A'ernment,  receiving,  l)y  arbitration  under  charter 
pnn'isions,  8125,000  in  Mexican  sih'er  and  81,500,000  in  gold. 
These  futile  i)riA'ate  effijrts  led  Mexico  to  undertake  the  AAork 
herself;  Imt  she  soon  rcA'erted  to  the  contract  .system,  and  undei- 
Mr  1).  Sanchez,  a Mexican,  some  miles  of  track  Avere  laid  on  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  sides  at  an  expense  of  81,484,185  in  Mexican 
silver.  In  1882  a loan  of  £2,700,000  AA'as  negotiate<l,  and  Mr  E. 
Me.Murdo,  of  London,  contracted  to  repair  the  track  built  and 
complete  the  road  pro|)cr.  Much  Avork  Avas  done,  but  Mr  Mc- 
Murdo  di(;d  and  the  contract  AA'as  abrogated,  tlu'  company  hav- 
ing failed  to  comply  Avith  its  terms.  Some  82,000,000  of  Mexican 
silvia*  remained,  and  Avith  this  sum  and  an  additional  ai)pro|)ri- 
ation  of  81,111,985  in  silver  Messrs  ( .'4.  Stanho])e,  J.  IL  llanip- 
son,  and  F.  L.  Corthell  completed  tin*  railroad  in  1804.  Mc'xico 
now  operates  it  and  is  spending  81,990.000  in  gold,  under  a con- 
tract with  Mr  S.  Ilermanos,  to  perfect  the  e<|uipment  and  (iidsh 
6 


6G 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWAY 


some  permanent  structures.  Since  1878,  including  the  last  con- 
tract and  excluding  interest,  Mexico  has  silent  on  the  route 
$16,000,00(1  in  gold  and  $2,670,170  in  Mexican  silver. 

The  completion  and  o})eration  of  this  railroad  will  greatly  fa- 
cilitate the  construction  of  the  ship  railway  when  the  time  arrives 
to  build  it,  as  it  ma}'  with  great  advantage  be  employed  to  dis- 
tribute supplies,  materials,  and  laborers  along  the  line  of  the  ship 
railway,  and  thus  be  used  as  an  auxiliary  line,  which  Mr  Eads 
had  intended  to  build  in  advance  for  this  pur^jose. 

Permit  me  now  to  state  the  part  taken  by  Mr  Eads  in  solving 
the  problem  of  interoceanic  transit.  In  a letter  to  the  New  York 
Tribune,  June  10,  1879,  he  advocated  a ship  railway  at  Panama 
instead  of  a shi}>  canal.  As  against  the  douldful  in-oject  of  a 
ship  canal  and  in  favor  of  a ship  railway"  he  said : 

“ My  own  studies  have  satisfied  me  of  the  entire  feasibility  of  such  tran.s- 
])ortation  by  railroad,  and  I have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  for  a sum 
not  e.xceeding  one-third  of  the  estimated  cost  of  the  canal,  namely,  about 
$.■>0,000,000,  the  largest  ships  which  enter  the  port  of  New  York  can  be 
transferred,  when  fully  loaded,  Avith  absolute  safety  across  the  isthmus, 
on  a railway  constructed  for  the  purpose,  within  twenty-four  hours  from 
the  moment  they  are  taken  in  charge  in  one  sea  until  they  are  delivered 
into  the  other,  ready  to  depart  on  their  journev.” 

I le  urged  the  construction  of  a ship  raihvay  on  De  Lesseps,  but 
the  great  Frenchman  said,  “A  canal  at  sea  level  or  nothing.”  He 
found  nothing,  at  a cost  not  of  $120,000,000,  but  of  $2.50,000,000. 

IMr  Eads  then  turned  his  attention  to  the  much  more  advan- 
tageous route  at  Tehuante'pee,  only  800  miles  from  the  Mississipj)! 
jetties,  and  it  was  my  good  fortune  to  1 >e  henceforth  associated  Avith 
him  until  his  death. 

The  concessions  of  INIay,  1881,  modihed  in  188.5,  provided  for 
the  construction  and  operation  of  the  ship  railAvay  for  99  years. 
Many  liberal  provisions  Avere  included,  such  as  the  donation  of 
about  2,700,000  acres  of  land,  ample  rights  of  Avay,  right  to  col- 
lect tonnage  and  Avharf  dues.  Far  the  most  valuable  grant  was 
the  guaranty  that  one-third  of  the  net  revenue  of  the  coinpaii}’’ 
for  fifteen  years  from  the  opening  of  the  raihvay  should  amount 
to  $1,2.50,000,  Avith  the  right  to  secure  a similar  guaranty  for 
$2,500,000  to  cover  the  remaining  tAvo-thirds  of  the  interest  from 
foreign  nations,  but  Avith  the  understanding  that  this  guaranty 
should  be  sought  from  the  United  States. 

IMr  Eads  made  the  plans  Avith  his  customary  skill,  and  after 
obtaining  the  approval  of  many  ijrominent  naval  architects  and 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  1' 


67 


Longitmle 

Sierra  'S.MartinWf. 


jJiV  o m,  ii  r e e n w i c h 


Ihi/fameca 


Paso  nuevo 


!pteapam^g°^°'eacaqu( 


oMnlnacan 


ACAYUCANg  J^tiparjj^ 


’^napa 


Almajroj 


v^sGaleras 


Incat 


I^Mari^ 


>/iuen] 


Chihuitan, 


JUCHITAN 


MAP  OP  THE 

Isthmus  of  Tehuantepec 

Showing  the  Houles  of  the 
National  Railroad  of  Tehuantepec 
and  the  iirnposed 
' EADS  SHIP  RAILWAY. 


-r  l/uusa- 
ISFKHIO'Hy 


uni:  m OH 


68 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWAY 


engineers  came  to  the  United  States  Congress  with  a hill  for  the 
charter  contemplated  in  the  Mexican  concession.  Scarcely  two 
months  later  the  promoters  of  the  Nicaragua  canal  came  before 
Congress  with  a somewhat  similar  measure,  and  the  two  projects 
antagonized  each  other  up  to  the  death  of  Mr  Eads,  in  1887. 

Meanwhile  the  most  exhaustive  survey's  were  made  and  a satis- 
hxctorw  route  was  laid  doAvn  between  the  ocean  terminals  of  the 
isthmus.  The  requirements  of  the  charter  as  to  beginning  con- 
struction work  were  fully  complied  with,  and  the  amount  of  con- 
struction work  done  l)y  Mr  Eads  will  he  best  appreciated  by  the 
statement  that  about  $500,000  in  gold  was  exi)ended. 

From  the  Tehuantepec  railroad  to  the  Panama  railroad,  meas- 
ured along  the  Pacific  coast,  is  al)out  1,200  statute  miles,  and  to 
the  Nicaragua  canal  aljout  800  miles.  All  commerce  from  these 
more  southern  routes  must  pass  directly  by  the  Pacific  terminus 
of  the  Tehuantepec  railroad  in  going  to  San  Francisco,  Oregon, 
Yokohama,  or  Hongkong.  On  the  Atlantic  side  Tehuantepec 
has  similar  advantages  in  distance  over  southern  routes.  The 
calculation  shows  that  on  eighteen  routes  to  be  affected  by  open- 
ing u])  Te]iuantc[)ec  the  aggregate  saving  in  distance  over  the 
present  cape  routes  and  Panama  is  over  125,000  miles  and  l)y  sail 
routes  nearly  200,000  miles. 

Mr  Thomas  J.  Vivian,  an  expert  statistician  of  the  Census  Office, 
was  engaged  to  make  a report  upon  the  probable  traffic  on  the 
proposed  ship  railway.  The  results  of  his  very  careful  and  ex- 
tended investigation  and  his  clear  analysis  and  groujnng  of  a 
great  number  of  facts  fully  justified  his  selection.  The  detailed 
estimates  show  that  in  1896  we  might  expect  a traffic  of  5,288,000 
tons  of  freight,  if  the  railroad  Avere  fully  equipped  and  sufficient 
time  had  elai)sed  to  develop  the  ncAV  commerce.  At  a rate  of  $2 
per  ton,  to  include  handling  and  transpoiding  from  ship  to  ship, 
and  adding  to  the  total  receipts  from  freight  the  passenger  re- 
ceipts, Ave  AA’ill  have  a gross  income  of  $10,576,000.  Estimating 
the  operating  expenses  at  60  per  cent  of  the  gross  receipts,  Avhich 
for  through  traffic  is  sufficient,  Ave  shall  have  a net  income  of 
$4,294,000.  The  estimates  of  traffic  for  a ship  raihvay,  in  the 
same  conservative  manner,  give  a total  traffic  for  1 896  of  7,263,000 
tons,  Avhich  at  $2  per  ton  Avbuld  yield  a gross  income  of  $14,526,000. 
Assuming  the  cost  per  ton  for  transporting  from  ocean  to  ocean, 
including  all  expenses,  at  50  cents,  the  net  income  Avould  be 
$11,044,000. 

The  cost  of  moving  steamships  through  any  canal  on  the 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  PAIL  Till  I' 


69 


American  istlimus  will  amount  to  more  than  the  cost  of  operat- 
ing the  ship  railway.  The  time  in  transit  through  the  restricted 
channels  and  locks  at  Nicaragua  will  be  twice  as  great  as  the 
time  I’equired  on  the  ship  railway,  and  will  eyen  exceed  the  time 
required  on  the  railroad  to  load  on  the  ears,  haul  across  the  isth- 
mus, and  reload  into  yessels.  The  Suez  canal,  immeasurably 
easier  to  maintain  than  any  canal  would  he  at  either  Panama  or 
Nicaragua,  cost  for  maintenance  and  working  in  1883  $2,784,869. 
A careful  study  of  the  cost  of  operating  the  ship  railway  gives  a 
safe  estimate  of  30  cents  per  ton.  I haye  no  dou1)t  that  with  a 
traffic  of  7,000,000  tons  this  is  ample,  but  I haye  decided  to  use 
50  cents  per  ton  in  the  present  estimate.  As  to  the  cost  of  pre- 
paring the  three  routes  under  comparison  for  a large  traffic,  the 
ship  railway,  fully  equipped  for  canning  yessels  weighing  10,000 
tons  and  7,000,000  tons  of  freight,  will  cost  on  a cash  basis  about 
$60,000,000.  I shall  not  estimate  the  cost  of  building  a ship  canal 
at  Panama  or  Nicaragua.  The  former,  parti}"  comjffeted — cer- 
tainly not  over  one-half — has  already  cost  probably  $250,000,000 
in  cash  and  the  plan  changed  from  a sea-level  canal  to  a lock 
canal,  the  practicability  of  wliich  is  extremely  doubtful,  due  to 
inadequate  water  supply  in  the  dry  season  ; and  as  to  Nicaragua, 
we  mu.st  rely  u))on  the  report,  soon  to  be  made  public,  of  the  able 
board  of  engineers  appointed  by  the  Presidcmt. 

4'he  presentation  of  the  subject  will  not  be  coni})lete  without 
a re.sume  of  the  jjroposed  method  of  carrying  shij)S  overland  by 
railway,  for  avc  are  aecustomed  to  regard  any  method  that  has 
not  the  sanction  of  use  as  visionary. 

Many  ])r()jects  for  commercial  sliii)  railways  have  been  made 
during  the  last  thirty  years.  In  1872  Brunlees  and  ^Vebb,  of 
Great  Britain,  made  plans  for  a sliii)  railway  across  the  American 
isthmus  at  Honduras,  which  would  haye  l)een  built  but  for  the 
financial  depression  that. soon  followed.  It  was  intended  to  trans- 
])ort  vessels  of  1,200  tons  register.  The  United  States  (‘ngineers 
have  designed  a steamboat  railway  to  avoid  tlie  dangerous  navi- 
gation of  The  Dalles  of  the  Columbia  river.  The  project  and 
]»lans  have  receivcsl  the  ai)])roval  of  Congr((Ss  and  an  api)ro])ria- 
tion  of  $100,000  lias  been  made  to  begin  work.  The  ship  railway 
of  Nova  Seotiii,  designed  by  Mr  H.  G.  C.  Ketchum,  Sir  .John 
Fowler,  and  Sir  Benjamin  baker,  to  connect  the  gulf  of  St.  Ivaw- 
rence  with  the  hay  of  Fundy,  d(‘serv(!s  special  attention,  as  it  is 
nearly  eonipleh'd.  ( )f  the  $5,500,000  required,  all  hut  $1 ,500,000 
has  been  expended.  The  line  is  about  17  miles  long,  and  by- 


70 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWA  Y 


draulic  lifts  are  used  for  raising  the  vessels.  The  platform  on 
Avhich  the  car  and  vessel  rest  is  about  40  feet  wide.  There  are 
20  hydraulic  presses,  each  25  inches  in  diameter,  with  a stroke 
of  40  feet,  and  the  sy.stem  is  capable  of  lifting  a vessel  carrying 
1,000  tons  of  cargo.  There  are  two  tracks  of  standard  gauge, 
18-foot  centers,  with  rails  weighing  110  pounds  per  linear  }’ard. 
This  ship  railway  would  now  Ije  in  operation  hut  for  the  lapi^e 


MAP  SHOWING  THE  LOCATION  OF  THE  CHIGNECTO  SHIP  RAILWAY,  TO  CONNECT  THE 
GULF  OF  ST.  LAWRENCE  AND  THE  BAY  OF  FUNDY. 


of  the  government  charter  during  a tem])orary  failure  of  funds 
for  construction.  It  is  confidently  expected  that  a rencAval  of 
the  charter  and  an  extension  of  time  will  soon  l)e  granted.  The 
hopes  of  all  advocates  of  ship-railway  methods  are  centered  in 
this  comparatively  small  railway  at  C'hignecto. 

The  main  features  of  the  ship  railway  designed  for  the  Tehuan- 
tepec isthmus  are  terminal  docks  jirovided  with  a great  lifting 
steel  pontoon,  which  was  sunken  with  the  ship  carriage  to  the- 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAILWAY 


71 


bottom  of  a dock,  guided  in  its  movements  b}'’  a large  niimlier  of 
vertical  C}dinders.  The  ship  is  then  tloated  in  over  the  carriage 
and  placed  in  exact  position,  the  pontoon  is  pmni)ed  out,  and 
the  continuous  keel  block  comes  in  contact  with  the  keel  of  the 
vessel,  Avhen  a system  of  hydraulic  rams  working  through  the 
deck  of  the  caisson  pushes  the  keel  block  closel}"  against  the  keel 
and  also  a large  number  of  1 >ilge  blocks  and  side  supports  against 
the  side  of  the  vessel.  Each  one  moving  up  vertically  comes  in 
contact  with  the  ship,  Avhen  the  adjustable  surfaces  of  each  sup- 
port, which  is  faced  with  rubber,  take  the  form  of  the  vessel  by 
means  of  a universal  hinged  joint.  The  Aveight  of  the  vessel  is 
thus  uniformily  distributed,  according  to  the  principle  on  Avhich 
the  hydraulic  system  Avas  designed. 

The  locomotives  are  then  coupled  ou  and  the  vessel  hauled  to 
the  opposite  terminal,  Avhere  it  is  set  afloat  by  exactly  the  reverse 
process.  At  tAvo  points  on  the  isthmus  it  becomes  necessary,  in 
order  to  obtain  grades  of  not  more  than  1 per  cent  and  to  secure 
a practically  straight  line,  to  arrange  for  an  abrupt  change  of 
direction,  Avhich  is  done  by  a great  floating  turntable,  simply  a 
hollow  pontoon  grounded  on  the  bottom  of  a masonry  basin 
Avhen  the  car  is  hauled  upon  it,  and  then  raised  slightly  upon  its 
bearings  by  pumping  Avater  into  the  basin  and  made  to  revolve 
around  a vertical  central  axis  or  guide  until  it  takes  the  neAV 
direction. 

There  is  an  important  advantage  Avhich  the  ship  railAvays  have 
OA'er  the  ship  canals  in  the  American  isthmus,  particularly  in  such 
rainy  portions  of  it  as  Panama  and  Nicaragua,  the  rainfall  at  the 
latter  place  ranging  from  200  inches  to  300  inches  per  annum. 
The  adA'antage  lies  in  the  fact  that  a ship  raihvay  is  ahvays  alcove 
the  floods,  Avhile  the  canal  is  alAVays  IacIoav  them  and  menaced  at 
all  times  by  most  serious  dangers. 

The  Nicaragua  route  has  been  considered  the  American  route. 
If  it  is  so,  then  the  Tehuantc])ec  route  is  still  more  American  in 
reference  to  all  commercial  features,  and  certainly  is  of  more  im- 
])ortance  to  us  from  a strategic  point  of  vicAV  than  any  route  out 
of  the  piril)bean. 

The  cl(;ar  and  decided  vieAA's  of  Admiral  Shufeldt  upon  its  ad- 
A’antages  Avere  exjtresscd  as  folloAvs: 

“ Kadi  iHtliimiH  rinoH  into  importance  as  it  lies  ncar(*r  tlic  center  of 
American  political  and  commercial  inlluence,  and  the  intrin.sic  value  of 
this  eminently  national  work  oii^dit  to  he  hased  niion  the  inver.«(*  ratio  of 
the  difitance  from  that  center.  A canal  throne'll  the  isthmn.s  of  Telman- 


THE  TEHUANTEPEC  SHIP  RAIUVAY 


72 

tepee  is  an  extension  of  the  ^Mississippi  river  to  the  Pacific  ocean.  It 
converts  tlie  gulf  of  IMexico  into  an  American  lake.  In  time  of  war  it 
closes  that  gulf  to  all  enemies.  It  is  the  only  route  whicli  our  Govern- 
ment can  control.  So  to  sj^eak,  it  renders  our  own  territory  circum- 
navigable.  It  brings  New  Orleans  1,400  nautical  miles  nearer  to  San 
Francisco  than  a canal  via  Darien.” 

The  Tehuantepec  route  can  Ije  made  more  easily  accessible  to 
the  United  States  and  Mexico  by  railroad,  over  which  armies  and 
munitions  of  war  can  he  quickly  trans})orted.  The  gulf  of  Mexico 
is  clear  of  foreign  complications,  belongs  to  these  two  great  re- 
})uhlics  of  the  Ncav  M’orld,  and  wdien  Cuba  shall  have  become  a 
State  of  the  Union,  as  it  may  in  the  near  future,  we  shall  hold 
tlie  entire  circuit  of  this  great  sea.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  you 
look  upon  any  Englisli  map  of  the  ('aril)bean  sea  you  will  notice 
that  this  great  j)ower  holds  every  entrance  to  it.  Belonging  to 
(treat  Britain  there  are  about  twenty-five  ditferent  countries  and 
islands,  from  British  Guiana  on  the  east  to  British  Honduras  on 
tlie  ivest,  which  lying  directly  in  front  of  Panama  and  Nicaragua 
guard  all  ajiproach  to  them.  This  important  fact  is  not  suffi- 
ciently appreciated  in  our  plans  for  making  the  Nicaragua  canal 
a United  States  canal,  to  he  controlled,  fortified,  and  defended 
by  our  com])aratively  small  nav}"  against  the  preponderating 
naval  ]>owers  of  Eunqie. 

Pn'sident  Diaz  is  so  fully  convinced  of  the  superior  advantages 
of  even  an  ordinal’}'  railroad  at  Tehuantejiec  over  any  other  route 
located  at  more  southerly  ])oints  that,  in  the  face  of  the  comstant 
menace  of  the  Nicaragua  jiroject,  he  has  gone  forward,  in  spite 
of  stringent  financial  conditions  in  IMexico,  to  complete  the 
National  Railroad  of  Tehuantepec,  and  nmv  that  it  is  completed 
to  ])rovide  ade(piate  harbor  terminal  facilities  and  equipment  for 
a large  interoceanic  traffic.  He  looks  upon  the  consummation 
of  this  great  commercial  undertaking  as  one  of  the  most  benefi- 
cent works  of  his  long  and  glorious  administration. 

[Note.— The  foregoing  ariicle  is  an  abstract  of  a lecture  delivered  before  the  National 
Geographic  Society,  November  22,  189.>.  The  lecture  was  considered  so  important  a 
contribution  to  the  literature  of  interoceanic  communication  that  it  has  been  printed 
in  full  as  a public  document  by  order  of  the  Senate.  See  Senate  Document  No.  34,  54th 
Congress,  1st  Session.] 


THE  PRESENT  STATE  OF  THE  NICARAGUA  CANAL 


By  General  A.  W.  Greely, 

Chief  Signal  Officer,  United  States  Army 

The  economic,  physical,  political,  and  strategic  advantages  of 
the  Nicaragua  canal  have  been  so  fully  dwelt  upon  that  their 
• presentation  here  is  not  called  for,  especially  in  view  of  the  forth- 
coming report  to  Congress  of  the  National  Commission  on  this 
interoceanic  waterway.  This  article  is  viewed  as  supjdementarv 
to  the  articles  on  the  Panama  Canal  Route  and  the  Tehuantepec 
Ship  Railway,  in  order  that  the  readers  of  The  National  Geo- 
graphic Magazine  may  know  the  amount  of  work  done  on  the 
Nicaragua  canal  to  date,  its  possible  cost  as  given  by  the  corpo- 
ration engineers,  and  also  as  estimated  by  the  National  Commis- 
sion, which  latter  forecast  b}'-  the  press  is  subject  to  correction. 
The  following  summaiy  covers  the  main  features  of  the  work. 

The  concession  for  the  canal  was  granted  by  Nicaragua  to  tbe 
IMaritime  Canal  Company  of  Nicaragua,  incori)orated  under  act 
of  Congress  February  20,  1889,  which  comjiany  reports  annu- 
ally to  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior.  Statements  relative  to 
work  done  are  drawn  from  its  ro})ort  of  Decemlier  3,  1892.  This 
corporation  contracted  with  the  Nicaragua  Construction  Com- 
I)any  for  the  construction  of  the  canal.  In  the  s})ring  of  1889 
detailed  surveys  of  canal,  locks,  harbors,  etc.,  were  com])letcd, 
the  final  location  of  the  route  was  jiractically  determined,  and, 
after  jn-eliminary  oi)crations,  the  work  of  actual  construction 
began  October  9,  1889.  To  restore  Greytown  harbor  a break- 
water extending  1,000  feet  into  tbe  ocean  was  built  and  lilled 
in  with  hrush  mattresses,  rock,  and  hydraulic-cement  concrete. 
A channel  of  10  feet  formed  naturally,  which  was  increased  by 
dredging  to  15  feet,  and  thus  maintained  until  tin*  accretions  to 
the  beach  on  the  windward  side  of  the  jetty  reaehed  its  outward 
extremity,  when  the  sand  ])assed  to  leeward  and  partially  clos(‘(l 
the  new  entrance.  Five  groU])S  of  ])erman(‘nt  buildings  were 
erected  near  San  Juan,  ineluding  olliees,  hospitals,  storehouses, 
etc.,  which  covered  an  area  of  1 i{  acres.  In  addition,  freight 
wharves,  machine  sho|»s,  etc.,  were  Imilt,  and  the  more  impoi- 


7.t 


74  THE  PRESENT  STATE  OF  THE  NICARAGUA  CANAL 


taut  estal)lishments  were  eoniieeted  by  tramway.  A clearing 
4()8  feet  wide  was  made  through  the  dense  forest  growth  from 
Gi'eytown  inland  a distance  of  10  miles,  and  a similar  clearing 
of  0 miles  was  made  to  the  west  of  Lake  Nicaragua.  A telegrapli 
line  of  60  miles  extended  inland  to  Castillo,  and  this  system  was 
su[)plemented  by  telephonic  side  service.  A harbor  wharf  260 
feet  long  was  built  and  equij)ped  with  modern  steam  conveniences 
for  handling  freight.  A railway  was  constructed  from  Greytown 
a distance  of  12  miles,  with  sidings,  and  was  equipped  with  four 
locomotives,  tifty  ears,  and  suitable  modern  apparatus  for  rail- 
way and  canal  construction.  The  road  built  is  of  the  most  diffi- 
cult character,  as  it  traverses  for  6 miles  a swamp  considered 
impassable,  where  a large  amount  of  corduiw  and  fill-work  was 
re(|uired.  The  railwa}’  line  was  surve}'ed  to  Ochoa  and  its  loca- 
tion determined,  as  well  as  from  Lake  Nicaragua  to  the  Pacific. 

The  contractors  secured  for  their  work  the  plant  of  the  Amer- 
ican Dredging  Comi)any,  formerly  used  at  Panama,  consisting  of 
seven  ])owerful  dredges,  two  tugs,  twenty  lighters,  pumps,  etc. 
Dredging  commenced  Avest  of  Gre^down  harbor  in  1890,  and 
there  was  oi)ene'd  to  a point  well  inland — 1}  miles — a channel  17 
feet  deep  and  from  150  to  230  feet  Avide.  The  Machuca  rapids, 
San  Juan  riA'er,  Avere  materially  improved  for  steamboat  naAuga- 
tion.  In  addition  to  this,  exhaustive  surveys  and  borings  Avere 
made  in  connection  Avith  the  Ochoa  dam,  I^a  Flor  dam,  and  other 
important  i)oints  on  the  route.  The  superior  employes  Avere 
American,  Avhile  the  unskilled  labor  Avas  performed  by  natives 
of  Central  America  and  by  Jamaica  negroes.  The  health  of  the 
emploves  has  been  unusually  good,  the  total  deaths  in  three 
years  giving  a rate  of  1.48  per  cent  of  cases  treated. 

On  November  9,  1890,  the  Nicaraguan  government  officially 
declared  that  the  company  had  complied  Avith  the  article  requir- 
ing an  expenditure  of  $2,000,000  during  the  first  year  of  Avork, 
thus  confirming  for  a term  of  ten  years  the  company’s  conces- 
sionaiy  rights.  The  financial  troubles  of  1893  first  compelled 
the  Nicaragua  Canal  Construction  Company,  under  contract  to 
build  the  canal,  to  limit  its  expenditures  to  the  preservation  of 
its  ])lant,  and  finally  to  suspend  all  payments,  Avhich  resulted  in 
a receiver  l)eing  appointed  b}'  a United  States  court  in  August, 
1893.  The  reconstruction  of  the  contracting  company  has  been 
accomplished,  under  the  name  of  the  Nicaragua  Company,  and 
it  is  noAV  making  preparations  for  resuming  AVork  on  the  canal. 

MeanAvhile  the  United  States  Senate,  in  connection  Avith  bills 


THE  PRESENT  STATE  OF  THE  NICARAGUA  CANAL 


lO 

for  aiding  the  construction  of  this  canal,  has  carefully  considered 
the  whole  subject,  including  the  operations  of  the  cor[>orations 
mentioned  above.  Three  favorable  reports  have  Ijeen  made — two 
by  iNlr  Sherman,  No.  1944,  Fifty-first  Congress,  Second  Session, 
and  No.  1142,  Fifty-first  Congress,  Second  Session.  The  last,  by 
INlr  IMorgan,  No.  331,  Fifty-second  Congress,  Second  Session,  on 
April  14.  1894,  adopts  and  reprints  the  first  two  reports.  It 
appears  that  the  INIaritime  Canal  Company  expended  between 
October  5, 1889,  and  October  7, 1890,  S3,099,971,and  that  the  total 
expenditures  of  the  construction  compan}^  aggregate  $4,451,508. 

The  total  length  of  the  canal  is  to  be  169.45  miles,  of  which 
26.78  miles  will  be  excavated  canal  and  142.67  free  navigation, 
and  there  will  be  three  locks  on  each  side  of  Lake  Nicaragua. 
The  cost  of  the  canal,  equipped  for  full  service  and  extending  to 
deep  water  in  both  oceans  through  completed  harbors,  was  esti- 
mated by  Chief  Engineer  A.  G.  Menocal  at  $65,084,176,  includ- 
ing 25  per  cent  for  contingencies.  These  estimates  were  increased 
l)V  a revisionary  board  of  five  distinguished  engineers — J.  Bogart, 
E.  T.  D.  Myers,  A.  i\I.  Wellington,  H.  A.  Hitchcock,  and  C.  T. 
Harvey — to  $73,166,308,  which  amount  other  special  contingen- 
cies augmented  to  $87,799,570;  interest  charges  would  raise  the 
grand  total  to  $100,000,000.  The  Senate  committee  states,  how- 
ever, that  all  work  done  has  fallen  within  ]\Ir  Menocal ’s  estimates. 
The  reports  dwell  upon  the  value  of  this  interoceanic  waterway 
to  the  United  States,  strategically,  politically,  and  also  econom- 
ically. The  committee  })laced  the  outside  limit  of  the  cost  of  the 
Nicaragua  canal  at  $100,000,000,  and  it  therefore  recommended 
that  the  United  States  guarantee  $70,000,000  of  3 per  cent  bonds, 
which  would  vest  the  United  States  with  the  ownership  of  70 
})er  cent  of  the  entire  capital  stock. 

The  final  outcome  of  this  report  was  the  authorization  by  Con- 
gre.ss  of  the  ai>pointment  of  a commission  of  engineers  to  examine 
and  report  upon  the  route  and  surve3's  of  the  Nicaragua  canal. 

This  commission,  consisting  of  Col.  \\h  P.  Ludlow,  U.  S.  Arm}' ; 
M.  T.  E ndicott,  U.  S.  Navy,  and  Alfred  Noble,  in  the  summer  of 
1895  examined  the  route  and  such  of  the  work  as  had  been  done, 
ami  submitted  its  report  to  the  President,  by  whom  it  will  be 
transmitted  to  the  ])resent  Congress.  44ic  character  and  sub- 
stance of  the  report  have  not  been  odiciall}'  made  public. 

fi'he  New  York  Herald  of  November  25,  1895,  put  forth  de- 
tailed accounts  of  the  ri“])ort,  which  lack  ollieial  eonlirmation. 
'I'he  salient  le'atures  of  this  article  set  forth  that  the  commission 


76  THE  PRESENT  STATE  OF  THE  NICARAGEA  CANAL 


lias  increased  the  canal  company’s  estimate  of  869,893,660  to  a 
“ provisional  ” estimate  of  8133.472,893.  Anthoritative  estimates 
can  be  obtained  only  at  the  cost  of  8250,000  for  an  exhaustive 
survey  covering  two  dry  seasons.  The  present  location  from 
Orevtown  to  Brito  is  practically  condemned,  and  it  is  suggested 
that  the  entrance  to  Greytown  harbor  should  he  moved  east- 
Avard  and  its  depth  increased  to  6 fathoms ; that  the  Brito  harbor 
should  he  moved  southeastAvard  and  its  breakwater  extended  con- 
sideraldy,  and  that  the  canal  should  he  moved  south  of  Bernard 
lagoon  and  he  straightened,  etc.  The  proposed  rock-tilled  dam 
at  Ochoa,  across  a iioAverful  river  and  on  a sand  foundation,  pre- 
sents grave  difficulties,  and  should  be  Imilt  only  after  careful 
study;  it  should  })referal)ly  be  replaced  by  a masonry  structure. 
The  ])hysical  conditions  and  regimen  of  San  Juan  river  and  Lake 
Nicaragua  should  be  carefully  studied;  the  proposed  channel 
e.xcavated  to  Avidths  varying  from  250  to  400  feet  instead  of  from 
125  to  150  feet ; all  locks  should  be  Avidened  to  80  feet,  so  as  to 
l)ermit  the  i>assage  of  Avar  A'essels;  rainfall  ohseiwations  should  be 
instituted  OA'er  the  Avhole  route;  all  streams  be  gauged,  and  full 
e.\j)lorations  of  alternatiA’e  routes  be  made  in  the  eastern  diA'ision. 

These  recommendations  of  the  commission  for  a deeper  and 
Avider  channel,  for  the  construction  of  pa.ssing  points,  a reduc- 
tion in  lock-lift,  more  cai)acious  and  deeper  harbors,  and  a more 
stable  construction,  are  in  the  direction  of  desirable  improA’e- 
ments,  Avhich,  hoAVCA'er.  ])ractieally  double  the  cost  of  the  canal. 

Even  should  these  enhanced  estimates  be  correct,  and  should 
the  conseiwatiA'e  judgment  of  the  commission  he  fully  indorsed 
by  other  engineers,  it  remains  to  l)e  seen  Avhether  a feAV  millions 
of  dollars,  more  or  le.ss,  shall  stand  in  the  AA'ay  of  securing  an  inter- 
oceanic  communication  Avhich  the  Senate  committee  has  said  “ is 
indispensable  to  our  physical  and  political  geography  and  to  the 
])ro{>er  care*  of  the  Government  for  the  protection  and  prosperity 
of  our  Pacific  coasts.” 

In  A’icw  of  the  national  intere.st  taken  in  this  question,  and 
especially  at  this  juncture,  it  Avould  seem  that  no  backAvard  step 
should  he  taken  that  Avould  tend  to  Aveaken  the  poAver  and  in- 
fluence of  the  United  States  as  the  dominating  factor  in  the  Avel- 
fore  of  the  American  continents.  From  an  American  standpoint 
this  canal  seems  to  he  a necessity,  not  only  for  our  oavu  com- 
mercial interests  and  national  protection,  but  also  as  part  of  our 
‘‘  i>ul)lic  policy  of  uniting  the  republics  of  America  by  Avorks  of 
])eaceful  deA'elopment.” 


EXPLORATIONS  BY  THE  BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN 
ETHNOLOGY  IN  1895 


By  W J McGee 

The  most  extended  exploratory  work  of  the  year  was  that  of 
an  expedition  in  charge  of  the  writer  through  the  territory  occu- 
pied by  the  Papago  Indians  in  Arizona  and  Sonora,  and  by  tlie 
Seri  Indians  in  western  Sonora  and  on  Tibnron  and  Alcatraz 
islands,  in  the  gulf  of  California.  During  1894  an  expedition 
was  carried  through  Papagueria  and  into  the  borderland  of  the 
Seri  country  for  the  ])urpose  of  making  collections  among  the 
Indians  of  both  tril)es,  and  the  object  of  the  expedition  of  1895 
was  to  obtain  supplemental  information  concerning  the  social 
organization  of  the  Papago  Indians,  but  especially  to  explore  the 
territoiy  of  the  Seri  and  to  make  studies  of  and  collections  repre- 
senting the  maritime  habits  of  these  Indians.  The  part}"  out- 
fitted in  Tucson  early  in  November,  cro.ssed  the  frontier  at  Sasahe, 
and  spent  three  weeks  in  visiting  the  villages  of  Papagueria  and 
in  surveying  extensive  prehistoric  works  left  by  a people  of  some- 
what advanced  culture,  probably  the  ancestors  of  the  modern 
Papago.  Mr  Millard  D.  Johnson,  who  formed  one  of  the  party, 
carried  forward  a planetable  survey,  which  will  yield  the  first 
trirstworthy  map  of  the  region.  Entering  the  Seri  territory  early 
in  December,  the  party  explored  the  area  lying  west  of  Bacuachi 
river  and  the  delta  of  Sonora  river,  making  a station  on  the 
highe.st  point  (about  5,000  feet)  in  the  range  provisionally  desig- 
nated the  Seri  mountains,  and  afterward  embarked  in  a small 
boat  in  that  ])ortion  of  the  gulf  of  California  commonly  map])ed 
as  Kino  bay,  coasted  to  the  strait  El  Infiernillo,  and  crossed  over 
to  an<l  ex|)l(^red  and  surveyed  Tiburon  island,  ddie  country  of 
the  Seri  Indians  was  found  to  be  clearly  set  apart  by  natural 
features  from  the  body  of  Sonora.  Tiburon  island  is  separated 
by  a turbulent  strait  from  the  mainland,  while  the  mountainous 
maiidand  area  contiguous  to  the  strait  is  still  more  elh'ctively 
barred  fnjin  interior  Sonora  by  a broad  desert  zone  of  saline 
playas  and  sand  dunes  something  like  the  Mojave  desert  of  Cali- 
fornia; indeed,  some  of  the  obs(‘rvations  indicate  that  this  zone 


77 


78 


EXPLORATIONS  BY  THE 


lies  below  sea  level,  and  that  it  was  during  recent  geologic  times 
cut  off  from  the  gulf  by  the  delta  of  Sonora  river  and  afterward 
desiccated  by  eva})oration.  The  territory  bounded  by  this  desert 
barrier  is  mountainous,  yet  exceedingly  arid  ; it  is  two  or  three 
thousand  square  miles  in  area,  including  about  five  hundred 
sciuare  miles  comprised  in  Tiburon  island.  The  territory  is 
claimed  and  exclusively  held  by  the  Seri  Indians,  a distinct 
aboriginal  stock,  who  have  been  at  war  with  all  other  peoples 
almost  constantly  from  time  immemorial  and  are  now  reduced  to 
some  400  in  numl>er.  These  Indians  are  of  especial  interest  from 
tlieir  isolation,  from  a more  warlike  disposition  and  a more  primi- 
tive culture  than  api)car  among  otlier  known  people  of  North 
America,  and  from  a variety  of  features  connected  with  these 
characteristics.  They  are  of  si)lendid  physique,  with  notably 
dark  skin  ; they  live  chiefiy  on  the  tiesh  of  turtles  and  other  ma- 
rine (jrganisms,  })artly  on  game  and  wild  fruits,  most  of  their 
food  being  eaten  raw  ; they  are  without  agriculture,  and  have  no 
domestic  animals  save  a few  dogs ; their  habitations  are  tiinrsy 
lodges  of  shrubbery  and  turtle  shells;  the}'  are  scantily  clotlied, 
chiefiy  in  pelican  skins  ; they  navigate  their  waters  by  means  of 
the  balsa,  manufacture  simj)le  baskets  and  a distinctive  pottery, 
and  make  efficient  use  of  excellent  l>ows  and  arrows,  yet  their 
stone  art  is  l)elow  the  stage  commonly  called  paleolithic;  and 
they  have  a singular  marriage  custom  tending  to  pert)etuate  their 
isolation.  No  i)rehistoric  works,  save  such  as  they  now  produce, 
are  found  in  their  territory.  While  the  Indians  fled  at  the  ap- 
})roach  of  the  party,  considerable  collections  were  made  in  the 
rancherias  they  had  just  deserted,  the  articles  designed  for  barter 
with  them  being  left  in  exchange.  In  addition  to  the  ethnologic 
researches  and  ma])ping,  somewhat  careful  studies  were  made  of 
the  flora,  fauna,  and  geologic  development  of  the  entire  area  trav- 
ersed by  the  expedition.  The  exploration  of  the  Seri  country, 
hitherto  unknown  except  as  to  the  coast,  was  attended  with  some 
risk  and  hardship,  due  chiefly  to  dearth  of  water,  but  was  with- 
out casualty. 

In  December,  1894,  IMr  James  Mooney  began  a special  study  of 
tlie  Kiowa  Indians  in  Oklahoma.  He  recently  returned  from  the 
field,  after  nearly  ten  months  of  successful  Avork.  The  KioAva 
Indians  j)0ssess  a highly  interesting  calendar  system  of  strictly 
aboriginal  character,  and  this  system  Avas  one  of  the  subjects  of 
Mr  Mooney’s  researches.  Leading  personages  of  the  tribe  keep 
a sort  of  year  book  in  Avhich  the  principal  events  of  the  seasons 


BURE  A V OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY  IN  1S95 


7<> 


are  recorded  in  rude  conventional  s^unbols,  the  years  being  indi- 
cated by  conspicuous  symbols  for  the  winter  season,  in  conse- 
cpienceof  which  the  records  are  sometimes  denominated  “ winter 
counts.”  IMr  Mooney  Avas  able  to  collect  a considerable  number 
of  these  calendars,  which  are  of  special  interest  as  records  of  the 
history  and  migrations  of  the  tribe  during  the  last  half  century. 
From  the  records  and  from  accompanying  verbal  statements, 
carefully  checked  by  comparing  different  accounts,  it  is  learned 
that  this  tribe  of  the  plains  is  among  the  widest  wanderers  of 
their  race.  Although  their  original  hal)itat  was  in  the  middle 
plains,  they  were  accustomed  to  send  parties  on  trading  and  ma- 
rauding expeditions  eastward  into  the  trans-Mississippi  forests, 
Avestward  into  and  be3''ond  the  Rocky  mountains,  nortliAvard  to 
the  SaskatcheAA'an,  and  soutliAvard  over  the  deserts  of  northern 
Mexico  as  far  as  Durango,  and  even  across  tlie  Sierra  Madre  to 
the  vicinity  of  the  Pacific,  near  Mazatlan.  These  records  of  tlie 
KioAva  calendars  explain  the  Avide  distribution  of  primitive  art 
products  over  the  United  States  and  corroborate  the  evidence  of 
Avidely  scattered  obsidian,  copper,  sea  shells,  etc.,  as  to  the  extent 
of  aboriginal  commerce. 

A notalffe  expedition  of  the  season  Avas  that  of  Dr  .J.  M^alter 
FeAAdces,Avho  explored  the  little-knoAvn  canyons  of  the  Mogollon 
escar])inent  in  central  Arizona  and  aftei’Avard  made  extensive 
collections  of  prehistoric  pottery  near  Kearns  canyon.  While  on 
the  headwaters  of  the  Rio  Verde,  along  the  face  of  the  great  escar])- 
ment,  he  Avas  so  fortunate  as  to  discover  extensive  ruins  of  clitf- 
bouses,  some  of  Avhich  shoAved  no  evidence  of  exploration,  and 
from  these  considerable  collections  of  interesting  archeologic  ma- 
terial Avere  made.  His  principal  results  AA^ere  obtained  at  the 
preliistoric  pueblo  of  Sikyatki,  near  Kearns  canyon.  Here,  in 
com])an}'  Avith  Mr  F.  ^\^  Hodge,  he  excavated  a ruin  known  from 
tradition, as  Avell  as  from  the  collection  of  objects  discovered, 
to  be  prehistoric.  A large  quantity  of  finely  decorated  pottery 
AA’ith  a.ssociated  objects  aa^is  obtained.  The  pt)ttery  includes 
many  examples  of  the  finest  grade  of  aboriginal  work  in  texture, 
finisli,  and  decoration.  The  collection,  Avhich  com[)rises  nearly 
7IH)  eartheiiAvare  utensils,  beside  numerous  objects  of  Avood,  stone, 
bone,  etc.,  has  been  brought  to  Washington  and  is  now  in  tlie 
National  Museum.  Competent  judges  are  of  opinion  that  it  is 
the  finest  single  collection  of  prehistoric  pottery  thus  far  made 
on  the  Western  Hemisphere. 

After  leaA’ing  Sikyatki  .Mr  Hodge  made  a tour  of  the  pueblos 


80 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


of  New  Mexico,  beginning  at  Zuni,  then  visiting  Laguna  and 
Acoma,  and  in  turn  the  villages  scattered  along  the  upper  Rio- 
Grande  and  tributar}’  valleys  from  Isleta  to  Taos.  The  primary 
object  of  this  reconnoissance  was  the  identification  of  the  namea 
of  certain  “ jwovinces,”  tribes,  and  pueblos  mentioned  by  Spanish 
explorers  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  and  the  col- 
lection of  data  relating  to  the  ethnology,  and  especially  to  the 
kinship  systems,  of  the  Pueblos,  of  which  comparatively  little 
has  hitherto  been  known.  In  these  investigations  Mr  Hodge  was 
very  successful,  for  except  among  the  Tiwa  he  was  enalded  to 
obtain  complete  records  of  all  the  clans,  both  existing  and  ex- 
tinct, and  from  all  the  tribes  (including  the  Pecos,  of  whom  there 
are  but  two  survivors)  much  valuable  data  which  will  contribute 
to  the  identification  of  tribal  and  village  names  of  Spanish  record, 
as  well  as  bearing  on  their  cosmogony,  migrations,  etc.  He  also 
succeeded  in  locating  on  the  Rio  Grande  the  village  whence  the 
llano  people  of  Tusayan  migrated  nearl}^  two  centuries  ago;  in 
determining  rjuite  clearly  that  the  pueblos  of  Kawaika  and  Pai- 
yupki  at  Tusayan  were  abandoned  during  the  historic  period, 
the  inhabitants  moving  to  Laguna  and  Sandia  respectively,  and 
that  de.scent  among  the  Tewa  people,  at  least  in  Xambe,  Santa 
,;..Clara,  and  Tesuque,  is  agnatic,  while  among  all  other  ^meblos 
descent  is  invariably  in  the  line  of  the  mother.  These  and  many 
otlier  problems  which  in  the  past  have  puzzled  ethnologists  not 
a little  Mr  Hodge  has  at  last  been  able  to  solve. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 

TJie  Ydloustone  National  Park:  Historical  and  descriptive.  Illustrated 
with  maps,  views,  and  portraits.  By  Hiram  ^lartin  Chittenden,  Cap- 
tain, Corps  of  Engineere,  U.  S.  A.  Pp.  397.  Cincinnati:  The  Robert 
Clarke  Company.  1895.  §1.. 50  net. 

This  book  comprises  three  parts,  “Historical,”  “Description,”  and 
“Tiie  Future.”  The  first  contains  an  excellent  summary  of  the  early 
trappers’  tales  regarding  this  region,  showing,  as  is  well  known,  that  they 
were  not  unacquainted  with  its  marvels.  It  recounts  the  Washburn  and 
Hayden  expedition.s,  the  legislation  e.stablishing  the  National  Park,  and 
the  numerous  army  expeditions  which  for  exploration  or  pleasure  have 
traversed  it.  . It  summarizes  also  the  administration  of  the  park.  The 
second  part  describes  rather  inadequately  the  topography,  geology,  fauna 
and  flora  of  the  region,  and  then,  in  the  ordinary  guide-book  form,  de- 
scribes “a  tour  of  the  park.”  The  third  part,  which  is  very  brief,  only 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


81 


18  pages  in  length,  is  devoted  mainly  to  re-stating  the  well-known  argu- 
ments against  permitting  the  entrance  of  railroads.  The  book  closes  with 
a series  of  appendices  comprising  a list  of  geographic  names,  with  their 
origin,  the  legislation  affecting  the  park  and  rules  for  its  administration, 
a statement  of  appropriations  for  its  maintenance,  a list  of  its  superin- 
tendents, and  a bibliography.  It  is  difficult  to  place  this  book.  It  ranks 
for  above  the  ordinary  guide-book,  yet  as  a history  its  value  is  lessened 
b\'  the  military  bias  of  the  writer,  and  as  a geographic  work,  descrij^tive 
of  this  interesting  region,  it  may  be  characterized  by  the  statement  tliat 
onh’  14  pages  are  devoted  to  its  geography  and  geology,  13  to  geysers  and 
hot  springs,  and  11  to  the  native  life  of  the  region.  The  book  is  profusely 
illustrated  with  beautiful  cuts,  and  contains  several  maps,  but  the  latter 
are  not  in  keeping  with  the  typography  and  with  the  other  illustrations. 

Sixteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey.  Part  III : 
^lineral  Resources  of  the  United  States,  1894,  ^Metallic  products.  Pp. 
648.  Washington,  1895. 

It  is  not  easy  to  recognize  in  the  handsome  royal  octavo  volume  before 
us  the  mineral  report  of  the  Geological  Survey,  which  has  hitherto  ap- 
peared in  so  much  less  attractive  a form.  Although  Dr  Day’s  reports  no 
longer  constitute  a series  by  themselves,  they  cannot  be  said  to  have  lost 
even  in  imlividuality,  for  the  new  volume  is  so  profusely  illustrated  with 
maps  and  diagrams  and  is  in  almost  every  other  respect  so  distinctly 
superior  to  its  predecessors  as  not  only  to  add  greatly  to  its  practical  value, 
but  to  place  it  in  the  verj^  front  rank  of  those  admirable  publications  with 
which  the  Uniteil  States  government  enriches  from  time  to  time  the  scien- 
tific literature  of  the  world.  The  report  contains  statistics  of  the  produc- 
tion of  the  various  metallic  minerals  (those  of  the  non-metallic  are  to  follow 
in  a separate  volume)  in  the  different  states  of  the  Union  ; hut  it  does  more 
than  this.  It  presents  like  statistics  (in  many  cases  extending  over  a long 
Series  of  years)  for  other  countries,  together  with  tables  of  exports  and 
imports.  In  atldition  to  these  statistical  compilations  it  contains  several 
hundred  pages  of  intere.sting  and  instructive  te.xt  on  the  geographic  dis- 
tribution of  the  mineral  resources  of  the  world,  in  the.preparation  of  which 
several  enunent  experts  hav'e  been  specially  employed.  The  volume  is, 
in  short,  a veritable  mine  of  valuable  information  concerning  some  of  the 
most  important  branches  of  human  industry. 

Terrestrial  Magiu-tisni:  .\n  International  (Quarterly  Journal.  Publislu'd 
under  the  Auspices  of  the  Ryenson  Physical  Laboratory,  A.  A.  Michel- 
son.  Director.  Cldcago,  University  Press.  Vol.  I,  Xo.  I,  January, 
1896.  Edited  by  L.  .\.  P>auer,  witli  the  Codi)eration  of  a large  Number 
of  American  ami  Foreign  Associates. 

Tlie  compass  is  a very  (jld  invention,  the  discovery  its  north  and 
south  jfointing  j)ropcrty  having  been  made  by  the  Chinese  centuries  ago 
It  is  more  than  four  centuries  since  it  receiveil  a (lxe<l  i>lace  in  navigation 
under  the  name  Mariner’s  Compass.  That  it  docs  not  point  tridy  north 
and  sontli  hut  deiiartsor  declines  from  the  lueriilian  was  known  inCohmi- 
biis’  day.  At  that  time  it  was  supposed  that  the  departure  from  true 
north,  or  declination  of  the  needle,  was  constant  f<jr  any  one  i>lace,  thougli 


82 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


not  the  same  in  all  places.  That  it  is  not  always  the  same  at  any  one 
place  is  said  to  have  been  discovered  by  Columbus  ; so  that  the  variation 
of  the  variation  is  a discovery  four  centuries  old.  That  the  needle,  if  free 
to  move  in  any  direction,  would  not  “ hang  level,”  but  that  one  end 
would  decline  or  dip  below  the  horizon,  is  also  an  old  discovery,  having 
been  discovered  by  Georg  Hartmann  in  1-544;  and,  lasth’,  that  the  force 
that  acts  upon  the  needle  to  make  it  point  north  and  south  is  not  the 
same  in  all  places  has  been  long  known. 

The  tme  cause  of  the  behavior  of  a compass  needle  has  been  a field  for 
speculation  and  study  ever  since  its  peculiar  behavior  was  observed,  and 
a few  students  had  up  to  the  time  of  Gauss  proposed  and  laboriously 
worked  out  ingenious  theories  to  explain  the  phenomena  observed.  The 
publication  of  Gauss’  great  work  in  1838,  however,  marked  a great  ad- 
vance and  gave  a new  and  powerful  impulse  to  the  subject.  The  Mag- 
netic Union,  fonned  in  the  third  decade  of  the  present  century,  chiefly 
owing  to  the  researches  of  Gauss,  cau.sed  the  establishment  in  various 
j»arts  of  the  world  of  magnetic  observatories,  founded  and  maintained  by 
various  governments.  Of  those  so  founded  in  the  forties,  several  have 
maintained  a series  of  almost  uninterrupted  observations  to  this  day. 
This  period  of  60  yeare  has  seen  j>rogress  in  our  knowledge  of  terrestrial 
magnetism,  but  without  any  epoch-marking  event.  A vast  number  of 
observations  have  been  accumulated,  the  24  constants  in  Gauss’  funda- 
mental formula  have  been  more  accuratel}'  determined,  and  a numl>er  of 
minor  phenomena  observed  and  explained,  but  the  subject  is  far  from 
being  exhausted.  The  modern  ai>plications  of  electricity  to  practical  affairs 
is  not  without  its  effect  uj)on  the  subject  of  terrestrial  magnetism. 

Is  not  the  journal  before  us,  then,  to  mark  a new  epoch  in  our  knowl- 
edge of  this  subject?  It  seetns  strange  that,  when  almost  every  other 
branch  of  science  has  long  had  its  special  journal  or  organ,  we  should  have 
waited  almost  for  the  dawn  of  the  twentieth  century  for  the  first  number 
of  the  first  journal  devoted  to  a matter  of  such  great  practical  moment  and 
for  four  centuries  known  by  all  civilized  men  to  be  important. 

We  welcome  this  journal,  then,  as  a needed  one,  rightly  conceived  and 
giving  promise  of  usefulness.  It  enters,  and  enters  under  favorable  au- 
spices, a field  not  hitherto  occupied  by  any  scientific  journal.  The  names 
of  the  editors,  the  laboratory,  and  university  from  which  it  comes  all 
combine  to  promise  excellent  results.  It  will  be  strange  indeed  if  dis- 
tinct gains  in  human  knowledge  do  not  result  from  this  enterprise. 

The  editor.  Dr  Bauer,  though  a young  man,  is  a most  enthusiastic 
student  in  his  chosen  field.  After  several  years  of  service  in  the  United 
States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  devoted  chiefly  to  magnetic  computa- 
tion, he  went  to  Europe  and  devoted  his  energies  to  magnetic  studies. 
Ilis  doctor’s  degree  was  obtained  last  year,  as  the  outcome  of  these  studies. 
To  him  more  than  to  any  other  belongs  the  credit  of  founding  the  first 
journal  given  wholly  to  the  subject  of  terrestrial  magnetism,  and  patriotic 
Americans  will  perhaps  derive  some  satisfaction  from  the  fact  that  the 
journal  was  founded  in  the  United  States. 

To  the  editor  and  his  associates  and  to  the  University  of  Chicago  we 
tender  our  congratulations  and  hope  for  them  a large  measure  of  success. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


83 


YUCATAN  IN  1895 

The  following  is  taken  from  a valuable  report  recently  received 
at  the  Department  of  State  from  Mr  R.  L.  Oliver,  United  States 
consul  at  Merida; 

The  government  census  is  »approaching  completion,  and  from  data 
already  received  it  is  apparent  that  the  total  population  of  the  state  ap- 
proximates 500,000,  of  whom  60,000  are  in  Merida. 

Yucatan  has  always  been  considered  among  the  most  advanced  states 
■of  IMexico  in  point  of  education.  Schools  have  attained  a high  order  since 
the  advent  of  independence.  While  under  the  control  and  supervision 
of  the  local  governments,  the  system  of  matriculation  and  education  is 
mapped  out  by  the  federal  and  state  authorities  through  their  respective 
boards  of  education.  The  law  is  compulsorj',  and  though  it  is  not  strictly 
•enforced  in  Yucatan,  reports  show  a good  attendance. 

Sectarian  schools  are  in  decadence — in  fact,  they  are  only  primary 
schools  for  the  young.  The  revenue  for  their  support  is  deilved  from 
donations  by  patrons.  The  non-sectarian  or  public  schools  are  main- 
tained at  the  expense  of  the  state.  The  governor  appoints  directors,  who 
in  turn  select  professors  and  teachers.  The  total  expenditure  for  j^uiblic 
instruction  for  the  scholastic  year  1894-’95  has  been  about  8100,000  (gold) ; 
this  sustained  435  schools. 

Manufactures  are  confined  to  articles  for  local  wants,  such  as  soap, 
matches,  candles,  shoes,  rope,  etc. 

There  are  four  railways,  owned  and  operated  exclusively  by  natives. 
One  broad-gauge  road  has  75  miles  in  oi^eration  ; the  others,  narrow-gauge 
average  about  60  miles  each,  comideted,  but  are  in  course  of  extension’ 
Tariffs  for  passengers  and  freight  are  about  one-half  the  rates  charged 
for  local  business  in  the  United  States. 

Except  wheat,  rye,  and  other  small  grains,  almost  any  plant  will  thrive, 
but  the  i)rincipal  products  are  corn,  beans,  sugar,  and  hemp.  The  last 
named  is  a phenomenally  hardy  plant  and  flourishes  almost  equally  well 
with  or  without  rain  ; corn,  beans,  and  sugar  require  irrigation  and  yield 
barely  sufficient  for  home  requirements.  If  there  is  a failure,  as  at  present 
in  corn,  the  deficiency  is  su])plied  from  Mexico  or  the  United  States.  The 
interior  being  unable  to  make  up  the  deficiency  in  corn,  the  legislative 
authorities  of  A'ucatan  petitioned  the  federal  government  to  reduce  the 
import  duties  on  foreign  corn  that  this  necessary  article  might  be  within 
the  limit  of  moderate  price.  The  government  scaled  the  tariff  50  i)cr  cent, 
])cnding  the  next  harvest,  and  .several  cargoes  have  been  imported  from 
the  United  States. 

The  people  are  very  industrious.  Necessity  would  impel  them  to  be  so 
were  they  otherwise,  for  although  Yucatan  is  notan  over-poi>ulated  coun- 
try the  industries  are  so  concentrated,  s(j  lacking  in  diversity,  and  so  nio- 
nopolizeil  that  the  less  fortunate  are  continually  at  a disadvantage  and 
must  necessarily  be  on  tin?  alert  to  share  in  the  inadeipiate  distribution. 
This  applies  also  t<j  the  i>rofessions. 

Laborers  in  the  cities  average  eight  hours’  work,  are  paid  by  the  piece 


S4 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERA  PURE 


in  industrial  pursuits,  and  earn  about  50  cents  (gold)  per  day.  Eaihvay 
and  skilled  laborers  earn  from  75  cents  to  $1  per  day.  They  wear  the 
same  clothing,  chiefly  cotton  and  linen,  during  the  entire  year  ; sandals 
of  the  ancient  Egyptian  pattern.are  worn  instead  of  shoes.  Trade  unions 
do  not  exist  and  cooperative  action  is  infrecjnent,  except  in  cases  of  for- 
eign intervention,  concerning  which  they  are  extremely  sensitive. 

On  the  plantations,  where  it  is  necessary  to  be  exposed  to  excessive 
tropical  heat  under  the  direct  ravs  of  the  sun,  no  laborers  have  withstood 
it  as  have  the  native  Indians.  In  past  times  unsuccessful  colonies  were 
formed  by  Europeans;  later,  Chinese  were  contracted  for  to  work  on  the 
hemj)  plantations.  They  were  not  altogether  satisfactory,  as  they  are 
physically  unable  to  complete  the  daily  task  allotted  to  the  native  labor- 
ers— that  is,  to  cut  a certain  number  of  leaves  of  hemp  (sisal)  for  a stipu- 
lated price.  The  daily  task  is  two  or  three  thousand  leaves,  at  the  rate 
of  16  cents  (gold)  per  thousand.  On  this  largely  depends  the  pecuniary 
success  of  the  planter ; not  that  his  margin  of  profit  is  so  limited  in  what 
it  actually  costs  to  produce  this  fiber,  but  there  is  the  enormous  outlay 
for  the  preparation  of  the  lands  and  for  the  planting ; the  necessary  delay 
of  four  or  five  years  before  the  plant  is  large  enough  to  cut;  the  insta- 
bility of  the  market,  which  is  ever  fluctuating  ; the  onerous  export  duties, 
state  and  fetleral ; the  large  personnel  of  the  plantations— mechanics, 
overseei's,  and  servants— who,  independent  of  their  wages,  are  advanced 
provisions  and  clothing  and  furnished  medicine  and  medical  attendance 
Ijy  the  proprietor.  There  is  now  a great  scarcity  of  laborei's,  and  with  the 
new  applications  of  the  sisal  fiber  and  its  conseciuent  increasing  demand 
it  is  becoming  a serious  question  how  to  meet  prospective  emergencies. 

A project  is  on  foot  to  subdue  and  domesticate  the  5Iaya  Indians,  va- 
riously estimateil  at  from  10,000  to  20,000  in  number,  who  have  from  time 
immemorial  held  invincible  sway  over  the  southeastern  part  of  Yucatan. 
It  is  hoi>ed  to  augment  from  them  the  number  of  farm  hands  ; but  even 
in  the  event  of  accomplishing  the  subjugation  of  this  semibarbarous  race, 
it  is  exceedingly  doubtful  if  the  ]we.sent  generation  can  be  utilized,  so  re- 
fractory are  they  to  civilized  pursuits  and  so  indolent  and  thriftless.  Their 
trading-posts  are  on  the  boumlary  lines  of  British  Honduras.  At  times 
their  chiefs  visit  Belize  to  purchase  cloth,  replenish  their  ammunition, 
and  renew  their  contracts  with  the  timber  merchants,  who  pay  them  so 
much  per  ton  for  the  privilege  of  cutting  wood  in  their  territory.  They 
are  friendly  with  the  British  and  never  interfere  with  negro  cutters  sent 
from  Belize,  but  a 5Iexican  or  a native  of  Yucatan  dares  not  encroach 
upon  their  lands.  As  this  part  of  Yucatan  is  more  healthful  and  its  soil 
better  adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  fruits,  sugar  cane,  and  grains,  it  is  not 
improbable  that  after  the  pacification  of  the  5Iayas  the  government  will 
offer  inducements  to  foreigners  seeking  homes  in  the  tropics.  The  geo- 
graphical and  the  topographical  situation  of  this  part  of  the  peninsula 
w<4uld  indicate  that  it  is  essentially  a horticultural  district.  Down  by  the 
Caribbean  sea  it  is  easily  accessible  to  shipping,  and  its  products  would 
find  a market.  It  lies  in  the  path  of  vessels  that  now  ply  between  the 
southern  ports  of  the  United  States  and  ports  of  British  and  Spanish  Hon- 
duras. This  would  also  be  the  route  for  vessels  to  and  from  Nicaragua  in 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


85 


the  event  of  the  building  of  the  canal.  Another  advantage  of  transcendant 
impoi’tance  is  that  of  Ascension  bay,  which  is  one  of  the  largest  and  deep- 
est harbors  in  all  INIexico,  and  with  the  exception  of  Acapulco,  on  the 
Pacific,  affords  a safer  anchorage  than  any  other.  This  is  a desideratum 
of  no  little  magnitude  when  it  is  known  that  most  of  the  Mexican  gulf 
ports  are  open  roadsteads  and  that  in  the  winter  months,  when  northers 
are  frequent,  shipping  is  hazardous  and  uncertain. 

Up  to  1891-92  the  credit  of  A'ucatan  in  Europe  was  unlimited  and  her 
merchants  enjoyed  an  enviable  reputation  for  integrity,  but  they  were 
overtaken  by  the  financial  crisis,  which  found  them  overstocked  and 
deeply  indebted.  Collateral  securities  shrank,  debts  contracted  in  gold 
had  to  be  met  with  its  equivalent  in  silver,  which  had  coincidently  de- 
preciated in  its  paying  value  50  per  cent;  money  became  stringent  and 
finally  the  collapse  came.  Many  large  dealers  in  diu^  goods  and  miscel- 
laneous articles  were  forced  to  suspend.  They  represent  to  European 
creditors  millions  which  are  hopelessly  lost.  This  unfortunate  state  of 
affairs  is  largely  due  to  the  long  credit  system.  However,  this  salutary 
lesson  has  had  the  effect  of  restricting  them  to  more  business-like  meth- 
ods. Tlie  tide  of  trade  will  eventually  turn  to  the  United  States,  this 
market  affording  quicker  transportation  facilities. 

The  chief  aidicles  of  imijort  embrace  groceries,  canned  goods,  etc. ; dry 
goods,  notions,  cashmeres,  men’s  furnishings,  millinery,  and  hardware  of 
idl  descrqitions,  except  plows,  hoes,  etc.,  which  are  not  used. 

Hennequen  (sisal)  is  the  chief  export.  The  annual  output  is  neai’ly 
400,000  bales  of  400  pounds  each.  In  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  year 
there  were  shipped  81,030  bales,  valued  at  8582,932.50,  United  States  cur- 
rency, on  which  state  and  federal  duties  amounting  to  $132,48]  ($71,612 
United  States  currency)  were  paid;  over  12  per  cent  ad  valorem.  Of  the 
81,030  bales  shipped,  66,269  were  destined  for  the  United  States.  With 
the  exception  of  a small  fraction,  they  were  transported  in  other  than 
American  vessels.  The  August,  1895,  imports  amounted  to  6,568  tons ; 
2,1.33  tons  were  imported  in  American  vessels ; 4,435  tons  in  English, 
Norwegian,  and  German  vessels.  The  exports  amounted  to  6,600  tons, 
of  which  560  tons  were  exported  in  American  vessels  and  6,040  tons  in 
English,  Norwegian,  and  German  vessels. 

From  .Tanuary  to  .lune,  1895,  there  were  shijiped  to  interior  jtoints  of 
IMexico  3,070  tons  of  coarse,  unrefined  salt.  The  bigh  tariff  on  foreign 
salt  makes  it  an  expensive  arti(;le.  The  home  mines  are  difficult  to  work, 
and  as  in  most  cases  they  are  only  surface  deposits  of  the  .sea  the  yield 
<lepends  greatly  upon  the  weather. 

'fhe  exports  of  logwood  for  the  first  three  months  of  1895  show  2,6:J4 
ton.«,  valued  at  $80,000  in  United  States  currency,  clean'd  for  Euroj)ean 
countries.  Other  articles  of  export  in  small  (inantilies  are  hides,  ham- 
mocks, sarsaparilla,  etc.  The  total  <h;clared  exixndsto  the  rnited  .States 
for  tin;  fiscal  yearending  .Jnn(*.'!0,  18‘)5,  were:  From  I’rogreso,  $2,062, ftOfI  ; 
from  5Ierida,  $897,702 ; total,  $2,i»60,lil  1 in  United  Statt's  currency. 

Value  of  imports  during  the  fiscal  year  18!)4-’95,  $l,0!»2,fl81  ; valueof  e.\- 
])orts,  $8,37(i,()80.  Total  amount  of  federal  duties  ]>aid  thereon, $1,1 55, 9.32. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY,  SESSION  i895-’96 


Regular  Meeting,  December  27 , 1895. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Amendments  to  the  l)y-la\vs  were  adopted  as  follows : 

Articlk  I^’’ — Officers. — The  business  of  the  Society  shall  be  transacted 
by  a Board  of  ^Managers  composed  of  eighteen  members,  six  of  whom  shall 
be  elected  by  the  Society  at  each  annual  meeting.  They  shall  serve  for 
three  years,  or  until  their  successors  are  elected.  A majority  vote  shall  l>e 
re((uisite  fur  election.  Vacancies  arising  in  the  Board  shall  be  filled  by 
the  Board. 

The  Board  of  IManagers  shall  elect  annually  from  their  number  a Presi- 
dent, six  Vice-Presidents,  a Treasurer,  a Recording  Secretary,  and  a Cor- 
responding Secretary. 

The  following  resolution  also  was  adopted  : 

Whereas  the  Society  has  adopted  certain  amendments  to  its  by-laws, 
bv  which  it  is  proviiled  that  the  members  of  the  Board  of  ^lanagers  be 
elected  hereafter  for  terms  of  three  years,  and  one-third  of  its  members 
retire  each  year:  therefore, 

Resolved,  That  the  Pxjard  of  ^Managers  is  hereby  instructed  to  group  its- 
members  iu  three  classes,  the  first  of  which  shall  retire  in  May,  1896,  the 
second  in  INIay,  1897,  and  the  third  in  May,  1898. 

Vice-President  Ogden  delivered  an  address  on  Coast  Hydrography  and 
its  Uses,  and  ^Ir  G.  W.  Littlehales  read  a paper  entitled,  “ Why  the  Sea. 
is  Salt.” 

Special  Meeting,  Januarg  3,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Dr 
D.  C.  Gilman,  President  of  Johns  Hopkins  Univ'ersity,  gave  an  address 
on  The  Geographic  Development  of  Universities. 

Regular  Meeting,  January  10,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Mr  William  Eleroy  Curtis  read  a i>aper,  with  lantern-slide  illustrations, 
on  Venezuela : her  Government,  People,  and  Boundary. 

Special  Meeting,  January  17,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Mr  Robert  E.  Peary,  Civil  Engineer,  U.  S.  Navy,  delivered  an  address, 
with  lantern-slide  illustrations,  entitled,  ‘‘Explorations  in  the  Far  North,”' 
relating  more  particularly  to  his  recent  expedition  to  northern  Greenland. 

Regular  Meeting,  January  24,  1896. — Joint  ^Meeting  with  the  American 
Forestry  Association.  Hon.  J.  Sterling  iMorton,  Secretary  of  Agriculture, 
in  the  chair.  Addresses  on  the  sul)ject  of  the  Public  Forests,  Lauds,  and 
Waters  of  the  United  States  were  delivered  by  Hon.  Fred.  T.  Dubois» 
U.  S.  S.,  Hon.  John  F.  Lacey,  M.  C.,  Hon.  Thomas  C.  McRae,  M.  C.,  and 
^Ir  William  E.  Smythe,  of  Chicago. 

Elkction'S. — New  members  have  been  elected  as  follows  : 

December  27.  — Hon.  Win.  ^1.  Aiken,  Chief  Engineer  G.  AV.  Baird 
U.  S.  N.,  Col.  J.  W.  Barlow,  U.  S.  A.,  Ensign  L.  C.  Bertolette,  U.  S.  N. 


80 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


87 


Capt.  Nathan  Bickford,  Lieut.  E.  B.  Chambers,  E.  R.  E.  Cowell,  Pickering 
Dodge,  D.  J.  Evans,  Capt.  M.  C.  Goodsell,  U.  S.  M.  C. , H.  R.  P.  Hamil- 
ton, Hon.  John  B.  Harlow,  Robert  S.  Hatcher,  IMrs  Mary  B.  Jackson, 
R.  M.  Johnson,  Capt.  Louis  Kempff,  U.  S.  N.,  Miss  Grace  D.  Litchfield, 
Miss  Cordelia  L.  Mayo,  .A,.  E.  H.  Middleton,  Hon.  Joseph  S.  Miller,  Rev. 
Dr  W.  H.  Milburn,  Maj.  Hannibal  D.  Norton,  Maj.  G.  C.  Reid,  U.  8. 
1\I.  C.,  Capt.  George  C.  Remey,  U.  S.  N.,  George  R.  Simpson,  Hon.  0.  P. 
Tucker,  Maj.  W.  M.  Waterbury,  U.  S.  A. 

January  10. — Seilor  Jose  Andrade  (Venezuelan  Minister),  Mrs  D.  C. 
Chapman,  W.  V.  Cox,  John  F.  Davies,  John  F.  Downing,  J.  B.  Fell- 
heimer,  Aliss  Ellen  B.  Foster,  Capt.  S.  W.  Fountain,  U.  S.  A.,  Maj.  E.  A. 
Garlington,  U.  S.  A.,  Prof.  Edward  L.  Greene,  Lieut.  C.  H.  Harlow, 
U.  S.  N.,  Comdr.  J.  N.  Hemphill,  U.  S.  N.,  Franklin  H.  Hough,  Dr  J. 
C.  Hvoslef,  Medical  Director  Samuel  Jackson,  U.  S.  N.,  Dr  P.  E.  Joslin, 
Lieut.  J.  F.  Reynolds  Landis,  U.  S.  A.,  W.  H.  Pennell,  Miss  Alice  C. 
Pugh,  Mrs  Nellie  Grant  Sartoris,  Henry  A.  Seymour,  Dr  R.  M.  Thorn- 
burgh, Mrs  John  N.  Webb,  Alfred  Jerome  Weston,  Hon.  Carroll  D. 
Wright. 

January  24. — Miss  Harriet  Baidlett,  Dr  Frank  K.  Cameron,  Richd.  T- 
Fu.ssell,  C.  A.  Gilman,  Dudley  W.  Gregory,  Dr  G.  T.  Howland,  Mrs  Ida 
Rome  Knapp,  Mr  E.  de  Kotzebue  (Russian  Minister),  George  A.  Lewis. 
James  AlcCormick,  Airs  J.  C.  AIcKelden,  Hon.  Richard  Olney,  Wilson  N. 
Paxton,  Judge  AI.  E.  Poole,  Gov.  A.  R.  Shepherd,  I.  C.  Slater,  James  H. 
Thomas,  James  A.  AVatson,  John  E.  AVright. 

Obituary. — The  Society  has  to  deplore  the  deaths  of  the  following  mem- 
bers during  the  month  of  January  : Air  E.  B.  AVight,  a well  known  and 
much  respected  journalist,  representing  the  Boston  Journal  and  the  Chi- 
cago Intcr-Ocean  at  the  National  Capital,  and  Air  S.  C.  Gilman,  a promis- 
ing young  civil  engineer  and  explorer,  residing  at  St.  Cloud,  Minnesota, 
who,  only  a few  days  before  his  untimely  death,  contributed  a valuable 
paper  on  his  explorations  in  the  Olympian  mountains,  AVashington,  to 
appear  in  an  early  number  of  this  magazine. 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 

NORTH  AMERICA 

Fran’z  .Iosku  L\xd.  The  published  statements  of  Air  A.  Alontefiore, 
the  spokesman  ofthe  Jackson-IIarmsworth  expedition,  now  enable  one  to 
definitely  outline  tlie  outcome  of  the  exi)e<lition  down  to  July  last.  Jackson 
left  Khabarowa  in  the  ]Vinilward  .August  Ifi,  1804,  and  met  the  ice-pack 
in  70°  41F  49°  E.  Bell  island  was  sighti'd,  :i0  miles  distant,  .August  2o, 

but  nnfavoraljle  ice  conditions  prevented  lamling  then'  or  at  capc^  Grant, 
which  was  in  siglitsix  days  later,  <listant40  miles.  A landing  was  madt*, 
September  0,  at  Dell  island,  and  the  ship  was  frozen  in  while  discharging 
cargo,  September  l.'k  .Jackson,  with  his  chosen  explorers,  passed  the 


88 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


winter  vers'  comfortabl}'  in  a wooden  house  erected  at  cape  Flora.  Tlie 
ship’s  crew  wintered  on  the  vessel  and  lost  one  man,  the  health  of  others 
being  unfavorably ’affected.  About  sixty  polar  bears  were  killed,  four 
being  females.  An  autumnal  depot  was  laid  down  at  cape  Barents  and  a 
spring  one,  in  March,  1895,  by  a trip  of  six  days,  at  Peter  head,  entrance 
of  iNIarkham  sound. 

The  long  journey,  in  which  four  ponies  were  used  with  great  advantage, 
occupied  from  Aj)ril  16  to  May  13.  Softening  sea-floes  and  signs  of  open 
water  constrained  a return  from  the  farthest  north,  81°  20'  X.,  54°  53' *E. 
Payer’s  map  of  1874  is  said  to  be  inaccurate  and  misleading.  Zichy, 
Alexandra,  and  Oscar  lands  resolve  themselves  into  groujis  of  islands, 
and  Richthofen  peak,  of  Payer,  could  not  be  located. 

Mr  Montefiore,  it  is  said,  declares  that  Jackson’s  success  in  his  first 
year  is  unprecedented.  If  such  reiiort  be  correct,  this  will  not  be  the 
first  cai)able  exjdorer  who  may  ask  protection  from  injudicious  friends 
who  seek  to  aid  him  by  unfounded  aspersions  of  others.  European  ex- 
jilorersare  able  to  refute  on  tlieir  own  account  5Iontefiore’s  claim,  e.spe- 
cially  Payer,  who,  starting  from  a more  southerly  point,  surpassed  Jack- 
son’s latitude  by  37  miles. 

For  America,  it  is  indisputable  that  Hall,  in  1870-’71,  far  exceeded  Jack- 
son’s latitude  and  opened  up  a new  route  and  region,  surpassing  in  im- 
l)ortance  ’and  extent  anything  that  Jackson  has  done ; this  with  the 
loss  of  one  man — himself.  Greely  in  his  first  year,  1881-’82,  explored 
4,0iX)  square  miles  of  new  land  and  surpas.sed  the  highest  latitude,  made 
before  or  since,  without  the  loss  of  a man.  Peary,  in  189l-’92,  made  the 
most  remarkable  inland  ice  journey  on  record,  crossed  Greenland  to  a 
j)oint  far  beyond  his  predecessors  on  the  east  Greenland  coast,  with  the 
loss  of  a single  man,  V)y  accident.  Against  this  is  Jackson’s  northing  of 
some  80  miles,  with  a loss  of  three  men,  one  at  cape  Flora  and  two  on 
the  return  voyage  of  the  Windward. 

Auvsk.k.  Congress  is  to  appropriate  875,000  to  mark  the  Alaskan 
boundary  along  the  141st  meridian  of  west  longitude,  on  which  meridian 
have  been  determined  three  important  points— Mount  St.  Elias,  Forty- 
mile  creek,  and  Porcupine  river.  By  independent  surveys,  bj'^  United 
States  and  Canadian  engineers,  the  points  established  differ  onh'  six  feet 
at  ]\Iount  St.  Elias  and  400  feet  at  Porcupine  river.  Canada  desires  to 
e.stablish  the  meridian  astronomically  by  joint  scientific  survey,  which 
would  require  several  years.  The  United  States  fiivors,  as  a less  difficult 
and  more  speedy  plan,  a survey  based  on  the  points  already  established. 

Mexico.  According  to  the  last  message  of  President  Diaz,  566  miles  of 
new  telegraph  lines  have  been  built,  the  most  important  uniting  Taco- 
talpa,  Chiapas,  with  Penosique,  Tobasco,  opening  a new  route  with 
Guatemala,  and  making  a total  mileage  of  56,442  miles.  Among  impor- 
tant railway  extensions  is  tliat  from  Monclova  to  the  Pacific,  of  which 
292  miles  have  been  approved.  The  surveys  of  the  road  from  Merida  to 
Campeche  are  progre.ssing  and  the  plans  of  the  lines  from  ^leiida  to 
Progre.so  have  been  adojited.  The  drainage  works  of  the  vallej'  of  Mex- 
ico are  almost  concluded,  the  excavations  have  amounted  to  53,160,000 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


89 


cubic  feet,  and  tlie  tunnel  is  finished  for  a length  of  32,140  feet.  The 
grand  drainage  canal  is  nearly  30  miles  long. 

Surveys  have  been  completed  for  a cable  road  to  connect  the  Interoceanic 
Railway  with  the  summit  of  Popocatepetl,  ascending  from  the  ranch 
Semacas,  on  the  northwest  side.  The  railway  is  mainly  for  the  transpor- 
tation of  sulphur  from  the  volcano,  but  it  will  be  available  for  tourists. 
AVork  has  been  commenced  on  a line  from  Baroteran,  on  the  Mexican  In- 
ternational Railroad,  to  Laredo,  Texas,  and  thence  to  Mier,  Mexico,  on  the 
bed  of  the  Gould  railroad,  graded  about  ten  years  ago  between  these  points. 
The  government  has  modified  its  tax  on  minerals,  which  now  amounts  to 
5 per  cent  of  the  value  of  silver  and  gold.  It  is  divided  into  a federal 
stamp  tax  of  3 per  cent  and  a coinage  tax  of  2 per  cent.  Mexican  smelters 
operating  under  governmental  concessions  are  not  liable  for  the  coinage 
tax  on  silver  extracted  from  low-grade  lead  and  copper  ores. 

CENTRAL  AMERICA 

XrcAR.vGUA.  A telegraph  line  has  been  built  between  Acoyapa  and 
Rama.  The  work  on  the  railway  between  Rama  and  San  Ubaldo,  178 
miles,  began  July  28,  1895,  and  should  be  completed  in  two  years. 

Tiie  Nicaraguan  government  has  extended  its  monopoly  of  irative  dis- 
tilled spirits  to  its  Atlantic  coast  districts,  except  to  the  free  port  of  San 
Juan,  and  imposes  corresponding  duties  on  foreign  spirits. 

SOUTH  AMERICA 

The  Emperor  of  Brazil  once  gave  a concession  to  an  Englishman  to 
ojien  the  channel  connecting  the  Orinoco  with  the  Amazon,  and  the  latter 
was  to  have  the  exclusive  right  to  navigate  the  waters  for  a term  of 
twenty-five  years  as  a reward  for  his  enterprise,  but  for  some  reason  or 
another  the  contract  was  not  carried  out. 

The  bronze  statue  of  George  Washington  erected  by  Guzman  Blanco  at 
Caracas  is  believed  to  be  the  only  statue  of  the  Father  of  his  Country 
outside  the  United  States.  The  inscription  upon  it  states  that  Washing- 
ton “ Filled  one  world  with  his  lienefits  and  all  worlds  with  his  name,”  a 
unique  tribute  to  his  greatness  that  was  probably  written  by  Blanco 
himself. 

DumsG  the  visit  of  Bolivar  to  the  United  States  he  spent  a day  at  Alount 
A'ernon,  where,  placing  his  hands  reverently  upon  the  cotfin  of  AVasli- 
ington,  he  made  a solemn  vow  to  devote  his  life  tn  the  liberation  of  his 
country.  Reaching  his  native  land,  he  became  active  in  the  revolutionary 
propaganda  and  soon  had  to  seek  refuge  in  Europe.  Fifteen  years  later, 
however,  after  a struggle  to  which  that  of  our  revolutionary  fathers  offered 
no  comparison,  he  sat  in  the  capital  of  Bogota,  the  fimnder  of  five  rejmb- 
lics — A'enezuela,  Colombia,  Ecuador,  Peru,  and  Ihdivia — the  last  having 
been  named  in  his  honor.  At  that  time  tlie  states  were  con.soli<lated 
under  a single  government,  witli  Bolivar  as  president.  After  having  for 
the  fourth  time  l)een  electetl  president  he  was  driven  fnjin  the  country 
and  died  in  exile. 


90 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


On  the  upper  Orinoco,  during  the  struggle  of  Venezuela  for  independ- 
ence, occurred  the  only  naval  battle  that  was  ever  fought  on  horseback. 
Bolivar,  at  the  liead  of  his  army,  had  been  trying  to  cross  for  several 
weeks,  but  was  prevented  b}'  several  Spanish  gunijoats  that  moved  up  and 
down  the  stream  as  he  did.  Becoming  exasperated.  General  Paez  one 
niglit  spurred  his  horse  into  the  stream,  followed  by  three  thousand 
llaueros,  or  cowboys,  whose  horses  had  been  taught  to  swim  as  well  as  to 
gallop.  Tlie  Sj)anish  fleet  was  taken  entirely  unawares.  The  llaneros 
clambered  from  their  saddles  to  the  decks  of  the  vessels  and  let  their 
houses  swim  back  to  shore  alone.  Thus,  after  cutting  off  their  own  re- 
treat, it  was  a question  of  win  or  die,  and  so  desperately  did  they  fight 
that  every  vessel  was  captured. 

The  Ceiba  railroad,  in  Venezuela,  originally  80  miles  long,  has  been  ex- 
tended from  i\[endoza  eastward  a distance  of  82  miles,  to  connect  with 
the  branch  from  Valera,  15  miles  long.  Another  line  is  under  construc- 
tion from  Encoutrados  to  La  Fria,  62  miles.  It  is  intended  to  extend 
the  road  25  miles  farther  to  San  Cristobal,  the  commercial  center  of  a 
great  agricultural  section.  Contracts  have  been  made  also  for  railroad 
lines  from  iNIaracaibo  to  Perijaaud  from  Lake  Maracaibo  to  Carora.  The 
former  is  to  be  bnilt  within  two  years  and  the  latter  within  five. 

ASIA 

SvKr.v.  The  first  railway  was  oi:>ened  August  8,  1895,  under  French 
management.  It  extends  from  Beirut  to  Damascus,  a distance  of  91  miles. 

China.  M.  Berthelot,  French  Foreign  Minister,  says  that  the  Franco- 
Chinese  treaty  opens  to  French  trade  a region  containing  100,000,000 
inhabitants.  Its  capital  is  Chung-king. 

Persia.  Concessions  have  been  granted  to  Herr  Moral  to  construct  a 
carriage  road  from  Teheran  to  Bagdad,  and  a steam  or  electric  railway 
from  Teheran  to  villages  10  miles  north.  A Russian  company  has  been 
granted  a concession  to  construct  a harbor  at  Enzeli. 

Japan.  The  sum  of  §18,000,000  has  been  voted  for  a double-track  rail- 
way to  be  built  between  Tokyo  and  Kobe,  876  miles,  passing  through 
Yokohama,  Kyoto,  and  Osaka.  Previously  29  concessions  had  been 
grauteil,  covering  2, 193  miles,  of  which  1,549  miles  have  been  opened. 
Of  state  railways,  580  miles  have  been  completed  and  398  miles  are  in 
course  of  construction. 

India.  The  efforts  of  Mr  A.  F.  iMummery  and  three  others,  in  August, 
1895,  to  explore  the  Naiiga  Parbat  region  of  the  Himalaya  mountains 
ended  in  the  death  of  the  leader  and  two  Gurkha  soldiers.  Mummery 
was  turned  back,  by  the  illness  of  a Gurkha,  at  the  height  of  20,000  feet 
on  the  main  peak  of  Nanga  Parbat.  Later,  Mummery  and  the  two 
soldiers  were  lost  while  exploring  a side  glacier,  being  presumably  buried 
under  an  avalanche. 

The  ^Mekong.  The  French  are  raj^idly  developing  the  region  lately 
ceded  by  Siam.  A telegraph  line  is  to  be  constructed  from  Attopeu,  the 
center  of  the  Nam-Kong  gold  district,  and  post-ofiices  are  also  being  es- 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


91 


tablished.  Steamers  will  soon  be  plying  on  the  Mekong.  That  river  has 
been  found  navigable  for  1,500  miles.  Lient.  Simon,  in  the  French  gun- 
boat, La  Grandi^re,  steamed  900  miles,  from  Stnng-Treng  to  Lnang- 
Prabang,  and  reports  that  at  high  water  the  rapids  are  navigable  to 
Kiang-kong,  220  miles  higher  up  the  stream. 

SiBERi,\.  Last  summer  the  veteran  Arctic  skipper.  Captain  Wiggins, 
took  400  tons  of  English  merchandise  up  the  Yenisei  to  within  180  miles 
of  Yeniseisk.  The  Russian  government  admitted  the  goods  free,  so  as  to 
encourage  navigation  to  Siberia  by  way  of  the  Arctic  ocean. 

The  completion  of  the  Trans-Siberian  railway  seems  to  be  assured  by 
the  negotiation  in  Berlin  of  three  Russian  railway  loans,  aggregating 
$5.5,000,000.  Whether  Russia  has  secured  from  China  authority  to  cross 
iManchuria  to  an  ice-free  port  is  yet  a mooted  question. 

AFRICA 

Asuanti.  a telegraph  line  is  being  constructed  from  the  coast  to  the 
interior,  along  the  principal  trade  route. 

Egypt.  A geological  survey,  to  be  completed  within  three  years  at  a 
cost  of  £25,000,  has  been  sanctioned  by  the  Khedive.  It  will  be  carried 
out  under  the  direction  of  Capt.  Lyons,  R.  E. 

Abyssinia.  The  Italian  army  is  con.structing  a good  military  road 
between  Adowa,  Adigrat,  and  Makaleh.  An  administration  is  being  estab- 
lished, with  a view  to  jiromoting  colonization. 

Kongo  Free  State.  According  to  the  statements  of  the  Rev.  John  B. 
5Iurphy,  an  American  Baptist  missionary,  who  speaks  from  an  experience 
of  several  years,  the  authorities  of  the  Free  State  are  committing  shock- 
ing barbarities  in  connection  with  the  exploitation  of  the  rubber  trade. 
Tlie  natives,  as  fer  as  practicable,  are  abandoning  the  Belgian  for  French 
territory,  where  they  are  well  treated. 

South  Africa.  Tlie  delimitation  of  the  railway  stri^i  on  tlie  eastern 
frontier  of  Bechuanaland  is  in  progress,  the  survey  being  made  by  Colonel 
Goold-Adams.  Tliis  delimitation  is  made  under  an  agreement  with  the 
native  chiefs  regarding  the  extension  of  tlie  railway  to  IMatabeleland. 
Tlie  railway  company  surrenders  a subsidy  of  $1,000,000  for  land  grants, 
enhanced  police  powers,  etc.,  which  insures  its  future  control  of  the  trade 
routes  to  this  region.  The  Natul-Transvaal  railway  is  now  in  operation 
as  far  as  between  Durban  and  Heidelberg,  and  the  section  from  the  latter 
jioint  to  Johannesburg  is  in  process  of  construction.  The  heavy  spring 
rains  have  postponed  the  opening  of  the  through  railway  .service  from 
Natal  to  the  Rand.  The  Transvaal  is  now  served  liy  three  lines,  the 
otliers  l)(*ing  the  Cape  and  Free  State  and  the  Delagoa  bay.  Telegraph 
communication  between  Cape  Town  and  the  East  Coast  is  now  continu- 
ous, through  tlie  opening  of  the  line  lietween  Unitali  and  Beira.  The 
necessity  of  concmtiiig  measures  to  prevent  the  utter  extinction  of  the 
.\frican  eleiihant  is  again  being  urged.  It  is  said  that  tin*  Cermaiis  are 
taking  stejis  to  protect  the  few  herds  remaining  in  Cernian  ti-rritory,  and 
it  is  to  be  lioiicd  that  the  British  colonial  authorities  will  lose  no  time  in 
following  their  exanqile. 


THE  VALLEY  OF  THE  ORINOCO 
By  T.  H.  Gignilliat 
Uniled  States  War  Department 

In  the  map  of  the  valleys  of  the  Orinoco  and  Esequibo  rivers,  showing 
Venezuela  and  British  Guiana  (Plate  V),  the  territorj' between  the  shaded 
area  and  the  Corentyn  river  shows  the  extent  of  British  Guiana  as 
given  in  a map  published  by  William  Fadon,  Geographer  to  His  Majesty, 
January  1,  1820.  This  country,  acquired  by  the  English  through  con- 
quest and  formally  ceded  to  them  by  the  Butch  in  1814,  then  contained 
sqrne  20,000  square  miles. 

The  lighter  portion  of  the  shaded  territory  shows  the  first  extension  of 
British  Guiana  to  the  west  after  Fadon’s  map  of  1820.  This  expansion 
appears  on  a map  published  in  London  in  1840  by  Robert  H.  Schomburgk, 
which  included  the  light-shaded  area  above  mentioned,  about  40,000 
square  miles.  Schomburgk  held  an  English  commission  to  draw  the 
boundary  line,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  Venezuela  was  represented  in 
t he  survey.  The  darker  j)ortion  of  the  shaded  territoiy  shown  on  Plate  V 
represents  the  subsequent  extension  of  British  Guiana,  as  shown  by  a 
series  of  many  recent  publications.  Since  1840,  maps  and  other  publica- 
tions have  appeared,  drawing  line  after  line  farther  to  the  west,  until 
some  49,000  sfpiare  miles  have  been  added  to  Schomburgk’s  acquisition. 
In  this  way  the  area  of  British  Guiana  has  increased  from  about  20,000 
square  miles,  as  shown  on  the  Fadon  map  of  1820,  to  109,000  square  miles, 
the  area  given  in  the  Statesman’s  Year-Book  of  1895. 

Gold  was  discovered  in  a new  section  of  this  area,  to  the  northwest,  in 
1884,  and  an  official  Venezuelan  report  places  the  gold  output  of  this  sec- 
tion in  18!)0  at  $1,000,000.  But  there  is  a larger  interest  at  stake  than  all 
this  territory,  with  all  its  gold.  It  is  the  control  of  the  valley  of  the 
Orinoco,  an  area  of  about  fl00,000  square  miles,  which  comprises  a very 
large  i)ortion  of  South  America  north  of  the  Amazon  river. 

It  is  not  generally  known  that  the  best  entrance  to  the  Orinoco  river 
is  within  the  original  Schomburgk  line.  Dr  !Munoz  Tebar,  the  successor 
of  Senor  Jos6  Andrade  as  president  of  the  state  of  Zulia,  Venezuela, 
states,  after  a personal  examination,  that  the  best  entrance  to  the  Orinoco 
river  is  through  the  Guaima  river  and  Mora  passage  to  the  Barium  river, 
and  thence  to  the  Orinoco.  Authorities  aj^pear  to  agree  that  the  other 
mouths  of  the  Orinoco  are  shallow  and  obstructed  by  sand  bars.  Dr 
Tebar  gives  the  depth  of  the  Mora  passage  as  over  60  feet,  and  would  lead 
us  to  infer  that  there  was  no  bar  at  the  entrance  of  the  Guaima.  If  this 
means  that  there  is  a clear  channel  over  60  feet  from  the  sea  through  the 
iMora  passage  to  the  Orinoco  river,  it  is  a most  important  piece  of  infor- 
mation. The  square  black  marks  in  this  locality  show  the  position  of 
English  trading  stations,  established  between  1885  and  1887. 

Iti  addition  to  the  authorities  above  quoted,  the  “ commercial  ” map  of 
F.  Bianconi,  Paris,  1888,  was  used  in  compiling  the  map  on  Plate  V. 


92 


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This  road  draws  tribute  from  the  Garden  Spot  of  America,  and  along 
its  lines  are  located  a greater  number  of  large  cities  and  towns  than 
on  those  of  any  other  western  road  of  equal  mileage. 

St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis,  Minn.,  Des  Moines  and  Dubuque,  la.,  Kansas 
City  and  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  and  Atchison  and  Leavenworth,  Kan.,  are  only 
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The  Improvements. 

ALIGNMENT 

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Simplicity  and  economy  combined. 
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Every  possible  improvement  in  material 
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WYCKOFF,  SEAMANS  & BENEDICT, 

327  BROADWAY,  MEW  YORK.  U.  S.  A. 
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OR  IMEW  YORK, 

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IS 

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The  Mutual  Life  has  Paid  since  Organization  . . . . 

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The  New  Instalment  Policy  issued  by  this  Company 
is  admirably  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  Insuring  Public. 

EVERY  DESIRABLE  FORM  OF  POLICY  IS  ISSUED  BY 

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IS  VIA  THE 


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From  either  KANSAS  CITY,  LEAVENWORTH,  ST.  JOSEPH,  COUNCIL  BLUFFS, 

OMAHA,  or  SIOUX  CITY. 

Tlie  Gr.-nt  Merit**  orihiN  l.liie  lire  I'lilliiiaii  I’uliiee  Sleeping  C'iii-n,  IliillVt 
I.llirary  mid  Smoking  ('m'H,  Piilliiiiiii  IMiilii^  <'iirH,  I’lillinuii  'J'oiii-Ih(. 
KIceperN,  Kle|{mit  Day  Coacliea,  lliiloii  Depot**,  KiinI  Time 

Pin.I.MAlV  DINI^’G  CAKS  uni  run  diiily  lietwcoii  Council  lllull'*  uml  Henver,  Couueil  MIuHh  uii.l 
PorllHixl,  and  San  KranciHoo,  KatiHiiH  City  and  l»**nver. 

PUI.I.MAN  TtKJKIST  MI.KKI'KKS  run  on  llio  Union  I’Aciriu  ar*j  almoNt  ciiiial  for  coinfort 
and  convoninnoo  to  tins  Firat-ClaNH  I'nilinan  Sleeper. 

For  more  complete  inforinaiion  relative  to  thlH  lin<‘,  tinm  of  train**,  painpliUdM  l|l•M<•ripliv•>  of  the 
country  traver.scil,  etc.,  cull  on  your  neaient  lii'ket  aKuul,  any  nielli  ol  thia  ayati-m,  or  aihlrcsa 

U.  TKNBKOKCK,  Ucneral  Kaatern  AKenI,  liroiuUvay,  New  York  City. 

K.  DICKINSON,  Gen  I .Matiaifer.  K.  I,.  I.O.MAX,  (ien’l  I’aHH.  and  Ticket  Anent. 

Oiiialia,  IVeliraNku. 


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MAP  OF  WINTER  TOURS  IN  PRIVATE  CARS. 


WINTER  TOURS  IN  PRIVATE  PULLMAN  PALACE  GARS 


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JANUARY  9,  FEBRUARY  6 AND  MARCH  5 


FOR 


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by  the  route  given  on  map  below.  Price  of  ticket 
includes  all  expenses.  Everything  strictly 
first  class.  For  descriptive  pamphlet  write  to 


T.  A.  GRADY,  Tourist  Manager,  211  Clark  Street,  Chicago,  111. 


IMPROVEMENT  THE  ORDER  OF  THE  AGE.’ 


THREE  NEW  MODEL 

SMITH  PREMIER  TYPEWRITERS 

Nos.  2,  3 AND  4. 

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Great 
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DURABILITY  the  first  consideration. 

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r 


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SHASTA  ROUTE 


AND 

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On  Vour  Return  from 

CALIFORNIAP^ 


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You  Can  See  the  Original  of  this  Scene. 


RAPIDS  NEAR  UPPER  FALL. 

n is  in  the  YELLOWSTONE  PARK,  and  can  be  reached 
on  your  return  from  CA  !,[ EORN [ A if  you  ivill  see  that  your 
ticket  reads  as  above.  In  addition  you  witt  see 

Mr.  S/IASTA.  MT.  If  OOP,  and  MT.  TACOMA, 
the  Giant  Peaks  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  fiass  through  P>rt- 
tand.  Tacoma.  Seattte,  .Sfiokane.  Helena  or  liutte.  Missouta. 
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Send  me  6 cents  for 

SKETCHES  OR  WO  fSI  D E l_  A INJ  D. 

CHAS.  S.  FKK,  Oen.  Pass.  Agent, 

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NA  riONA  L GEOGRA  PHIC  MA  GA ZINE 


A GREAT  RAILWAY 


The  Chicago,  Milwaukee  and . . . 
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OWNS  AND  OPERATES  6,169  MILES  OF  ROAD. 


I 

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IT  operates  its  own  Sleeping  Cars  and 
Dining  Cars. 

It  traverses  the  best  portions  of  the 
States  of  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  Northern 
Michigan,  Iowa,  Missouri,  Minnesota, 
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Its  Sleeping  and  Dining  Car  service  is 
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It  runs  vestibuled,  steam-heated  and 
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It  has  the  absolute  block  system. 

It  uses  all  modern  appliances  for  the 
comfort  and  safety  of  its  patrons. 

Its  train  employes  are  civil  and 
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It  tries  to  give  each  passenger  “value 
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Its  General  Passenger  Agent  asks 
every  man,  woman  and  child  to  buy 
tickets  over  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee 
and  St.  Paul  Railway — for  it  is  A Great 


Railway. 


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EVERYTHING  IS  NEW! 


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THE  COnPLETE  WORK  EMBRACES: 


The  maps  in  this  book  would  cost 
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64  Pages  of  artistically  colored 
diagrams  relating  to  imports,  ex- 
ports, populations,  etc. 

157  Pages  of  colored  maps. 

98  Pages  of  illustrated  history  and 
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125  Portraits  and  biographies  of 
eminent  statesmen,  soldiers,  and 
writers. 

An  Index  naming  and  locating 
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way and  express  station  in  the 
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TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  PAGES,  444 
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National  Geographic  Magazine, 

PUBLISHED  ON  THE  FIRST  OF  EVERY  MONTH, 

nurnbers  among  its  contributors  the  following  well-known  writers 
on  the  different  branches  of  geographic  science : 


Mr.  Catus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

IJr.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Mr.  Marcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

CajJt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Theol.  Seminary. 

Mr.  K.  Iv-  Corthell,  C.  F.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Elliott  Cones. 

I\Ir.  hrauk  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabne}',  Jr.,  Assistant  Secre- 
tary of  Agriculture  and  President  (on  leave) 
of  the  Tennessee  State  University. 

Dr.  Win.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  Institution, 
ITes.  of  the  Phil.  Society  of  Washington. 

Dr.  George  Davitlson,  President  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

Mr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  Surve}'. 

.Mr.  Wm.  M.  Davis,  Profe.ssorof  Ph3>-sical  Geog- 
raphy  in  Harvard  Universitj'. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Statistics  and  Technology,  U.  S.  Geol.  Sur. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Hon.  John  W.  I'oster,  ex-vSecretary  of  State. 

.Mr.  Heur}’  Gannett,  Chief  Topographer,  U.  S. 
Geol.  Sur.  and  Geographer  of'iith  Census. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey', 
Pres,  of  the  Geol.  Society  of  Washington. 

'^^rcn.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  (lardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  Society. 

Dr  ilark  W.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  Ivverett  Hayalen,  U.  ,S.  N.,  Secretary  of 
the  N’ati<mal  Geographic  vSocietv. 

Mr.  Will.  H.  Holmes.  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  An- 
thropology, P'ield  Cohim.  Mu.seum,  Chicago. 

Dr.  Jviiiil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson,  U.  S.  Commissioner  of 
Education  for  Alaska. 


Mr.  George  Kennan. 

Prof.  William  Libbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.  N.  T. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American’  Eth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  E.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey 

Adiniral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S.  Nv 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  lilass. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Ornithologist  aiid  Mam- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture 

Hon.  John  H.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  S. 

Prof.  W.  L.  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

1^^^*  Frederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hydrotrranher 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey 

Eieut.  Robert  E-  Peary,  U.  ,S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Peary'. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  S. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Professor  of  Astron- 
omy in  Haryard  Uniyersity. 

Major  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology  and  President  of  the 
Anthropological  Society  of  Washington. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent  of  Schools 
District  of  Columbia.  ’ 


Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  ,S. 

Ciyil  Seryice  Commission. 

Mr.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Profe.ssor  of  Geology  in 
the  Univensity  of  Michigan. 

Dr.  N.  S.  Shaler,  Profes.sor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sigsbee,  Hvdrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy  Dept. 
Mi.ss  Eliza  Ruhainah  Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L-  Tanner,  U.  ,S.  N. 

Mr.  Prank  ’Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.S. 

Geological  Survey. 

Mrs.  Fannie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


Among  the  contents  of  fortlicoming  numbers  will  be  articles,  for 
the  most  part  illustrated,  on  the  Geography,  People,  and  Resources 
of  Costa  Rica,  by  General  Richard  Villafranca,  Commissioner-General 
to  the  Atlanta  l^xposition  ; on  Some  Recent  Ifxplorations  in  the  Foot- 


iiills  of  the  Andesof  Jeeuador,  by  Mr.  Mark  B.  Kerr;  on  1 lydrograibhy 
dithe  United  State.s,  by  Mr.  Frederick  II.  Newell;  on  P'ree  Burghs 
n the  United  States,  by  Air.  James  II.  Blodgett;  on  the  'Topographic 
Work  of  the  United  States  (;eological  Survey,  by  Mr.  I lenry  Gannett, 
inJ  on  the  lapestry- Producing  Nations,  by  Mr.  C.  M.  Foulke. 


25  CJilNTS. 


THE  MARCH  NUMBER 


OF 


WILL  CONTAIN  A 

CHART,  49x30  Inches, 

SHOWING  THE 


SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD, 


AND  ALSO  THE 


PRINCIPAL  LAND  LINES 

AND  THE  COALING,  DOCKING  and 

REPAIRING  STATIONS. 


This  valuable'  Chart,  which  is  now  published  for  the  first  time, 
has  been  prepared  in  the  Hydro^^raphic  Office  of  the  Navy  De- 
partment. It  is  not  intended  for  public  distribution,  and  its  use 
in  connection  with  The  National  Geographic  Magazine  will 
considerably  increase  the  ct)st  of  the  March  number. 

The  Edition  will  therefore  be  Strictly  Limited 
and  Orders  should  be  sent  in  at  once. 


JUDD  & DETWEILER,  PRINTERS,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


MARCH,  1896 


No. 


The 


-f ^ 

Honorary  Editor:  JOHN  HYDE 


45 


A.  W.  QREELY 


Honorary  Associate  Editors  ' j 

W JiJHcOEE  -ELIZ^RUHAMAH  SCIDilORE 


CONTENTS 


WILLI/aM  H.  QAtiL 
GEN.  A.  W.  GREELY 


THE  SO-CALLED  "JEANNETTE  RELICS.” 

NANSEN’S  POLAR  EXPEDITION. 

With  portrait  of  Dr.  Nansen. 

THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OP  THE  WORLD. 

^ With  chart 

PETER  COOPER  AND  SUBMARINE  TELEGRAPHY. 

THE  RUSSO-AMERICAN  TELEGRAPH  PROJECT  OF  1864-’67. 

WILLIAM  H.  DALL 

THE  SURVEY  AND  SUBDIVISION  OF  INDIAN  TERRITORY. 

With  map  and  illustration  HENRY  GANNETT 

"FREE  BURGHS”  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.  JAMES  H BLODGETT 
Proceedings  of  The  NaUonal  Geographic  Society,  p.  122 ; Miscellanea,  p.  124. 


PAGE 

93 

98 


GUSTAVE  HERRLE  102 


108 

110 

112 

116 


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T H E 


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ORGANIZED,  JANUARY,  1888 


PlIHSiniCNT 

GARDINER  G.  HUBBARD 


V ICK-  I’jiKSIDUNTS 

IM ARCUS  r>AKER  A.  W.  GREEI.Y 

CHARLES  W.  DABNEY,  Jk.  C.  HART  3IERRIA:\I 

HENRY  GANNETT  HERBERT  G.  OGDEN 


Tukasuhkii 
CHARLES  J.  BELL 


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ELIZA  R.  SCID.MORE 


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.lUHN  HYDE 
W .1  :\IcGEIC 


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J.  B.  WIGHT 


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THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine 

VoL.  VII  MARCH,  1896  No.  3 


THE  SO-CALLED  “JEANNETTE  RELICS” 

By  Profe.ssor  William  H.  Dall 

Aluch  interest  lias  been  excited  by  the  recent  rumor  that  news 
had  Ijeen  received  from  Nansen,  via  Siberia.  In  discussing  the 
rumor  I mentioned  that  the  supposed  relics  of  the  Jeannette  found 
off  Julianehaab,  in  Greenland,  were  in  all  probability  in  no  way 
connected  with  the  Jeannette  expedition,  but  were  due  to  a boy- 
ish prank  of  some  of  the  members  of  the  Greely  relief  expedition 
of  1884.  In  attempting  to  formulate  his  impressions  of  an  inter- 
view with  me  during  which  the  subject  was  discussed,  and  wbicli 
were  not  revised  li}'’  me,  the  reporter  unfortunately  fell  into  some 
inaccuracies,  not  unnatural  inajierson  unfamiliar  with  the  tech- 
nicalities of  arctic  exploration,  but  for  which  the  telegrams  to 
the  press  made  me  responsible.  It  seems  desirable,  therefore, 
to  lay  before  tbose  interested  in  such  matters  a statement  of  the 
facts  bearing  on  the  two  questions  involved,  namely.  Were  the 
relics  really  derived  from  the  Jeannette  expedition?  and,  if  not, 
were  they  the  result  ofa  mystification,  as  above  suggested  ? 'fhe 
first  is  of  course  the  only  one  of  importance  to  geographers,  for 
if  the  relics  were  spurious  it  matters  but  little  whence  tbey  were 
derived,  'fhe  facts  are  now  in  order. 

1.  The  Jeannette  Hnwk  .lune  11,  1881,  in  the  .Arctic  sea,  about 
180  miles  northwest  from  the  New  Siberian  islands. 

2.  'fhe  Greely  relief  exi)edition  of  1881  reached  the  coast  of 
Greenland  in  May;  the  Hear  met  the  pack  ice  near  Godliavn 
about  .May  13;  the  Thetis  i\\n\  Loch  (iarri/,  May  22;  the  . l/c?'G)n 


7 


94 


THE  SO-CALLED  “JEANNETTE  RELICS 


June  5.  The  latter  left  Godhavn  June  9 and  reached  Upernivik 
June  13. 

3.  On  June  18  some  Eskimo  found  on  the  surface  of  an  ice 
floe  off  Julianehaab,  in  southwest  Greenland,  some  articles,  which 
were  turned  over  to  the  Danish  officer  in  charge  of  that  settle- 
ment, Herr  Lytzen,  who  sent  them  to  a friend  in  Copenhagen. 
Tliese  comprised,  among  other  things,  some  broken  biscuit  boxes, 
a pair  of  oilskin  trousers,  said  to  have  been  marked  Louis  Noros 
(tlie  name  of  one  of  the  Jeannette  survivors,  who  was  a member 
of  tlie  Greely  relief  expedition  of  1884),  and  a number  of  written 
jiapers,  especially  a list  of  tlie  boats  of  the  Jeannette^  and  a list  of 
provisions  signed  by  De  Long,  the  commander  of  the  Jeannette 
expedition,  and  stated  to  be  entirely  in  his  or  a single  hand- 
writing. 

4.  The  Greely  relief  expedition  left  Greenland  from  Godhavn 
July  9,  without  toucliing  at  Julianehaab. 

5.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  winter  of  1884-’85  a Danish  corre- 
spondent wrote  to  Dr  Emil  Bessels,  formerly  of  the  Polaris  ex- 
pedition and  a well-known  arctic  expert,  at  Washington,  stating 
that  news  of  these  various  relics  had  been  received  in  Copenhagen 
and  requesting  his  opinion  as  to  their  authenticity.  The  sub- 
stance of  this  letter  was  communicated  to  me  by  Dr  Bessels,  who 
was  much  interested  in  the  find,  as,  if  genuine,  it  obviously  fur- 
nished important  data  toward  a knowledge  of  the  drift  in  the 
polar  regions.  The  presence  in  Washington  during  1885  of  man}^ 
members  of  the  relief  expedition,  in  connection  with  the  various 
investigations  Avhich  followed  their  return,  enabled  Dr  Bessels  to 
interview  many  of  the  seamen  as  well  as  their  officers  and  to  ac- 
cumulate a large  mass  of  notes  from  his  examination  of  them. 
On  one  or  two  occasions  I was  invited  to  be  present  when  some 
of  these  men  called  on  Dr  Bessels.  The  well-known  tendency  of 
articles  on  the  surface  of  ice,  under  the  influence  of  the  sun,  to 
sink  through  it  to  the  level  of  the  water — even  such  trifles  as  bird’s 
feathers  or  dead  leaves  being  rai)idly  engulfed,  as  I have  often 
personally  noticed — led  to  doubts  as  to  the  possibility  of  the  ar- 
ticles mentioned  having  remained  on  the  surface  of  the  ice  for 
three  years  during  a drift  of  3,000  miles,  exposed  to  the  elements. 
The  possibility  of  the  preservation  of  written  papers  under  such 
conditions  seemed  almost  incredible.  The  close  approximation 
of  the  dates  of  the  presence  of  the  relief  exjiedition  on  the  west 
Greenland  coast  and  that  of  the  finding  of  the  relics  was  also 
suspicious.  The  testimony  of  the  seamen  interviewed  was,  in 


95 


THE  SO-CALLED  '‘JEANNETTE  RELICS'^ 

brief,  to  the  effect  tliat  tlie  presence  of  Jeannette  survivors  on  the 
relief  expedition  liad  sut^gested  to  some  one  the  possiljility  of 
producing  a sensation  in  the  fleet  which  for  some  time  followed 
the  foremost  vessels;  that  in  a spirit  of  boyish  levity  this  hoax 
W'as  conceived  and  carried  out,  with  no  intention  of  serious  de- 
ception or  thought  of  the  possible  consequences.  No  names  were 
mentioned  and  the  evidence  was  to  the  effect  that  a general  im- 
I)re.ssion  prevailed  among  the  men  that  some  such  })rank  had 
been  played  rather  than  that  any  particular  man  questioned  was 
personally  cognizant  of  the  act.  Dr  Bessels  gathered  an  amount 
of  evidence  tending  to  support  this  hypothesis,  which  he  showed 
me  and  which  covered  forty  or  fifty  pages  of  foolscap.  This 
record  was  afterward  burned,  tvith  his  library  and  other  papers, 
in  a fire  which  destroyed  his  residence  at  Glendale,  D.  C.  In 
consequence  Dr  Bessels  communicated  to  his  Euro]iean  corre- 
spondents his  belief  that  the  relics  were  fictitious  and  the  result 
of  a hoax.  I stated  to  Dr  Rink  and  others  who  inquired  of  me 
the  same  conclusions. 

6.  In  1888  Dr  Nansen  made  his  celebrated  journey  across 
Greenland  and  presumaldy  heard  of  the  relics  there.  Before  his 
return,  Dr  Bessels  died  in  Germany,  where  he  had  taken  up  his 
residence.  Up  to  this  time  either  the  doul)ts  which  had  been 
thrown  on  the  authenticity  of  the  relics,  or  some  other  reason, 
had  lu’evented  them  from  exciting  much  interest,  and  the  owner 
seems  to  have  resisted  any  attempt  to  verify  their  authenticity 
by  sending  photogra|)hs  or  originals  of  the  i)apers  to  America 
when  requested.  The  ])aj)ers  and  other  objects  were  placed  in 
a box  in  a garret  and,  after  the  death  of  the  owner,  were  burned 
as  worthless,  with  the  ac({uiescence  of  the  widow.  As  Herr 
Uytzen  had  published  an  account  of  them  (Geogr.  Tidskr.,  viii, 
188o-’88,  j)p.  4h-.51  j and  the  finder  and  possessor  alike  acted  in 
]»erfect  good  faith  throughout,  it  is  probable  that  after  Dr  Bes- 
sels’ opinion  was  communicated  to  him.  the  owner  attached  no 
great  value  to  the  oljects,  otherwise  his  wife  could  hardly  have 
been  ignoi-ant  of  it. 

When  Dr  Nansen  endeavored  to  examine  these  objects  with 
a view  of  determining  their  authenticity,  tlu>y  were  no  longer  in 
existence.*  One  of  his  friends,  whost;  name  has  slipped  my 
memory  and  whose  letter  is  temporarily  inaccessible,  wrote  to 
me  on  Nansen's  behalf,  as  he  explained,  asking  my  ojiinion, 


* Sf!C  Ui)y.  Oeo«.  So<!.  l’ro<;.,  Nov.  11,  I8ii2,  in  .lunniul,  .Ian.,  18!).'l,  pp.  l-.TJ. 


96 


THE  SO-CALLED  ^‘JEANNETTE  RELICS” 

Avhich  Avas  sent  some  time  before  the  starting  of  Nansen’s  latest 
expedition.  Baron  Nordenskibld  was  also  informed  some  time 
before  Nansen  sailed,  so  that  there  is  no  doubt  that  Nansen  was 
cognizant  of  the  fact  that  the  authenticity  of  the  relics  Avas  seri- 
ously questioned.  He  had  preAuously  admitted  as  much  in 
his  paper  above  cited,  but  did  not  on  that  account  relax  his  faith 
in  them. 

Conclasiom. — It  is  evident  that  the  ])roof  that  the  relics  Avere 
the  result  of  a hoax  is  not  complete,  and.  in  the  nature  of  things, 
unless  the  parties  actually  concerned  shall  admit  it,  is  never 
likely  to  be  com})leted.  Each  person  Avill  form  his  OAvn  opinion 
from  the  data  submitted.  I have  spent  some  ten  years  of  my 
life  at  sea,  nearly  half  of  the  time  in  command  of  a United  States 
surveying  A^essel,  and  I am  quite  aAvare  of  the  nature  of  sailor 
men  and  sailors’  evidence.  Dr  Bessels  Avas  for  years  my  inti- 
mate and  valued  friend  and  associate,  and  in  all  our  intercourse 
nothing  ever  occurred  to  lead  me  to  doulit  his  earnest  endeavor 
to  get  at  the  truth  of  this  matter.  iNIy  oavu  conclusions  are,  first, 
that  the  relics  Avere  not  authentic,  and,  second,  that  they  Avere 
probably  due  to  a hoax,  as  stated  above.  In' support  of  the  first 
conclusion,  beside  the  data  given,  the  probability  that  De  Long 
himself  would  be  Avriting  out  receipts  for  stores  is  very  small. 
There  has  been  since  1818  an  average  of  tAVO  or  three  ships  a year 
lost  in  the  ice  north  of  Bering  strait,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
point  Avhere  the  Jeannette  entered  the  pack.  Not  a single  relic 
of  all  the  enormous  fleet  of  oA'er  one  hundred  Avrecks  has  ever 
been  identified  on  the  Greenland  coast,  A\diere  AA'ood  has  ahvays 
been  of  the  greatest  value.  Driftwood  from  northern  rivers  is 
cast  up  on  the  Greenland  coast  more  or  less  every  year,  hut  there 
is  no  evidence  that  it  comes  from  points  east  of  Nova  Zembla. 
It  is  not  im})ossible  that  some  of  it  does,  but  it  cannot  be-  proA^ed. 
Some  tAA'enty-odd  years  ago  a throAving-stick,  of  the  pattern  used 
at  Port  Clarence,  near  Bering  strait,  came  ashore  on  the  coast  of 
Greenland,  near  Godhaab,  and  Avas  presented  to  the  museum  at 
Christiania  by  Dr  Rink.*  When  one  remembers  hoAV  the  creAVS 
of  Avhaleships  collect  curios  Avhich  they  carry  to  all  parts  of  the 
Avorld,  and  Avhich  are  often  throAvn  aAvay  or  lost  in  the  most  un- 
expected places,  the  certainty  that  this  stick  drifted  from  Port 
Clarence,  a distance  of  not  less  than  4,000  miles,  is  evidently  not 
to  be  taken  for  granted.  I have  received  from  lagoons  on  the 


*Cf.  Qeog.  Tidskr.,  ix,  No.  4,  pp.  75-G,  Copenhagen,  1887. 


THE  SO-CALLED  ^^JEANNETTE  EELLCS” 


97 


west  side  of  tlie  peninsula  of  Lower  California,  formerly  fre- 
quented by  whalers,  marine  shells  unquestionably  of  north 
European  origin,  Bnccinum  nndatum  especialhq  which  is  not 
known  in  the  Pacific  at  all,  and  I have  also  received  Indo-Pacific 
species,  as  well  as  cocoanut  shells,  collected  by  John  Murdoch, 
from  the  shores  of  the  Arctic  ocean,  north  of  Bering  strait.  That 
the  drift  of  the  Jeannette  was  due  to  the  i)revalent  winds  is  be- 
yond question,  as  already  shown  by  Melville,  and  as  may  be 
worked  out  by  anybody  from  the  data.  That,  if  continued,  it 
would  have  passed  across  the  Pole,  as  argued  by  Nansen,  is  a 
pure  assumption,  though  a veiy  enticing  one.  Certainly  no  one 
interested  in  arctic  work  but  must  most  heartily  wish  that  that 
courageous  explorer  may  succeed  in  proving  his  hypothesis  and 
return  in  safety  to  claim  the  laurels  his  success  would  earn. 

In  regard  to  the  second  point,  that  of  the  origin  of  the  so-called 
relics,  if  regarded  as  fictitious,  I have  already  stated  my  conclu- 
sion that  the  story  of  the  hoax  seems  sufficient  to  account  for 
tliem.  To  Ije  perfect!}’’  impartial,  however,  one  must  admit  that 
the  currents  about  southwest  Greenland  are  such  that  objects  set 
adrift  on  the  ice  from  any  great  distance  to  the  northward  of 
Julianehaab  would  usually  be  set  over  to  the  westward  rather 
than  in  shore,  although  tliis  general  rule  is  subject  to  exceptions, 
due  to  strong  westerly  winds.  This  fact  alone  I suspect  was  suf- 
ficient to  satisfy  Nansen,  whose  hypothesis  was  already  framed  ; 
ljut  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  Greenland  current  does  not 
round  cape  Farewell  with  equal  strength  at  all  seasons  of  the 
year;  that  the  advent  of  the  relief  expedition  was  excei)tionally 
early  ; the  inllux  into  Baffin’s  bay  had  not  l)egun,and  that  along 
such  a coast  as  that  of  Greenland  eddies  and  reverse  currents 
cannot  fail  to  occur.  W'hile  not  without  weight,  I cannot  assign 
to  Nansen’s  objection  sufficient  weight  to  overcome  the  other  in- 
dications, which  f(jr  me,  at  least,  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
so-called  Jeannette  relics  have  not  l)een  shown  to  have  any  certain 
connection  with  the  Jeannette  expedition.  Furthermore,  there 
is  no  certainty  that  tlie  ,\laskan  throwing-stick  was  l»rought  to 
the  coast  of  Greenland  Ijy  oceanic  currents,  and  even  if  it  was, 
the  time  occupied  in  the  transit  and  the  route  are  alike  abso- 
lutely unknown,  so  that  speculations  as  to  a drift  across  the 
region  of  the  I’ole  receive  from  this  incident  no  ))ositive  con- 
tirmation. 

Ailmiral  Sir  E.  Inglefield,  the  distinguished  Arctic  traveler,  at 
the  meeting  of  the  Koval  ( !eogra|)hical  Society  called  to  discuss 


08 


NANSEX’S  POLAR  EXPEDITION 


Nansen’s  plans,  told  of  finding  a fresh  stick  of  Siberian  pine, 
with  the  bark  still  upon  it  and  which  seemed  to  have  been  only 
a few  months  in  the  water,  on  the  west  shore  of  Wellington 
channel,  which  enters  Baffin’s  hay  from  the  west.*  If  such  a 
tree  could  l^e  carried  eastward  in  a few  months  from  Siberia  to 
a [)oint  accessible  by  ships  from  Baffin’s  bay,  why  is  it  not  more 
))robable  that  this  throwing-stick,  lost  near  Port  Clarence,  was 
carried  north  and  east  by  the  well-known  northeasterly  shore 
current  ])ast  point  Barrow  and  so  on  to  Baffin’s  bay  and  the 
Greenland  coast? 

At  this  meeting  such  Arctic  authorities  as  Admiral  Sir  George 
Nares,  Cai)tain  Wharton,  Hydrogra])her  II.  N.,  ex-Hydrographer 
Sir  George  Bichards,  K.  N.,  and  Sir  Joseph  Hooker  united  in  the 
opinion  that  nothing  was  known  about  the  direction  or  exist- 
ence of  sea  currents  in  the  region  Nansen  ho})ed  to  traverse,  and 
that  all  o[)inions  in  regard  to  them  must  l)e  purely  speculative. 
The  doubtful  character  of  the  so-called  Jeannette  relics  was  also 
distinctl}"  pointed  out.f  It  cannot  be  said  therefore  that  Nansen 
])ursued  his  {)lans  in  ignorance  of  the  doubtful  elements  of  his 
hyi)othesis,  but  rather  that  his  courage,  energ}",  and  audacity 
were  such  that  he  was  willing  to  risk  everything  to  put  his  specu- 
lations to  a final  test. 


NANSEN’S  POLAR  EXPEDITION 

By  General  A.  W.  Greely, 

Chief  Signal  Officer,  United  States  Armij 

The  continuing  interest  of  the  unsolved  polar  mystery  has 
been  strikingly  illustrated  by  the  eagerness  with  which  the  press 
of  the  world  has  caught  at  every  word  that  seems  to  indicate 
the  success  and  safety  of  the  brave  Norwegian  in  his  dangerous 
drift- voyage  toward  the  north  ])ole.  , 

Dr  Fridtjof  Nansen,  born  in  1861,  became  famous  by  cross- 
ing, first  of  all  men,  the  inland  ice  of  Greenland  in  1888  from 
Umivik,  64°  45'  north,  on  the  east  coast,  to  Kangersunek  fiord,  50 
miles  south  of  Godthaab.  Later,  he  conceived  a novel  and 
dangerous  }>lan  for  polar  work.  Ignoring  the  accepted  rules  of 

* Geographical  Journal,  Jan.,  1893,  p.  25. 
t Op.  cit.,  pp.  22-32. 


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currents 


SHOWING  ROUTES  TRAVERSED  BY  THE  NANSEN  EXPEDITION 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XI 


DR  FRIDTJOF  NANSEN 


XAXSEy’S  POLAR  EXPEDITIOX 


99 


ice  navigation — of  avoiding  besetment  and  following  the  pro- 
tected lee  of  land-masses — he  decided  to  put  his  ship  into  the 
ice  to  the  north  of  the  New  Siberian  islands,  whence  he  believed 
that  he  would  be  carried  by  ocean  currents  across  the  pole  to 
the  Spitzhergen  sea.  His  steamer,  Frnm,  125  feet  long,  with  an 
oak  hull  30  inches  thick  and  sheathed  with  greenheart,  was  built 
so  as  to  rise  under  ice  jn-essure,  as  he  claimed.  The  crew  of  twelve 
were  provisioned  for  five  years,  though  he  expected,  by  a drift  of 
a little  over  two  miles  per  day,  to  reach  the  Atlantic  in  two  years. 
No  explorer  of  experience  endorsed  the  plan,  but  with  undaunted 
courage  Nansen  sailed  June  24,  1S93,  and  entering  the  sea  of 
Kara  was  last  seen  to  the  east  of  Nova  Zernbla  in  September,  1893. 
He  visited  neither  the  Taimur  peninsula  nor  the  New  Siberian 
islands,  as  events  have  since  shown. 

Fehruaiy  13, 1896,  a dispatch  from  Irkutsk,  on  the  authority 
of  Konchnareff,  an  agent  of  Nansen,  stated  that  the  explorer, 
having  reached  land-masses  at  the  North  Pole,  was  now  returning. 
Two  days  later  a dispatch  from  Archangel  confirmed  the  first  re- 
port in  general  terms  onl3^  From  the  beginning  no  credit  was 
given  to  these  dispatches  by  any  American  arctic  explorer  or 
student.  Melville,  Schutze,  Dali,  and  the  writer  were  strenuous  in 
disbelief,  hut  the  story  was  credited  by  scores  of  persons,  both 
in  Europe  and  this  country,  who  did  not  find  it  peculiar  that  a 
story  from  the  center  of  Asia  was  confirmed  from  the  north  of 
Europe,  nor  were  surprised  that  such  news  came  from  the  Si- 
berian ocean  in  midwinter.  Through  the  Norwegian  press  Nan- 
sen’s relatives  announce  their  disbelief  in  this  rumor. 

As  to  the  drift-relics  found  on  the  west  coast  of  Greenland, 
which  were  relied  on  by  Nansen  as  practical  proof  that  his  theory 
of  a drift  voyage  was  correct,  it  may  he  said  tliat  Melville,  the 
man  best  qualified  to  speak  about  the  Jeannette,  denied  at  the 
time  their  genuineness  and  endeavored  without  avail  to  have 
them  brought  to  this  country.  The  writer  puhlicl}’^  called  Nan- 
sen’s attention  to  this  question,  which  for  the  first  time  seems  to 
have  created  doubts  in  his  mind.  Nansen  made  efforts  to  find 
the  relics  for  verification,  but  they  had  disa])])eared  in  toto. 

\Vhile  Nansen’s  journey  is  (‘.xceedingly  dangerous,  it  would 
not  he  astfjuishing  if  ho  was  able  to  return  from  his  ship,  if  it 
was  lost  Sf)uth  of  81°  north,  to  the  Asiatic  coast,  hut  if  he  really 
a])|)roached  the  North  Polo,  as  is  po.ssil)le,  before  his  ve.ssel  was 
destroyed,  it  is  .safe  to  say  that  he  will  i>ay  for  an  une(pial(‘d 


100 


jXANSEmY’S  polar  expedition 


latitude  with  his  life  and  carry  the  secret  of  his  well-earned  suc- 
cess to  his  grave. 

The  numerous  errors  lately  set  forth  in  the  i)ress  indicate  the 
need  of  accurate  data  relative  to  latitudes  attained.  - 

Tlie  tendency  to  unfairly  present  data  in  the  interests  of  indi- 
viduals or  nations  is  of  con.stant  occurrence,  and  it  is  not  sur- 
prising that  the  general  pnlhic  should  l)e  unfamiliar  with  all  the 
hicts.  This  is  especially  true  in  Arctic  matters,  as  is  shown  by 
the  North  Polar  chart  in  “ The  Times  Atlas,”  1895,  so  much 
lauded  for  its  fullness  and  accuracy.  On  this  chart  the  highest 
north  of  the  German,  Swedish,  and  Plnglish  (Parry’s,  1827)  ex- 
])editions  is  so  described  in  full  lyv  text  and  latitudes.  In  the 
case  of  Beaumont,  the  English  explorer,  his  latitude  is  given  as 
82°  54'  north,  which  is  33  miles  too  far  north,  and  his  record  is 
s])read  on  the  maj)  above  that  of  Lockwood,  while  the  last- 
named  explorer,  who  actually  made' the  highest  north  ever 
attained,  has  not  even  his  latitude  entered.  In  this  remarkable 
case  o(  s>(j>prcnsio  vert  an  American  explorer  loses  his  nationality^ 
his  latitude,  and  his  hard-earned  record,  all  other  nationalities 
having  their  data  entered  in  full. 

Under  these  conditions  it  seems  to  he  rendering  a geograph- 
ical service  to  reproduce  here  a table  extracted  from  a “ Hand- 
book of  Arctic  Discovery,”  written  by  myself. 


Reconix  of  the  IPojhext  North  )nadr  sinre  15S7  in  the  Eaxtern  and  Western 
llemixpheres  Inj  Ltnid  and  Inj  Sea.* 

E.\STEUN  I tE.MI.SeilERE. 


Coniniander. 

Date. 

N.  lat. 

Long. 

Locality. 

AVilliani  Barents  . . 

July  14,  1594 

77°  20' 

62°  E. 

Xear  cape  Xa.ssan, 
X.  Z. 

Ryp  and  Ileeins- 
kerek  (Barents’ 
third  vovage). 

June  19,  159(i 

79°  49' 

12°  E. 

X.  Spitzbergen. 

1 lenrv  Iliulson .... 

July  13,  1()07 

80°  23' 

10°  E. 

S])itzbergen  sea. 

ii  ii 

J.  C.  Phipps  

Julv  27,  1773 

80°  48' 

20°  E. 

William  Seoresbv. . 

Alav  24,  180() 

81° 30' 

19°  E. 

U U 

W.  E.  Pan  v 

July  23.  1827 

82°  45' 

20°  E. 

“ “ 

Nordenskiold  anil 
Otter. 

Sept.  19,  1808 

81°  42' 

18°  E. 

Si)itzbergen  sea, 
highest  by  ship. 

AVeyprecht  and 
Payer. 

April  12,  1874 

82°  05' 

O 

O 

Franz  Josef  Land, 
by  Payer,  highest 
land. 

* Notk.— This  table  is  reproduced  by  permission  of  Roberts  Broiliers,  Publisliers. 


KAXSEN’S  POLAR  EXPEDITION 


101 


Western  Hemisphere. 


Commander. 

Date. 

N.  lat. 

Long. 

Locality. 

John  Davis 

June  30,  1587 

72° 12^ 

56°  AV. 

AA'.  Greenland. 

Henry  H udson .... 

June  20,  1607 

73° 

20°  AV. 

Off  E.  Greenland. 

William  Baffin .... 

July  4,  1616 

77°  45' 

72°  AV. 

Smith  sound. 

E.  A.  Inglefleld., . . 

Aug.  27,  1852 

78° 21' 

74°  AV. 

Smith  sound. 

E.  K.  Kane 

June  24,  1854 

80°  10' 

67°  AV. 

Cape  Constitution, 
Greenland,  by 
Alorton. 

C.  F.  Hall 

Aug.  30,  1870 

82° 11' 

61°  AV. 

Frozen  sea. 

C.  F.  Hall 

June  30,  1871 

82°  07' 

59°  AV. 

Greenland,  by  Ser- 
geant Aleyer,  Sig- 
nal Corps,  U.  S. 
Armv. 

G.  S.  Nares 

Sept.  25,  1875 

82° 48' 

65°  AV. 

Grinnell  Land,  by 
Aldrich. 

G.  S.  Nares 

May  12,  1876 

83°  20' 

65°  AV. 

Frozen  sea,  by  A. 
II.  Markham. 

A.  AV.  Greely 

May  13,  1882 

83°  24' 

41°  AV. 

New  Land,  north 
of  Greenland,  by 
Lockwood  and 
Brainard. 

Doiiljtless  the  name  of  some  whaler  should  follow  that  of  Baffin 
in  the  above  list,  but  the  inexactitude  of  most  high  latitudes  re- 
ported by  whalers  is  well  known.  Possibly  the  re})orted  north- 
ing of  Lambert,  78^  degrees  north,  in  1G70,  on  the  east  Greenland 
coast,  may  have  exceeded  Ingiefield’s  exact  latitude  of  78°  21'. 

Sweden  holds  the  ship^s  record  in  the  old  world,  but  Parry  beat 
it  by  boats.  It  will  be  noted  that  England  held  the  honors  of 
the  farthest  north  through  Hudson,  1607  ; Phipps,  1773;  Parry, 
1827,  and  Nares,  by  Aldrich,  1875,  and  by  Markham,  1876.  This 
record,  unlu’oken  for  275  years,  ]iassed  to  the  United  States 
through  the  efforts  of  the  International  Polar  Expedition,  under 
Lieutenant  Greely,  which,  liy  Lockwood  and  Brainard,  reached 
83°  24',  the  most  northerly  point,  whether  on  sea  or  land,  ever 
attained  by  man,  which  Nansen  or  .lackson  may  jiossibly  exeeb 

Aiming  other  Ingh  latitudes  attained,  but  not  pertinent  to  this 
tal)le,  are  the  following:  Ha}’es,  about  80°  10',  in  1861 ; .Tack- 
son,  81°  20',  in  18‘.15  ; Peary,  81°  37',  in  1801  and  1805;  Beau- 
mont, 82°  21',  in  1876;  Pavey  (with  Greely),  82°  54',  in  1882, 
and  .Aldrich,  83°  07',  in  1876. 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD 


By  Gustave  Herrle 

The  English  give  Professor  (afterward  Sir)  Charles  MTieat- 
stone  the  credit  of  being  the  originator  of  submarine  cables,  that 
gentleman  having  laid  before  the  House  of  Commons  in  1840  a 
sclieme  for  the  laying  of  a telegraph  cable  across  the  channel 
between  Dover  and  Calais,  but  his  plans  do  not  seem  to  have 
been  fully  matured. 

In  tlie  United  States,  in  1842,  Professor  S.  F.  B.  INIorse  experi- 
mented witli  a sulmiarine  cable  l^etween  Castle  Garden  and 
Governor’s  island,  New  York  harbor,  and  a year  later,  in  detail- 
ing the  results  of  his  exi)eriments  with  an  electro-magnetic  tele- 
graph in  a letter  to  the  then  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  J.  C. 
Spencer,  he  said  : 

. . . The  i>ractical  inference  from  this  law  is  that  a tele' 

grai^hic  communication  on  the  electro-magnetic  plan  may  with 
certainty  be  established  across  the  Atlantic.  Startling  as  this 
may  seem  now,  I am  confident  the  time  will  come  when  this 
project  will  l^e  realized.”  . . . 

It  was  not,  however,  until  1850  that  the  first  submarine  cable 
in  the  open  sea  was  laid.  This  was  the  cable  across  the  channel 
between  Dover  and  Calais.  It  was  made  of  copper  wire,  covered 
with  gutta-percha  to  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  the  shore  ends  of 
the  wire  being  doubly  covered  with  cotton,  overlaid  Avith  a coat- 
ing of  India  rubber,  and  the  whole  inclosed  in  a thick  lead  pipe. 
This  cable  did  not  work  successfully,  on  account  of  defective  in- 
sulation, and  had  to  be  aljandoned.  Another  authority  states 
that  telegraphic  communication  was  maintained  for  a few  hours, 
Avhen  it  Avas  suddenly  interrupted,  the  cause  being,  as  AA'as  after- 
Avards  discovered,  the  cutting  of  the  cable  by  a French  fisher- 
man, who,  it  is  said,  exhibited  a piece  of  it  to  the  astonished 
})eoj)le  of  a neighl)oring  town  as  a rare  specimen  of  sea-Aveed  Avith 
its  center  filled  Avith  gold.  Be  that  as  it  may,  to  guard  against 
such  casualities  tlie  ucav  cable,  laid  in  the  folloAving  year  (1851), 
betAveen  Dover  and  Calais,  Avas  made  much  stronger,  consisting 
of  a wire  insulated  Avith  gutta-percha  and  forming  a core  to  a 
Avire  rope  as  a jirotector.  This  calde  Avas  an  entire  success,  arid. 


102 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD 


103 


• as  a consequence,  the  establishment  of  a number  of  short  sub- 
marine cables  in  Europe  and  America  followed  shortly  afterward. 

In  1854,  Mr  C}wus  W.  Field,  whose  memory  will  ever  be  dear 
to  the  liearts  of  Americans,  took  up,  in  compan}'’  with  American 
and  English  capitalists,  the  project  to  connect  Europe  and 
America  b}’-  a submarine  cable,  and  on  August  7,  1857,  the  lay- 
ing of  the  first  Atlantic  cable  was  begun  by  the  U.  S.  frigate 
Xiagara,  which  sailed  from  Valentia,  Ireland,  in  the  direction  of 
Heart’s  Content,  Newfoundland.  When  about  400  miles  had 
been  laid,  the  cable  broke  and  the  steamer  returned.  In  the 
following  3’ear,  1858,  the  attempt  was  renewed,  H.  ]\I.  S.  Aga- 
memnon, with  one  portion  of  the  cable,  and  the  U.  8.  frigate 
Xiagara,  with  the  other  portion,  meeting  in  mid-ocean,  in  about 
latitude  52°  02'  north,  longitude  33°  18'  west,  to  splice  the  cable 
there,  and  then  to  lay  it,  one  shi])  sailing  eastward  and  the  other 
westward.  In  this  attempt  also  the  cable  broke  and  the  steam- 
ers returned  to  port,  but  a sufficient  length  of  cable  being  left, 
another  attempt  was  made  later  in  the  year  and  the  laying  was 
successful!}^  accomplished  over  the  whole  distance.  America  and 
Europe  were  united  by  telegraphic  communication  on  August  5, 
and  congratulatory  messages  were  exchanged  between  the  two 
continents.  This  is  what  the  Queen  of  England  telegraplied  to 
the  President  of  the  United  States  : 

“The  Queen  desires  to  congratulate  the  President  upon  the  successful 
completion  of  this  great  international  work,  in  which  the  Queen  has 
taken  the  deepest  interest.  The  Queen  is  convinced  that  the  President 
will  join  with  her  in  ferventl}'^  hoping  that  the  electric  cable  which  now 
connects  Great  Britian  with  the  United  States  will  prove  an  additional 
link  between  the  nations  whose  friendship  is  founded  upon  their  common 
interest  and  reciprocal  esteem.  The  Queen  has  much  pleasure  in  com- 
municating with  the  President,  and  renewing  to  him  her  wishes  for  the 
prosperity  of  the  United  States.” 

4'o  this  President  Buchanan  replied  as  follows  : 

“The  President  cordially  reciprocates  the  congratulations  of  Her  IMajesty 
the  Queen  on  the  success  of  the  great  international  enterprise  aci’om- 
plished  l)y  the  science,  skill,  and  indomitable  enersry  of  the  two  countries. 
It  is  a triumph  more  glorious,  because  far  more  useful  to  mankind,  than 
was  ever  won  Ijy  comiueror  on  the  field  of  battle.  }Iay  the  .Atlantic  tele- 
graph, nniler  the  blessing  of  Heaven,  ])rove  to  b(‘  a bond  of  perp(>tual 
peace  ami  friendship  between  the  kindred  nations,  and  an  instrument 
destineil  l>y  Divine  Providenc-e  to  dilfuse  religion,  civilization,  liberty, 
and  law  throughout  the  world.  In  this  view  will  not  all  nations  of 
f’hristendom  spontaneously  unite  in  the  declaration  that  it  shall  lu-  for- 
ever neutral,  and  that  its  communications  shall  be  held  sacred  in  passing 
to  their  places  of  destination,  even  in  the  midst  of  hostilities?” 


104 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  ^YORLD 


liut,  alas,  the  joy  over  the  greatest  triumph  of  the  age  was  des- 
tined to  be  of  short  duration.  In  less  than  a month  the  cable 
refused  to  work,  owing  to  some  fault  the  nature  of  which  could 
not  be  definitel}'’  ascertained.  It  was  at  last  abandoned  in  de- 
spair, and  no  further  attempt  to  lay  another  one  was  made  until 
18(>4,  when  the  Atlantic  Telegraph  Company  made  with  the 
Telegraph  Construction  and  INIaintenance  Company  a contract 
for  a new  cable  between  Valentia  and  Heart’s  Content  and  char- 
tered the  steamship  Great  Eastern  to  lay  it.  This  cable  was  2,273 
nautical  miles*  long,  and  its  weight  was  300  pounds  per  mile. 
Its  laying  down  commenced  on  July  23, 1865,  Mr  Cyrus  W.  Field 
being  on  board  the  ship,  but  on  August  2,  after  about  1,400  knots 
had  been  paid  out,  the  cable  parted  and  the  broken  end  disap- 
peared from  view.  The  Great  Eastern  remained  near  the  scene 
of  the  accident  until  August  11,  when  she  gave  up  the  attempt 
to  recover  the  cable  and  returned  to  Europe.  Thus  another 
hope,  another  aspiration,  was  buried,  and  we  may  well  imagine 
the  feelings  of  those  who  had  put  their  faith  and  their  money 
into  the  undertaking. 

The  story  of  this  attempt  and  of  the  successful  recovery  of 
the  lost  cable  a year  later  by  means  of  grapnels  from  a depth  of 
over  2,000  fathoms  forms  one  of  the  most  interesting  chapters  in 
the  histoiy  of  submarine  telegra])hy  ; but  after  all  the  disheart- 
ening failures  which  had  attended  the  laying  of  the  first  three 
Atlantic  cal)les,  the  indomitable  pluck  and  energ}’^  of  iNIr  Field 
and  his  associates  were  to  be  finally  rewarded  with  success.  A 
new  cable  was  ordered,  and  on  July  13,  1866,  the  Great  Eastern 
again  started  from  Valentia  and,  without  further  serious  mis- 
hap, finished  the  ia^ung  over  the  whole  distance  on  July  27, 
when  the  cable  was  spliced  to  the  shore  end  at  Heart’s  Content. 
IMoreover,  on  September  1 following,  the  Great  Eastern  recovered 
the  lost  cable  of  the  previous  year,  spliced  it  to  the  cable  on 
board,  and  completed  the  laying  of  it  toward  Heart’s  Content, 
thus  establishing  a duplicate  line.  Ever  since  that  time  we  have 
had  uninterrupted  telegraphic  connection  Avith  Europe,  and  this 
1866  cable  thus  became  the  pioneer  of  the  long-distance,  deep- 
sea  cables. 

Immense  progress  has  since  been  made  in  the  establishment 
of  submarine  telegraph  lines.  A fieet  of  between  thirt}'’-five  and 
forty  steamers,  specially  constructed  and  equi})ped  for  cable 

*A  nautical  mile,  as  defined  by  the  United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  equals 
6,080.27  feet,  or  1.1516  statute  miles. 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD 


105 


service,  sprang  into  existence,  and  the  present  total  length  of 
the  submarine  cables  of  the  world  is,  in  round  numbers,  160,000 
nautical  miles,  or  enough  to  girdle  the  earth  seven  and  one-half 
times  at  the  equator.  At  an  average  cost  of  SI, 200  per  mile,  the 
entire  system  represents  an  outlay  of  $192,000,000.  Of  the  total 
mileage  about  one-eighth  is  under  the  control  of  various  national 
governments. 

The  Hydrographic  Office  issued,  in  1892,  a book  on  Sub- 
marine Cables,”  prepared  by  Mr  G.  W.  Littlehales  as  a part  of 
the  report  of  that  Office  on  the  survey  made  by  the  U.  S.  shij)S 
Albatross  and  Thetis  for  an  ocean  cable  route  between  San  Fran- 
cisco and  Honolulu.  It  contains  a large  amount  of  interesting 
infonnation,  including  valuable  statistical  data,  among  which  is 
a complete  list  of  the  Submarine' Cables  of  the  world,  in  detail. 
The  tallies  being  much  too  voluminous  for  publication  in  these 
pages,  the  following  list  of  the  more  important  cables  has  been 
compiled  from  them,  the  reader  being  referred  to  the  original 
report  for  information  concerning  the  shorter  cables  and  for 
more  complete  data  generally  : 

CABLES  OVER  FOUR  HUNDRED  NAUTICAL  MILES  LONG,  OPERATED 
BY  GOVERNMENTS. 

France;  Mar.seille.s  to  Algiers,  3 cables,  488,  496,  and  500;  Teneriffe  to 
St.  Louis,  Senegal,  865. 

Cochin  China  and  Tonkin:  Cape  St.  James  to  Thuan-An  (Hue),  5.30. 

British  India:  5Ianora  to  Jask,  531;  Jask  to  Biishire,  2 cables,  519 
and  .500. 

CABLES  OVER  FOUR  HUNDRED  NAUTICAL  MILES  LONG,  OWNED  BY 

PRIVATE  COMPANIES  ; ALSO  TOTAL  LENGTH  OF  CABLES  OPERATED 

BY  EACH  CO.MPANY. 

Direct  .Spanish  Telegraph  Company,  total,  708:  Kennack  Cove,  Corn- 
wall, to  Las  Arenas,  near  Bilbao,  487. 

Halifax  and  Bermuda  Cable  Company:  Halifax,  N.  S.,  t<j  Hamilton, 
Bermuda,  8.50. 

Spanish  National  Submarine  Telegra[)h  Company,  total,  2,1.59  : Cadiz  to 
Santa  Cruz  d(;  Tenerille,  8(i4  ; Tejita,  Tenerilfe,  to  .st.  Louis,  Senegal,  .S(i.5. 

West  African  Telegraj)!!  Company,  total,  3,015:  Kotonu  to  St.  Thomas, 
486;  St.  Thomas  to  Loanda,  760. 

Hreat  Northern  Telegraph  Company,  Europe  and  Asia,  hdal,  6,932; 
Newhiggin,  England,  to  .\rendal,  Norway,  424  ; New  biggin  to  iMarstrami, 
Sweden,  510;  Newbiggin  to  Ilirtshals,  Denmark,  420;  Amoy  to  (lutzlall', 
China,  .5!»0  ; Hutzlalfto  Nagasaki,  .hi|>an,  427  ; (hitzlalfto  Nagasaki,  416: 
Nagasaki  to  Vladivostfick,  llussia,  2 cables,  7.53  and  766. 


106 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD 


Eastern  Telegraph  Companj’,  total,  27,453:  Porthcurno,  Land’s  End, 
England,  to  Lisbon,  Portugal,  2 cables,  iS50  and  892 ; Porthcurno  to  Vigo, 
Spain,  622;  Gibraltar  to  Malta,  2 cables,  1,118  and  1,126;  ^Marseilles, 
France,  to  Bona,  Algeria,  2 cables,  447  and  463;  Trieste,  Austria,  to 
Corfu,  503 ; Malhi  to  Alexandria,  Egypt,  2 cables,  928  and  91 1 ; Suez, 
Egypt,  to  Suakiin,  Soudan,  3 cables,  936,  811,  and  811;  Suez  to  Aden, 
794;  Suez  to  Periin  Island,  1,331  ; Suakiin  to  Periin  Island,  597 ; Suakim 
to  Aden,  2 cables,  794  each;  Aden  to  Bombay,  3 cables,  1,850,  1,859,  and 
1 ,885. 

Eastern  and  South  African  Telegraph  Company,  total,  6,796  (increased 
since  1892  to  8,841) : Aden  to  Zanzibar,  1,909;  Zanzibar  to  ^Mozambique, 
2 cables,  644  and  686 ; ^Mozambique  to  Louren^o-^Iarques,  Delagoa  bay, 
970;  Cape  Town  to  Port  Xolloth,  433  ; Port  Xolloth  to  Mossamedes,  1,052. 

Eastern  extension,  Australiusia,  and  China  Telegraph  Company,  total, 
17,342:  Madras  to  Penang,  2 caliles,  1,462  and  1,389;  Rangoon  to  Penang, 
864  ; Singapore  to  Saigon,  Cochin  China,  628  ; Haiphong,  Tonkin,  to  Hong- 
kong, 470;  Fuchau  to  Hongkong,  472;  Saigon  to  Hongkong,  990;  Saigon 
to  Thuan-An,  516;  Hongkong  to  cape  Bolinao,  island  of  Luzon,  529  5 
Singapore  to  Batavia,  Java,  541 ; Singapore  to  Banjuwangi,  Java,  921  ; 
Banjuwangi  to  Port  Darwin,  Australia,  2 cables,  1,143  and  1,124;  Banju- 
wangi to  Roebuck  bay,  Australia,  892;  Sydney  to  Xelson,  Xew  Zealand, 
2 cables,  1,284  and  1,322;  Hongkong  to  Fuchau,  472;  Fuchau  to  Shang- 
hai, 449. 

Anglo- -Vmerican  Telegraph  Company,  total,  10,400  (increased  to  12,290 
since  1892):  Valentia,  Ireland,  to  Heart’s  Content,  Xewfoundland,  3 ca- 
ble.s,  1,84(),  1,881,  and  1,899;  Minou,  France,  to  St.  Pierre,  2,718;  St. 
Pierre  to  Duxbury,  ^lassachusetts,  809. 

Direct  United  States  Cable  Company,  total,  3,099:  Ballinskelligs  bay, 
Ireland,  to  Halifax,  2,564;  Halifox  to  Rye  Beach,  Xew  Hampshire,  535. 

Coinjiagnie  Fram;aise  du  Telegraphe  de  Paris  a X"ew  York,  total,  3,496  5 
Brest  to  St.  Pierre,  2,282;  St.  Pierre  to  Cape  Cod,  .Massachusetts,  828. 

Western  Union  Telegrajih  Company,  total,  7,743:  Penzance,  England, 
to  Canso,  X'ova  Scotia,  2 cables,  2, .531  and  2,576;  Canso  to  Xew  York,  2 ca- 
bles, each  888. 

The  Commercial  Cable  Company,  total,  6,938  (since  increased  to  9,075)  : 
Havre  to  Waterville,  Ireland,  510;  M’atetville  to  Can.so,  3 cables,  2,138, 
2,3-50,  and  2,388;  Canso  to  Xew  York,  841;  Canso  to  Rockjiort,  Massa- 
chu.setts,  519. 

Brazilian  Submarine  Telegraph  Company,  total,  7,369:  Lisbon  to  Ma- 
deira, 2 cables,  627  and  631  ; Madeira  to  St.  Vincent,  Cape  Verde  island, 
2 cables,  1,168  and  1,209;  St.  Vincent  to  Pernambuco,  Brazil,  2 cables, 
1,862  and  1,872. 

African  Direct  Telegraph  Company,  total,  2,746:  Santiago  to  Bathurst, 
471  ; Bathurst  to  Sierra  Leone,  463 ; Sierra  Leone  to  Akkra,  1,020. 

Cuba  Submarine  Telegraph  Company,  total,  1,.500:  Cienfuegos  to  San- 
tiago, Cuba,  3 cables,  400,  420,  and  420. 

West  India  and  Panama  Telegrajih  Company,  total,  4,557 : Kingston, 
Jamaica,  to  Colon,  Panama  isthmus,  630  ; Holland  bay  to  San  Juan,  Porto 
Rico,  683;  Holland  bay  to  Ponce,  Porto  Rico,  647 ; St.  Croix  to  Port  of 
Spain,  Trinidad,  .541. 


THE  SUBMARINE  CABLES  OF  THE  WORLD 


107 


Societe  Fran^aise  Des  Telegraphes  Sous-Mariiis,  total,  3,754  (since  in- 
creased to  4,544) : Porto-Plata,  Santo  Domingo,  to  Fort  de  France,  Mar- 
tinique, 787 ; Fort  de  France  to  Paramaribo,  Dutch  Guiana,  777  ; Ca}-enne 
to  Yizeu,  Brazil,  002;  Santo  Domingo  to  Curac;ao,  453. 

Western  and  Brazilian  Telegraph  Company,  total,  3,904  (since  increased 
to  0,144):  Maranham  to  Ceara,  Brazil,  400;  Ceara  to  Pernambuco,  470; 
Bahia  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  837. 

^lexical!  Telegraph  Company,  total,  1,523:  Galveston,  Texas,  to  Tam- 
pico, IMexico,  490 ; Galveston  to  Coatzacoalcos,  Mexico,  822. 

Central  and  South  American  Telegraph  Company,  total,  7,497 : Salina 
Cruz,  IMexico,  to  Libertad,  Salvador,  434;  San  Juan  del  Sur  to  Panama, 
721 ; Buenaventura  to  St.  Elena,  Ecuador,  480;  Paita  to  Callao-Lima,  Peru, 
553 ; Callao-Lima  to  Icpiique,  Chile,  747 ; Iquique  to  Valparaiso,  Chile, 
877. 

AVest  Coast  of  America  Telegraph  Compan}^  total,  1,099  (since  increased 
to  1,904) : Callao-Lima  to  Mollendo,  Peru,  510. 

NOTE  ON  COMPILATtON  OF  CHAET. 

This  chart  (see  frontispiece)  was  comjiiled  in  the  U.  S.  Hydrographic 
OtHce  from  the  latest  information,  and  is  a facsimile  of  H.  0.  chart*  No. 
1530,  just  issued  by  that  Office. 

Tlie  twelve  cables  across  tlie  North  Atlantic  ocean  were  plotted,  from 
their  terminal  points  on  the  American  continent  to  meridian  40°  west,  from 
positions  furnished  by  the  re.spective  cable  companies,  with  the  excejition 
of  three — the  Western  Union  of  1881  and  1882  and  the  Mackay-Bennett 
of  1894—  for  which  positions  were  furnished  all  the  way  across.  From 
the  European  terminal  points  to  meridian  40°  west,  the  cables,  with  the 
exceptions  just  mentioned,  were  plotted  from  information  deposited  in 
the  Office  of  Naval  Intelligence. 

A map  furnished  by  tlie  Western  Union  Telegrajib  Comjiany  was  used 
for  the  jilottingof  the  princijial  connecting  land  lines  in  the  United  States. 

The  cables  and  land  lines  of  Japan  were  taken  chictly  from  the  Outline 
Map  of  Japan  showing  the  princijial  Post,  Telegrajih,  and  Railway  Routes, 
jiublished  by  the  Japanese  Dejiartment  of  Communications  in  1888,  and 
which  accomjianies  “A  concise  Dictionary  of  the  jirincijial  Roads  and 
Chief  Towns  and  Villages  of  Jajian,”  by  W.  N.  Whitnej’,  AI.  D.,  formerly 
Interjireter  at  the  I".  S.  Legation  at  Tokyo. 

The  other  cables  and  land  lines  of  the  World  were  taken  cbielly  from 
the  “Carte  des  Communications  Tf-legraphiiiues  du  Regime  Extra-Euro- 
jieen  dressee  d’ajires  des  documents  olliciels  jiar  Le  Bureau  International 
des  Administrations  Telegraphiijues,”  Berne,  1888. 

The  Coaling,  Docking,  and  Rejiairing  Stations  of  the  World  and  their 
different  grades  of  facilities  were  compiled  mainly  from  a |)ublieation  of 
the  Office  of  .Naval  Intelligence,  entitled  “Coaling,  Docking,  and  Ihqiair- 
ing  Facilities  of  the  INirts  of  the  World,”  18!)2,  ami  corrections  thereto  uj> 
to  December,  1895,  and  from  the  British  Dock  book  of  18tl4. 


*Tliis  chart  io  sold  hy  the  Hydro^niphic  Ollicp  and  its  agents  at  .'lo  conls  per  copy. 


PETER  COOPER  AND  SUBMARINE  TELEGRAPHY 


In  presenting  to  its  readers  a chart  of  the  submarine  telegraph 
cables  of  the  world,  Tuk  National  Gioographic  iNlAGAzrxn  was 
unwilling  that  this  graphic  representation  of  intercontinental 
communication  should  be  unaccompanied  by  some  reference  to 
one  of  its  earliest  and  most  effective  pioneers,  the  late  Peter 
Cooper.  It  is  well  to  recall  to  tlie  rising  generation  its  indebted- 
ness to  Mr  Cooper  for  his  eminent  services  in  fostering  the  initia- 
tion of  this  now  elaborate  network  between  the  widely  sepa- 
rated continents  of  the  earth.  With  considerable  reluctance,  and 
onl}"  after  repeated  urging,  one  of  the  actors  in  this  great  work, 
the  Honorable  Abram  S.  Hewitt,  has  outlined,  in  a letter  all  too 
brief,  the  i»art  played  b}"  Mr  Cooper.  The  letter  is  as  follows  : 

“ The  story  of  the  Atlantic  Calile  has  been  so  fully  and  so  well 
told  l)y  the  Rev.  Henry  M.  Field  in  his  history,  published  in 
18!)'2  by  Messrs  Scribner  & Sons  of  this  cit}^,  that  only  the  briefest 
outline  is  necessary  to  call  public  attention  to  the  origin  of  an 
enterprise  which,  at  the  time  of  its  inception,  was  regarded  with 
incredulity,  and  whose  jirosecution  and  final  success  have  all 
the  elements  of  a romance. 

“ My  first  knowledge  of  the  enterprise  was  in  1854,  when  Mr 
Cyrus  \V.  Field  invited  Mr  Peter  Cooper  and  other  gentlemen 
to  listen  to  the  jiropo.sitions  of  P’rederick  N.  Gisborne,  who  had 
come  to  New  York  for  the  purpose  of  interesting  cajiital  in  con- 
structing a line  of  telegrajih  across  Newfoundland,  so  as  to  get 
the  news  at  cape  Race  from  the  European  steamers  and  trans- 
mit it  thence  overland  to  the  gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  and  thence 
by  fast  steamers  to  cape  Breton,  whence  land  lines  had  been 
constructed  connecting  with  our  American  system.  In  that  in- 
terview no  suggestion  was  made  for  a cable  across  the  gulf  of 
St.  Lawrence,  because  it  was  doubtful  at  that  time  whether  sub- 
marine communication  of  such  length  could  4>e  established  and 
maintained.  The  amount  of  money  required  was  not  very  con- 
siderable, and  the  gentlemen  a))pealed  to,  being  all  men  of  large 
views,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  they  would  contribute  the 
amount,  not  so  much  as  a commercial  s{)eculation  as  from  con- 
siderations of  the  advantage  of  early  news  in  business  transac- 
tions affecting  the  two  continents.  The  Newfoundland  Com])any 


108 


PETER  COOPER  AND  SUBMARINE  TELEGRAPHY 


10!) 


Avas  organized,  Avith  ]\[r  Cooper  as  its  president  and  Mr  Field  as 
its  actiA’e  manager.  The  other  gentlemen  concerned  in  the  un- 
dertaking AA'ere  INIoses  TaAdor,  Marshall  0.  Roberts,  Chandler  \\'. 
MTiite,  and,  at  a later  period,  Wilson  G.  Hunt.  DaA’id  Dudley 
Field  also  took  an  interest  and  Avas  legal  adAusor  of  the  company. 

“Arrangements  AA'ere  made  for  the  construction  of  the  land 
line  AA’ithout  delay,  and  later,  AAdien  the  experience  of  the  Euro- 
pean submarine  cables  established  the  practicability  of  longer 
lines,  it  Avas  decided  to  lay  the  cable  across  the  gulf  of  St.  LaAA'- 
rence,  a distance  of  about  eighty  miles.  The  first  attempt  to  lay 
this  cable  AA*as  a failure,  OAAung  to  the  imperfect  arrangements  for 
transporting  the  calde  across  the  gulf,  and  the  occurrence  of  a 
storm  AA'hich  caused  the  seA^erance  of  the  cable  AAdren  the  A^essel 
engaged  in  laying  it  AA'as  midAA^aA'^  betAA^een  the  tAAm  termini.  It 
AA'as  determined.  liOAA'eA'er,  to  reneAV  the  attempt,  and  in  the  fol- 
loAA’ing  year  a cable  AA'as  successful!}^  laid,  and  the  original  plan 
of  the  company  for  intercepting  neAA'S  at  cape  Race  Avas  carried 
into  effect.  As  a matter  of  course,  the  enterprise  AA'as  not  a com- 
mercial success,  but  its  adA’antages  AA’ere  so  apparent  that  the 
parties  in  interest  concluded  that  the  time  had  come  to  make 
the  attempt  to  continue  the  cable  from  NeAA'foundland  to  the 
coast  of  Ireland.  Tiie  idea  AA'as  a daring  one,  but  the  highest 
electrical  authorities  concurred  in  opinion  that  it  AA'as  feasible. 
Mr  Field  proceeded  to  England  to  organize  a company,  in  Avhich 
he  succeeded,  and  AA'hich  resulted  in  the  attempt  to  lay  the  cable 
in  1857,  made  by  the  Agamemnon  on  the  British  side  and  by  the 
Niagara  on  the  American  side.  I need  not  rehearse  the  story  of 
the  successiA'e  failures,  but  the  first  one  occurred  in  1857,  during 
the  panic  of  that  year,  AA’hich  spread  AA'ide  ruin  throughout  the 
country.  Among  others,  Mr  Field  Avas  comj)elled  to  succuml), 
and  it  seemed  prol)able  that  any  further  attempt  to  construct 
and  lay  the  cable  aa'ouUI  l)e  abandoned.  It  Avas  at  thisjuncture 
that  tlie  strong  common  sense  and  unshaken  faith  of  Peter 
Ctjoper  came  into  ]>lay.  When  the  financial  storm  had  abat(‘(l, 
ho  urged  Mr  Field  to  undertake  the  resuscitation  of  the  enter- 
}»rise,  and  he  oflered  to  advance,  and  actually  did  advance,  the 
money  n;fiuired  for  Mr  Field’s  expenditures,  until  such  time  as 
the  success  of  the  cable  might  be  demonstrated  and  assured. 
Some  of  the  oth(;r  gentlemen  deelim.-dto  participate  in  these  ad- 
A’ances,  and  hence  the  burden  U))on  Mr  Cooper  was  very  onerous 
and  gave  great  concern  to  his  family.  Nevertheless  Mr  Field 
soon  recovered  his  confidence,  and  Avith  indomitable  courage 


no  RUSSO-AMERICAX  TELEGRAPH  PROJECT  OF  1864-'67 


and  indefiitigable  industry  he  finall}"  succeeded  in  accomplish- 
ing the  difficult  undertaking  with  which  his  name  and  fame  are 
justly  identified.  So  far  as  Mr  Cooper  and  his  famil}'  were  con- 
cerned, they  did  what  they  could  to  secure  the  success  of  the 
enterprise,  and  I think  it  may  he  justly  asserted  that,  without  Mr 
Coo])er’s  assistance  and  absolute  faith  in  the  final  success  of  the 
undertaking,  its  realization  would  have  been  postponed  for  many 
j^ears.  In  the  end  he  was  fully  indemnified,  and  perhaps  amply 
rewarded,  for  his  investment,  hut  without  detracting  in  the 
slightest  from  the  credit  which  is  justly  accorded  to  Mr  Field, 
I think  I am  justified  in  making,  at  your  request,  this  brief 
statement,  in  order  to  show  that  without  the  unflinching  courage 
and  cooi)eration  of  Mr  Cooper,  INIr  Field  would  hardly  have  been 
in  a position  to  achieve  the  triumph  which  he  finally  secured, 
and  for  which  his  memoiy  is  entitled  to  tlie  veneration  of  suc- 
ceeding generations.” 


THE  RUSSO-AMERICAN  TELEGRAPH  PROJECT  OF 

i864-’67 

By  Professor  William  H.  Ball 

Tlie  possibility  of  constructing  a line  of  telegraph  overland 
through  Siberia  and  northwestern  America  had  doubtless  oc- 
curred to  many,  hut  the  first  person  to  endeavor  to  give  practical 
effect  to  the  conception  appears  to  have  been  Mr  Perry  M.  Collins, 
of  California,  who  in  ISoh  and  for  some  years  suhsequenth"  was 
United  States  consular  agent  at  Xikolaievsk,  on  the  Amur  river, 
eastern  Siberia.  By  dint  of  constant  activity  and  perseverance, 
Mr  Collins  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  concessions  necessary  to 
the  construction  of  a line  of  telegraph,  with  all  needful  acces- 
sories, from  the  Amur  to  tlie  British  Columbian  line  through 
eastern  Siberia  and  the  Bussian-American  colonies,  and  also 
through  the  British  territories  in  America. 

Continual  mishaps  in  the  course  of  the  attempts  to  la}"  a work- 
able cable  across  the  Atlantic  had  led  many  telegraphers  to 
lielieve  that  the  plan  was  im])racticable,  though  they  had  no 
doubt  of  their  ability  to  construct  and  keep  in  working  order 
shorter  lines,  such  as  that  proposed  across  Bering  strait.  The 
]>ropositions  of  Mr  Collins  were  laid  before  the  Directors  of  the 
Western  Union  Telegraph  Comjiany,  March  16,  1864.  They  ac- 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL,  XII 


WILLIAM  H DALL 


EUSSO-AMERICAX  TELEGRAPH  PROJECT  OF  1864-' 61  111 


cepted,  by  a unanimous  vote,  the  transfer  of  his  rights  and  in- 
terests, and  on  iNIarch  18  completed  an  organization  for  the 
carrying  out  of  the  project. 

An  expedition  to  explore  the  proposed  route,  under  Col,  Chas.  S. 
Eulkley,  formerly  of  the  United  States  military  telegraph  corps, 
was  immediately  organized.  Col.  Eulkley  reached  the  Pacific 
coast  in  January,  1865.  The  exploration  of  the  Eritish  Colum- 
bian line  was  directed  b}’’  Edmund  Conway,  that  of  Russian 
America  h}^  Robert  Kennicott  and  that  of  eastern  Siberia  by 
Sergius  Ahasa.  The  United  States  detailed  Capt.  C.  M.  Scam- 
mon,  of  the  Revenue  Marine  Service,  and  two  other  officers  to 
the  fleet  fitted  out  by  the  company,  and  the  Russian  government 
lent  the  aid  of  the  corvette  Vsadnik,  The  first  visit  was  paid  to 
tlie  Russian  authorities  at  Sitka  in  March,  1865.  In  July  par- 
ties were  on  the  way  to  Siberia,  Alaska,  and  Eering  strait.  Ex- 
plorations during  this  and  the  following  season  demonstrated 
the  practicability  of  the  route  selected,  and  saw  a small  amount 
of  line  constructed,  every  endeavor  being  made  to  carry  out  the 
project. 

In  1867  the  Atlantic  cable  at  last  proved  itself  a working  suc- 
cess. On  the  other  hand,  the  experience  gained  by  the  expedi- 
tions sent  out  in  connection  with  the  Russo-American  project 
showed  that  tlie  maintenance  of  the  projected  line  would  he  so 
expensive  as  to  make  it  iin possible  for  it  to  compete  with  the 
Atlantic  cable,  commercially.  Consequently  the  company  de- 
cided to  withdraw  from  the  enterprise  and  in  the  autumn  of 
1867  the  parties  returned  to  California. 

The  route  chosen  was  up  the  valley  of  the  Fraser  river  in 
Eritish  Columbia  and  down  the  Yukon  to  the  Nulato  bend, 
thence  across  country  to  Port  Clarence,  where  a caljle  was  to  con- 
nect with  the  Siberian  lines.  The  latter  would  leave  the  Chukchi 
peninsula,  cross  the  neck  of  the  i)cninsula  of  Kamchatka  and 
skirt  the  shores  of  the  Okhotsk  sea,  joining  the  Russian  lines  at 
Nikolaiev.sk.  It  is  stated  that  a large  part  of  the  fourteen 
millions  of  (hdlars  rej)resented  by  the  stock  was  actually  ex- 
])ended  in  the  work  ; at  all  events  a large  amount  of  money  was 
spent,  and  the  only  returns  were  those  public  benefits  implied 
by  an  increase  of  geographical  and  other  .scientific  knowledge 
and  the  training  of  a number  of  exi»l(M'er.s  and  investigators. 


SURVEY  AND  SUBDIVISION  OF  INDIAN  TERRITORY 


By  Hexry  Gannett, 

Chief  Topographer,  United  States  Geological  Survey 

The  condition  of  things  in  Indian  Territory  is  anomalous. 
The  Territory  is  an  area  of  some  31,000  square  miles,  divided 
among  what  are  called  the  Five  Civilized  Tribes — the  Cherokees, 
Choctaws,  Chickasaws,  Creeks,  and  Seminoles — the  reservation  of 
each  tribe  being  owned  by  the  tribe.  Such  a thing  as  private 
ownership  of  land  is  unknown.  Each  individual  entitled  to  do 
so  is,  however,  ijermitted  to  take  up  and  occup}'  any  land  which 
is  not  already  occupied,  but  in  so  doing  he  does  not  acquire  title. 

The  population  of  the  Territory  consists  of  some  50,000  In- 
dians, a few  whites  who  have  married  Indian  women  and  have 
thus  acquired  membership  in  the  tribe,  with  the  accompanying 
}>rivileges  and  emoluments ; a few  thousand  negroes,  mostly  the 
descendants  of  slaves,  and  a large  number,  variously  estimated 
at  from  1 00,000  to200,000,of  whites,  who  are  living  in  the  Territory 
on  sufferance,  some  legally  upon  the  payment  of  a small  tax, 
others  without  the  shadow  of  right  or  authority.  These  latter 
are  known  as  interlopers. 

As  might  be  expected  under  this  condition  of  affairs,  the  whites 
Avho  have  married  Indian  women,  being  much  shrewder  and 
more  experienced  than  the  Indians,  have  acquired  by  the  right 
of  occupation  nearly  all  the  landed  property  which  is  worth 
having  in  the  Territory.  They  own,  if  it  can  be  called  owning, 
all  the  best  farming  and  grazing  land,  all  the  timber  land  which 
is  of  immediate  value,  all  the  town  sites,  and  all  the  mineral 
land  which  is  worth  having,  and  by  leasing  this  property  to 
whites  they  are  rapidly  acquiring  great  wealth. 

Although  in  many  respects  quite  advanced  in  the  arts  of  civili- 
zation, the  governments  established  by  these  Indians  are  weak 
and  insufficient.  So  far  as  the  control  of  the  Indians  themselves 
is  concerned,  they  may  have  ample  power,  but  at  present  they 
are  called  on  to  cope  with  and  control  a large  body  of  whites, 
outnumbering  themselves  at  least  three  to  one,  and  composed 
largely  of  the  rough,  lawless,  frontier  element ; indeed,  were  not 
the  tribal  governments  reinforced  by  the  power  of  the  United 


112 


SURVEY  AND  SUBDIVISION  OF  INDIAN  TERRITORY  113 


States  courts  the  Territory  would  long  ago  have  been  in  a state 
of  anarchy. 

This  situation  of  affairs,  instead  of  improving  with  time,  is 
rapidly  becoming  worse,  inasmuch  as  the  number  of  interlopers 
in  the  Territoiy  is  constantly  and  rapidly  increasing.  The  remedy 


OUTLI.NE  .MAP  OF  INDIAN  TERRITORY,  SHOWING  PROGRESS  OF  SUHDIVISION  SURVEY 
UP  TO  JANUARY  I,  1896. 


for  this  threatening  aspect  of  affairs  is  plainly  the  substitution  of 
a territorial  government  by  all  inhabitants  for  the  present  tribal 
governments  of  the  Indian  minority,  the  allotment  of  land  to 
the  Indians,  and  the  con.se<iueiit  establishment  of  land  titles. 

Foreseeing  the  neciissity  of  this  solution,  (longnj.ss  has  for  the 
I>ast  two  years  been  endeavoring  to  treat  with  the  tribes  for  the 


114  SURVEY  AXD  SUBDIVISIOX  OF  IXlJlAX  TERRITORY 


purpose  of  inducing  them  to  accept  their  lands  in  severalty.  In 
pursuance  of  this  object  two  different  commissions  have  been 
appointed,  each  of  which  has  spent  several  months  in  the  Terri- 
tory endeavoring  to  obtain  a hearing  from  the  tribes,  but  thus 
for  without  the  slightest  result.  The  tribes  have  declined  abso- 
lutely to  treat  with  them  upon  this  subject. 

During  the  progress  of  these  attempts  at  negotiation  Congress 
has  taken  another  step  in  the  same  direction.  In  March,  1895,  an 
appropriation  of  8200.000  was  made  by  Congress  for  commencing 
the  survey  and  subdivision  of  the  lands  of  the  Territory,  being 
the  necessary  ])reliminaiw  step  toward  allotment.  This  work 
was  placed  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior  in  the  hg^nds  of  the 
Director  of  the  Geological  Surve}^,  instead  of  being  let  out  on 
contract,  as  has  been  done  in  all  cases  of  subdivision  heretofore. 
The  Chickasaw  nation  was  excepted,  as  it  was  subdivided  in 
1873.  The  work  was  commenced  in  April  under  the  following 
plan : The  Indian  base  line,  which  forms  the  base  line  of  the 
Chickasaw  nation  and  of  Oklahoma,  was  adopted  for  carrying 
the  work  into  the  other  nations.  The  second  guide  meridian 
east  of  the  principal  meridian  of  the  Chickasaw  nation  was  run 
northward  and  southward  as  a principal  meridian  for  the  other 
nations.  Thus  while  the  general  system  of  surveys  conforms  to 
that  in  the  Chickasaw  nation  and  in  Oklahoma,  the  work  has 
been  so  planned  as  to  make  it  independent  of  any  errors  which 
may  have  accumulated  in  the  earlier  work. 

Two  parties  have  been  engaged  continuously  since  April  last 
in  running  standard  lines  (guide  meridians  and  correction  lines) 
b}’  which  the  country  is  divided  into  blocks  twenty-four  miles 
on  a side.  The  township  exteriors  were  run  by  distinct  parties, 
two  parties  being  at  first  organized  for  this  work,  which  were 
subsequently  increased  to  four.  The  subdivision  of  townships 
into  sections  was  carried  on  by  still  a third  set  of  parties,  eight 
of  which  were  organized  and  placed  in  the  field  during  the  month 
of  May,  and  the  number  was  subsequently  increased  to  sixteen. 
Thus  the  entire  work  of  subdividing  the  land  is  carried  on  by 
three  distinct  sets  of  parties,  the  work  of  each  checking  that  of 
another. 

Furthermore,  a system  of  triangulation  has  been  carried  over 
the  area  subdivided,  and  the  stations  in  this  triangulation  have 
been  connected  with  section  and  township  corners.  This  is  done 
not  only  for  the  purpose  of  checking  and  correcting  errors,  but 
also  to  form  reference  points  for  the  recovery  of  missing  corners, 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG.  VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XIII 


INDIAN  TERRITORY  — CAMP  OF  A SURVEYING  PARTY  OF  THE  U.  S.  GEOLOGICAL  SURVEY,  1895 


SURVEY  AND  SUBDIVISION  OF  INDIAN  TERRITORY  115 


the  triaiigulation  points  being  marked  in  a very  permanent  man- 
ner. The  triangulation  rests  upon  a base  line  measured  on  the 
track  of  the  Missouri,  Kansas  and  Texas  railway  near  Savanna, 
and  the  astronomical  position  of  this  place  was  determined  as 
the  initial  position. 

The  subdivision  parties,  by  which  is  to  be  understood  the  par- 
ties engaged  in  running  the  section  lines,  are  grouped,  four  of 
them  being  in  charge  of  an  experienced  surveyor  connected  with 
the  permanent  corps  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  who 
supervises  the  work  closely  and  attends  to  the  executive  man- 
agement of  the  outfit,  and  who,  moreover,  commonly  with  the 
aid  of  an  assistant,  maps  the  topography  of  the  area  subdivided. 
This  latter  duty  is  rendered  light  by  the  fact  that  the  surveyor 
in  running  the  lines  locates  the  points  of  crossing  of  every  stream, 
road,  or  other  natural  or  artificial  feature  which  he  encounters 
in  the  course  of  his  line.  Thus  at  intervals  of  a mile  or  less  all 
the  features  are  located  and  little  remains  for  the  topographer  to 
do  except  to  sketch  these  features  between  these  points  of 
location. 

The  ])rogress  made  in  this  survey  up  to  the  end  of  January 
of  the  present  }'ear  is  set  forth  in  a report  which  has  been  made 
to  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior.  It  appears  from  this  that  in 
the  primary  triangulation  49  stations  have  been  selected,  signals 
built  uj)on  them  and  angles  measured  from  them.  By  means 
of  these  stations  an  area  of  about  10,000  square  miles,  or  aI)out 
five-twelfths  of  the  area  of  the  Territory,  excluding  the  Chicka- 
saw nation,  has  been  controlled.  In  the  subdivison  work  11,770 
miles  had  been  run  out  of  an  estimated  amount  of  47,000  miles 
to  complete  the  Territory,  or  about  one-fourth  of  the  entire 
work.  Of  the  above  mileage  970  miles  are  of  standard  lines — 
that  is,  standard  parallels  and  correction  lines;  1,790  miles  are 
exterior  lines  of  townships,  8,770  miles  are  section  lines,  and 
the  remaining  240  miles  are  the  meander  lines  of  streams. 
The  work  thus  far  done  completes  the  subdivision  of  128  full 
townships  and  20  fractional  townships.  It  is  included  inainly 
in  the  western  part  of  the  Choctaw  nation,  embraces  all  of  the 
Seminole  country  and  some  of  the  Creek  country,  while  standard 
lines  have  been  run  into  the  Cln'rokcc  nation.  The  i>rogrc.ss  is 
represented  upon  the  sketch  map  accompanying  this  paper. 

The  mapping  of  topography  has  followed  closel}'  after  the 
work  of  subdivision,  and  up  t<>  the  date  given  above  an  ari?a  of 
4,2(X)  square  miles  had  been  thus  mapped. 


“FREE  BURGHS”  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES* 


B}'  Jamks  H.  Blodgett, 

Late  Special  Agent  of  Census  in  Charge  of  Education 

Three  bridjies  across  the  Potomac  river  connect  the  District  of 
Columbia  witli  the  State  of  Virginia.  Tlie  upper  one,  known  as 
the  Chain  bridge,  just  below  the  Little  falls,  the  head  of  tide- 
water, is  too  far  from  dense  population  to  be  frequented  by  foot 
passengers.  Three  miles  below  the  Chain  bridge  is  the  Aqueduct 
bridge,  practically  the  head  of  navigation,  since  only  small  pleas- 
ure boats  and  scows  to  bring  stone  from  the  quarries  go  above  it. 

Along  the  Virginia  shore,  above  the  Aqueduct  bridge,  are  va- 
rious “ resort  houses,”  more  or  less  permanent,  ostensibly  for 
legitimate  relaxation  and  pleasure,  but  viewed  with  suspicion 
by  the  authorities  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  justified  by  results 
of  occasional  raids  by  officials.  At  the  Virginia  end  of  the  same 
bridge  is  a straggling  group  of  houses  known  as  Rosly  n,  a favorite 
place  for  those  who  want  to  go  beyond  the  police  restraints  of 
the  District  of  Columbia,  and  particularly  for  those  interested  in 
the  gambling  device  known  as  policy,  a sort  of  lottery,  especially 
attractive  to  the  colored  people. 

Between  the  Aqueduct  bridge  and  the  Long  bridge,  two  miles 
or  more  farther  down,  at  the  upper  extreme  of  dense  habitation, 
the  low  ground  on  the  Virginia  side  is  brushy,  with  but  few 
houses,  and  is  a rambling  ])lace  for  various  kinds  of  boys  and 
men,  Avho  find  the  towpath  of  the  abandoned  canal  a convenient 
footway.  The  high  lands  contain  the  Government  reservation, 
comprising  Fort  Myer  and  the  Arlington  national  cemetery. 
Close  to  the  Virginia  end  of  the  historic  Long  bridge  are  a few 
houses  known  as  Jackson  City.  Freedom  from  rigid  police  con- 
trol has  made  this  a convenient  place  for  gambling  in  various 
forms.  Close  by,  known  as  Alexander’s  island,  is  maintained, 
irregularly,  a race-course.  Three  miles  farther  is  another  race- 
course, known  as  St.  Asaph.  A good  part  of  the  racing  in  sight 

♦ This  ai  tide,  written  for  The  National  GEOCRArHic  Magazine,  is  less  technical  and 
has  less  of  legal  citation  and  quotation  of  authorities  than  a paper  bearing  the  same  title 
read  before  the  Anthropological  Society  of  Washington,  November  5,  1895.  The  latter, 
valuable  for  purposes  of  reference  and  verification,  will  be  printed  by  the  American 
Historical  Association. 

IIG 


“FREE  BURGHS"  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


117 


of  the  Capitol  has  been  that  known  as  “ outlaAv  racing  ” — that 
is,  with  horses  or  with  jockeys  not  in  good  standing  Avith  the  regu- 
lar racing  associations.  Just  below  St.  Asaph  is  the  city  of  Alex- 
andria, which  is  })opularly  regarded  as  a part  of  Alexandria 
county,  to  share  whatever  of  good  or  l)ad  repute  attaches  to  it. 

At  the  census  of  1790  all  this  A’icinity  Avas  part  of  Fairfax 
county,  except  that  Alexandria  already  had  a sc*i)arate  court  and 
Avas  exempt  from  county  taxes.  For  the  organization  of  the 
Di.strict  of  Columbia,  Virginia  ceded  to  the  General  Government 
the  jurisdiction*  over  a tract  l)ounded  by  tbe  line  extending  ten 
miles  northAvest  from  the  mouth  of  Hunting  creek,  a line  north- 
east from  the  terminus  of  the  first,  and  the  river,  containing  an 
area  said  to  be  thirty-tAvo  square  miles.  In  1801  Congress  erected 
the  area  ceded  b}’-  Virginia  into  a county,  to  be  called  Alexandria 
county,  but  expressly  retaining  for  Alexandria  all  existing  char- 
tered rights.  In  1846  the  United  States  re-ceded  the  tract  to 
Virginia,  Avhich  has  continued  to  be  generally  knoAvn  as  Alex- 
andria county,  though  the  policy  of  separation  of  city  and  county, 
suspended  for  half  a century,  has  been  reneAved.  The  combined 
population  of  city  and  county  in  1890  Avas  18,597,  of  Avhich  14,339 
])ersons  Avere  in  the  city  of  Alexandria,  Avhich  is  not  a part  of 
Alexandria  county,  although  its  name,  its  vicinity,  its  recent 
affinity  with  the  county,  and  the  presence  of  the  county  Imild- 
ings  t Avith  most  persons  to  make  the  residents  municipally 
responsible  for  the  unlaAvful  conduct  near  b}".  Many  persons, 
while  rejoicing  in  the  measure  of  success  attained,  do  not  see  Avhy 
the  energetic  governor  of  Virginia  sent  officers  to  break  u})  dis- 
rejmtalde  j)ractices  in  the  county.  They  do  not  ai)preciate  the 
Aveakness  of  the  real  Alexandria  county  Avhen  the  gambling  ele- 
ments of  the  neighboring  cities  floAV  out  upon  it.  It  has  but  a 
little  over  4,0W  population  (1890),  of  Avhom,  after  deducting  164 
on  the  military  reservation,  over  one-half  (2,123)  are  of  negro 
descent,  and  not  yet  of  much  proi)rietary  responsibility. 

Alexandria  is  but  an  example  of  the  cities  of  Virginia  from  the 
earliest  days.  James  City,  better  knoAvn  as  JamestoAvn,  and  now 
extinct,  was  established  as  the  chief  city  in  1639.  W’illiamsburg 
Avns  set  apart  as  a city,  to  l)c  used  for  no  other  i>ur])Ose  Avhatever, 
aiul  (hJined  as  the  ca})ital  in  16!)9,  and  again  in  1705,  in  advance 
<jf  population.  There  Avas  a general  plan  to  put  in  each  county 


•The  owncTHhlp  remaiiioil  in  the  existing  proprietors.  Certain  autliors  erroneously 
state  tliat  tile  title  or  possession  was  transferreil. 
t A l)ill  is  iienilin^  for  erection  of  county  liuililiuKs  outside  of  tlio  city. 


118 


‘'FREE  BURGHS”  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


a similar  town  for  commercial  purposes,  especially  for  warehous- 
ing and  marketing  tobacco.  Norfolk,  chartered  as  a borough  in 
1737,  has  lost  that  name,  but  its  relations  to  the  county  are  to- 
day like  those  of  the  original  charter,  gradually  defined,  strength- 
ened, and  confirmed,  in  points  of  dispute,  in  favor  of  the  munici- 
pality. At  first  the  Norfolk  county  buildings  were  in  Norfolk, 
and  a si)ecial  clause  in  the  charter  reserved  proprietary  rights  in 
them  to  the  county.  Later  legislation  authorized  their  sale  and 
the  erection  of  county  l)uildings  outside  of  Norfolk.  The  build- 
ings are  now  in  Portsmouth. 

In  1776  many  boroughs  which  had  been  given  separate  repre- 
sentation in  the  assembly  were  cut  off  by  a law  which  prescribed 
that  no  borough  with  a population  less,  for  seven  successive 
jmars,  than  half  that  of  any  county  should  be  separately  repre- 
sented. In  the  same  year  the  delegate  for  William  and  Mary 
College,  specified  in  its  charter,  was  cut  off. 

In  the  state  law  for  apportionment  of  members  of  Congress, 
1892,  the  following  names  of  cities  are  given  separate  from  names 
of  counties:  First  district,  Fredericksburg;  second,  Norfolk, 
Portsmouth,  and  Williamsburg ; third,  Richmond  and  Man- 
chester; fourtii,  Petersburg;  filth,  Danville  and  the  town  of 
North  Danville ; sixth,  Lynchburg,  Radford,  and  Roanoke ; 
seventh,  Charlottesville  and  Winchester ; eighth,  Alexandria  ; 
ninth,  Bristol ; tenth,  Staunton.  To  these  are  to  be  added  Buena 
Vista,  in  the  tenth  district,  chartered  on  the  day  of  the  approval 
of  the  apportionment  bill,  and  Newport  News,  for  Avhich  the  bill 
Avas  signed  January  18,  1896.  The  conditions  for  the  town  of 
North  Danville  are  in  transition.  It  has  been  a toAvn  inde- 
pendent of  Pittsylvania  county,  but  judicially  dependent  on 
Danville.  The  name  has  recently  been  changed  to  Neapolis, 
and  just  too  late  for  insertion  here  it  Avill  be  determined  by 
popular  vote  whether  it  shall  be  consolidated  with  DaiiA'ille.* 

In  early  days  there  was  a disposition  in  certain  other  colonies 
to  establish  cities  independent  of  counties.  In  New  Jersey  and 
in  ^Maryland  such  early  independencies  as  survived  came  under 
county  control.  In  Pennsylvania  the  claims  of  GermantoAvn  to 
independence  ot  the  taxation  of  Philadelphia  county  Avere  over- 
ruled b}'^  the  governor.  In  Virginia,  from  the  incorporation  of 
James  City  (1639),  it  has  been  the  steady  policy  to  have  the 
cities  independent  of  the  counties.  It  confuses  some  students 

* By  popular  vote,  on  February  20,  Neapolis  is  to  become  a part  of  Danville  on  July 
1, 189G. 


FREE  BURGHS”  IH  THE  UNITED  STATES 


119 


to  find  an  occasional  ]iarticipation  of  ui’ban  residents  and  rural 
residents  in  local  affairs,  but  on  examination  of  charters  it  will 
be  found  that  this  extends  onl}’-  to  subjects  expressly  named  in 
any  instance. 

If  one  will  examine  the  scheme  of  government  for  the  cit}* 
and  count}'-  of  St.  Louis,  Missouri  (1876),  he  will  find  that  all 
power  of  county  officers  was  abrogated.  The  same  act  restored 
their  power  for  the  rural  portion,  now  St.  Louis  county,  leaving 
the  city  to  be  provided  with  a separate  government  in  the  same 
act.  The  situation  in  Virginia  may  be  clearer  if  the  legislature 
is  deemed  to  have  abolished  all  county  authority  in  any  city 
under  consideration,  and  then  to  have  I’estored  by  name  such 
items  of  power  as  circumstances  demanded. 

The  present  cities  of  Virginia  have  the  following  character- 
istics : 

The  Code  defines  a city  as  a town  having  over  5,000  inhabitants 
and  a hustings  court,  and  defines  a town  as  an  incorporated  town 
having  less  than  5,000  population.* 

The  cities  have  distinct  courts.  Their  citizens  do  not  pay 
county  taxes  on  city  property.  They  do  not  serve  on  county 
juries.  Deeds  and  other  papers  affecting  city  property  are  re- 
corded by  city  officers  and  not  by  county  officers. 

Generally,  residents  of  cities  do  not  participate  in  county  elec- 
tions. Exceptionally,  they  may  hold  county  offices,  more  excep- 
tionally, they  may  vote  for  county  officers. 

Generally,  city  police  courts  have  jurisdiction  one  mile  beyond 
corporate  limits.  Exce]>tionally,  there  is  a limited  concurrent 
jurisdiction  of  city  and  county  courts,  as  over  waters  adjacent  to 
the  cities  of  Norfolk  and  Portsmouth  and  to  Norfolk  county. 

Generally,  the  county  and  the  city  have  each  a set  of  public 
buildings  within  their  respective  borders.  Exceptionally,  au- 
thority is  given  to  a county  for  buildings  in  a city,  as  when,  at 
the  chartering  of  the  city  of  Manchester,  Chesterfield  county  was 
authorized  to  continue  to  use  its  })ublic  buildings  therein  till 
other  arrangements  could  be  made.  This  authority  sometimes 
embraces  arrangement  for  joint  occupancy,  as  when  Norfolk 
county  was  authorized  to  arrange  with  the  city  of  Portsmouth 
for  the  location  and  construction  of  a jail. 

Generally,  a county  odiccr  may  not  serve  writs  in  a city.  Ex- 
ceptionally, he  can  serve  writs  in  the  city  on  residents  of  bis 

» Tho  venerable  city  of  WilliuinsburK  has  a smaller  population,  but  its  site  is  expressly 
set  apart  for  a city. 


120 


“FREE  BURGHS”  IX  THE  UNITED  STATES 


count}”,  as  witnesses  may  be  summoned  for  Campbell  count}’’  in 
the  city  of  Lynchburg. 

Except  for  individually  specified  purposes,  county  and  city 
are  as  distinct  as  two  counties. 

The  city  of  Newport  News,  Virginia,  was  organized  January  20, 
1896,  under  a charter  naming  officers  to  serve  till  July.  The 
charter  contains  the  following  paragraph  : 

“ 115.  The  city  of  Newport  News,  its  real  and  personal  prop- 
erty and  other  subjects  of  taxation,  and  its  inhabitants  shall  be 
exemj)t  from  all  assessments  and  levies  in  the  way  of  taxes  im- 
])osed  l)y  the  authorities  of  Warwick  county  for  any  purpose 
whatever,  except  upon  property  owned  in  the  said  county  by 
the  inhabitants  of  said  city,  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  Jan- 
uary, eighteen  hundred  and  ninety-six,  nor  shall  said  inhabit- 
ants 1)0  liable  to  serve  upon  juries  or  work  upon  roads  in  said 
county  except  in  such  cases  as  are  provided  for  by  the  laws  of 
the  state.” 

This  extract  states  an  exemption  of  residents  in  cities  from 
county  taxes  and  from  duty  on  county  juries  prevalent  in  the 
state. 

The  ])resent  fiicts  regarding  the  cities  of  Virginia  are  little 
known  beyond  the  state.  The  Congressional  Directory  is  con- 
spicuous as  a public  document  out  of  the  state  that  shows  the 
cities  separately.  The  Civil  Service  Commission  has  found  it 
necessary  to  recognize  the  certificate  of  an  officer  of  a city  court 
of  record  for  Baltimore,  St.  Louis,  and  the  cities  of  Virginia  where 
a certificate  from  a county  court  was  contemplated.  A list  of 
cities  in  Virginia  paying  no  county  taxes  occurs  in  the  Report 
of  the  Tenth  Census  (1880),  volume  7,  page  117. 

Ordinarily,  in  this  country,  a city  is  part  of  a county  ; it  is 
set  apart  that  a dense  population  may  establish  new  values  and 
impose  new  taxes  to  meet  special  demands  for  public  welfare; 
it  continues  to  pay  county  taxes. 

The  difficulty  of  harmonious  action  by  sparse  and  dense  popu- 
lations upon  subjects  common  to  them  has  led  to  exceptional 
separation  of  cities  from  counties — Baltimore,  Maryland,  by  suc- 
cessive steps,  culminating  in  1823,  and  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
througli  popular  vote  in  1876. 

These  two  instances  are  exi)lained  in  the  Johns  Hopkins 
University  studies  in  liistorical  and  political  science — Local  In- 
stitutions of  ^Maryland,  in  volume  3,  and  City  Government  of. 
St.  Louis,  in  volume  5,  the  latter  being  most  minute,  and  con- 


“FREE  BURGHS”  IX  THE  EXITED  STATES 


121 


stitiiting  a monograph  in  itself,  and  yet  the  existence  of  cities 
independent  of  county  control  and  of  county  taxes  is  denied  in 
certain  histories  and  works  on  civil  government  used  in  high 
schools,  colleges,  and  universities. 

In  many  states  the  administration  of  the  public  schools  is 
largely  through  municipalities  charged  with  that  work  and  super- 
imposed upon  areas  occupied  by  other  municipalities  charged 
with  other  interests.  There  is  a very  general  tendency  to  charter 
school  districts  independent  of  the  town  in  the  north  or  of  the 
county  at  the  south.  In  some  states  this  method  of  enabling  a 
community  to  do  what  the  larger  unit  of  which  it  has  been  part 
is  not  ready  to  do  bids  fair  to  increase.  This  form  of  legislation 
is  more  common  in  the  west  and  south  than  in  the  northeast. 
The  forms  which  these  educational  municipalities  assume  are 
numerous,  and  the  complications  produced  are  often  intricate. 

I'he  complications  are  probably  most  intricate  in  those  states 
formed  of  the  public  domain  which  have  township  organization, 
a modified  form  of  the  town  government  of  New  England.  It 
will  be  most  convenient  to  limit  illustration  to  the  organizations 
which  possess  taxing  powers,  disregarding  subdivisions  made 
simply  for  details  of  administration  of  a larger  unit,  like  a vot- 
ing ])recinct  as  a division  of  a county  without  taxing  power. 
National,  state,  and  county  taxes  bear  upon  property-owners 
throughout  the  country,  with  the  exception  of  county  taxes  in  St. 
Louis,  Baltimore,  and  cities  of  Virginia,  as  already  explained. 
The  national  taxes  are  so  largely  collected  on  goods  in  bulk  before 
their  distribution  that  most  consumers  either  d©  not  recognize 
them  or  persuade  themselves  that  somebody  else  pays  them. 

Below  the  county  tax  come  the  multitudes  of  variations.  The 
congre.ssional  township  of  the  land  survey,  six  miles  square,  in 
its  simplest  organization  became  a school  township — a })lan  en- 
couraged by  the  grant  to  the  state  of  a section  or  of  two  sections 
or  square  miles  in  a townshi|)  for  school  purposes.  This  school 
corporation  is  often  subdivided  into  districts,  each  with  its  ta.x- 
ing  })Ower.  There  are  instances  of  superimposed  incorporation 
of  the  town  as  a high-school  district  with  taxing  power,  'rnrn- 
ing  from  school  administration,  we  find  the  same  area  made  a 
civil  townsliip,  with  care  of  roads,  the  poor,  and  other  subjects. 
V'ithin  this  tf)wnship  may  grow  up  a compact  body  of  po])ula- 
tion  to  be  chartered  as  a village,  a town,  or  a (dty,  according  to 
circumstances,  with  taxing  ])ower  for  police  and  other  purposes. 
In  some  instances,  like  Springfield,  Illinois,  these  units  will  as- 


122 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY: 


sume  the  charge  of  schools ; in  others,  like  Aurora,  Illinois,  the 
cit}'  does  not  administer  the  schools,  which  remain  under  the 
districts  into  which  the  school  township  was  divided. 

A citizen  may  therefore  find  himself  under  three  sets  of  taxes 
for  schools — the  township  and  the  district  for  common  schools 
and  the  high  school  township  for  its  specialty.  He  may  have  in 
addition  the  civil  township  tax  and  the  corporation  tax.  When 
the  school  district  is  given  a charter  making  it  independent  of 
its  town,  the  succession  of  taxes  is  modified.  A volume  would 
hardly  suffice  to  instance  all  the  variations  and  combinations  of 
duties  of  the  taxpayer  in  different  states,  or  even  in  different 
j)arts  of  the  same  state,  growing  out  of  the  separately  chartered 
taxing  powers  and  their  limited  independencies. 

The  cities  of  Washington,  D.  C.,  which  has  practicalh’^  absorbed 
Washington  county  and  become  identified  with  the  District  of 
Columbia;  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania ; New  York;  Brooklyn 
(.January  1, 189b),  New  York  ; New  Orleans,  Louisiana,  coexten- 
sive with  Philadelphia,  New  York,  and  Kings  counties  and 
Orleans  parish  respectively,  but  continuing  to  exercise  some  func- 
tions of  counties,  and  San  Francisco,  California,  identical  with 
San  Francisco  county,  represent  simply  a growth  by  which  cities 
have  filled  county  boundaries,  and  not  an  independence  of 
counties. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 

The  receipt  at  a somewhat  late  hour  of  two  important  articles  published 
in  this  numher  of  the  magazine  has  necessitated  the  holding  over  until 
April  of  the  entire  Department  of  Geographic  Literature. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY,  SESSION  iSqs-’qG. 

Special  Meeting,  January  31,  1896. — Vice-President  Greely  in  the  chair. 
Mr  Richard  Villafranca,  Commissioner  General  from  Costa  Rica  to  the 
Atlanta  Exposition,  read  a paper,  with  lantern-slide  illustrations,  on 
The  Geography,  People,  and  Resources  of  Costa  Rica. 

Regular  Meeting,  February  7,  Vice-President  ^Merriam  in  the  chair. 

Mr  W J McGee  delivered  an  address,  illustrated  by  lantern  slides 
(mo.stly  from  original  photographs),  entitled  “A  Sojourn  in  Seriland: 
Explorations  among  Hostile  Savages  of  the  Gulf  of  California.” 


ITS  PROCEEDINGS 


123 


Special  Meeting,  February  14,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Commander  Z.  L.  Tanner,  United  States  Navy,  described  his  cruise  in 
command  of  the  United  States  Fish  Commission  steamer  Albatross 
from  the  north  Atlantic  to  the  north  Pacific,  via  the  strait  of  Magellan 
and  the  Galapagos  islands.  Practical  details  of  the  scientific  work  and 
views  of  the  various  ports  visited  were  given  by  means  of  lantern-slide 
illustrations. 

Regular  Meeting,  February  SI,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair. 
Hon.  George  C.  Perkins,  United  States  Senator,  read  a paper,  illustrated 
by  lantern  slides,  on  California  : her  Geography,  Scenery,  and  Resources. 

FIlectioxs. — New  members  have  been  elected  as  follows  : - 

February  3. — John  M.  Comstock,  Dr  F.  P.  Dewey,  Herbert  Forsyth, 
Capt.  D.  D.  Gaillard,  U.  S.  A.,  Edward  M.  Kindle,  Gen.  Nelson  A.  Miles, 
U.  S.  A.,  R.  A.  Pearson,  W.  S.  Post,  W.  P.  Robinson,  Wm.  A.  Taylor, 
Col.  W.  B.  Thompson,  Thos.  L.  Watson,  Hon.  Andrew  D.  White. 

February  14- — Dr  J.  O.  Adams,  W.  H.  Baldwin,  Jr.,  Miss  Amy  M. 
Bradley,  Levi  J.  Bryant,  Mrs  31.  L.  Byington,  3Irs  J.  A.  Campbell,  Col. 
H.  W.  Closson,  U.  S.  A.,  J.  Ashley  Cooi^er,  Gen.  W.  P.  Craighill,  U.  S.  A., 
Claas  Denekas,  Pay  In.spector  L.  A.  Frailey,  U.  S.  N.,  Chief  Justice 
3Ielville  W.  Fuller,  Col.  D.  S.  Gordon,  U.  S.  A.,  Dr  Ida  J.  Heiberger, 
F.  J.  Heiberger,  James  G.  Jester,  Lieut.  W.  Lacy  Kenly,  U.  S.  A.,  3Irs 
W.  H.  Kerr,  T.  A.  Lambert,  James  B.  Lambie,  Noble  D.  Lamer,  Daniel 
3V.  Lord,  Wm.  G.  Lown,  Samuel  3Iaddox,  Chas.  Addison  3Iann,  Jr., 
Edward  J.  3IcQuade,  Hon.  John  L.  3Iitchell,  U.  S.  S.,  W.  Henderson 
3IoseS,  Owen  Owen,  A.  S.  Perhain,  August  Peterson,  Dr  Chas.  V.  Petteys, 
Robert  A.  Phillips,  3Ir  J.  B.  Pioda  (Swiss  3Iinister),  Rev.  Philip  31. 
Prescott,  J.  31.  Rieman,  John  3V.  Saville,  Thos.  3V.  Smith,  Capt.  J.  A. 
Snyder,  U.  S.  A.,  W.  E.  Speir,  Pearce  Thompson,  Capt.  R.  3"ance,  U.  S.  A., 
W.  H.  Veerhoff',  Dr  John  E.  3Valsh,  John  Sidney  Webb,  Oscar  W.  3Vhite, 
Ernest  3Vilkin.son. 

OiuTu.vitY. — General  John  Gibl)on,  a distinguished  officer  and  gallant 
soldier,  died  in  Baltimore  February  6.  Graduating  at  the  United  States 
3Iilitary  Academy  in  1847,  he  rose  to  he  a brigadier-general  in  the  regular 
Army  and  a major-general  of  Volunteers.  Alike  against  the  Seniinoles  in 
Florida  and  the  Nez  Perces  and  Siou.x  in  the  northwest,  in  the  3Iexican 
war  and  in  the  war  for  the  Union,  he  served  with  conspicuous  gallantry, 
winning  distinction  whether  he  was  in  command  of  a regiment,  a brigade, 
a division,  or  an  army  corps.  The  most  desi)erate  battles  of  the  army  of 
the  Potomac  found  him  at  the  front,  and  he  was  severely  wounded  both  at 
Fredericksburg  and  Gettysburg.  .\s  a man,  General  (Jibbon  was  greatly 
respected,  ami  The  Natinnal  (ieographic  Society  deplores  in  his  death 
the  lo.ss  of  a valuable  nieniber,  who  in  the  course  of  45  years  of  active 
service  had  gaineil  a jiractieal  knowledge  of  the  geography  of  the  United 
States  such  as  few  men  have  the  opportunity  of  ac«iuiring. 


124 


MISCELLANEA 


No  one  unacquainted  with  Professor  W.  H.  Dali’s  earlier  work  as  an 
explorer  would  imagine  from  the  reading  of  his  modest  article  on  pages 
110  and  111  that  he  himself  bore  an  important  and  honorable  part  in  one 
of  the  expeditions  to  which  he  refers.  To  all,  however,  except  the  younger 
generation,  this  fact  is  well  known,  as  is  the  further  fact  that  Professor 
Dali’s  continued  exjilorations  and  researches  in  Alaska  and  the  North 
Pacific  ocean  for  the  long  period  of  80  years  have  led  to  his  recognition 
as  one  of  the  best  informed  men  of  the  time  on  all  matters  relating  to  that 
most  interesting  and  increasingly  important  section  of  the  globe.  After  the 
abandonment  of  the  overland  telegraph  project  in  1867,  Mr  Dali  remained 
for  some  time  in  Russian  America,  witnessing  its  transformation  into 
Alaska  as  the  result  of  its  purchase  by  the  United  States.  On  his  return, 
he  I'aiblished  numerous  articles  of  great  scientific  value,  and  in  1870  ajj- 
peared  his  well  known  work  on  Alaska  and  its  Resources.  As  an  assistant 
in  the  U.  S.  Coast  Survey  from  1871  to  1874,  he  devoted  himself  largely 
to  Alaskan  studies,  making  repeated  visits  to  the  far  north  and  publish- 
ing from  time  to  time  the  results  of  his  investigations  concerning  it.  In 
1884  he  joined  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey,  of  which  he  has  since  re- 
mained an  otiicer.  He  is  also  closely  identified  with  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  of  which  he  is  an  honorary  curator. 

The  proi)Osal  to  establish  a permanent  directorship-in-chief  of  scientific 
bureaus  and  investigations  in  the  Dei)artment  of  Agriculture,  to  give 
coordination  and  continuity  to  the  many-sided  scientific  work  of  the  De- 
l)artment  and  to  complete  the  good  work  done  by  the  present  Secretary 
in  protecting  the  scientific  force  from  the  onslaught  of  the  political  spoils- 
man, has  excited  great  interest  in  the  scientific  world  and  called  forth  a 
very  notable  expression  of  favorable  opinion  from  a large  number  of  emi- 
nent scientists  and  scientific  educators.  Within  a brief  period — in  fact, 
since  February  18,  President  Gilman  and  the  faculty  of  Johns  Hopkins, 
President  Dwight  and  the  scientific  faculty  of  Yale,  President  Soliurman 
of  Cornell,  President  Low  of  Columbia,  President  Adams  of  Wisconsin, 
President  Francis  A.  Walker  of  the  Boston  Institute  of  Technology,  Dr 
Shaler,  dean  of  the  Lawrence  Scientific  School  at  Harvard ; Dr  John  S. 
Billings,  of  New  A'ork ; the  Joint  Commission  of  the  Scientific  Societies 
of  Washington,  and  the  presidents  and  other  officers  of  various  state 
universities  and  colleges  have  given  the  proposal  the  very  strongest  in- 
dorsement. While  the  recommendation  is  scarcely  likely  to  be  favorably 
acted  upon  at  the  present  session  of  Congress,  it  is  too  obviously  a step  in 
the  direction  of  a more  effective  and  at  the  same  time  more  economical 
administration — too  manifestly  in  the  interest  of  good  government  in 
general — ^for  its  adoption  to  be  long  delayed. 

A preliminary  announcement  of  the  Mexican  census  of  1895  gives  a 
total  pojnilation  of  12,542,057,  as  against  9,908,011  at  the  census  of  1879, 
and  11,632,924  as  officially  estimated  in  1889.  The  ijopulation  of  the 
princii)al  cities  is  said  to  be  as  follows : Cit}"  of  Mexico,  339,935 ; Puebla, 
91,917  ; Guadalajara,  83,870;  San  Luis  Potosi,  69,676;  Monterey,  56,835; 
IMerida,  56,702;  Pachuca,  52,188;  Durango,  42,166,  and  Zacatecas,  40,026. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


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Twenty  years  ago  Mexico  was  practically  a closed  country  to 
the  tourist  from  the  United  States.  Then  , the  facilities  for 
transportation  were  such  that  the  journey  into  the  quaint  land 
l3dng  to -the  South  of  us  implied  weeks  of  arduous  travel,  which 
only  those  inured  to  hardships  could  stand.  Now,  the  tourist 
gets  into  his  Pullman  Sleeper  at  New  Orleans  and  the  Southern 
Pacific  quickly  lands  him  in  “the  land  of  the  afternoon.’’  The 
way  leads  through  the  beautiful  bayou  region  of  Louisiana, 
then  amid  the  vast  pine  forests  that  fringe  the  eastern  edge  of 
the  Lone  Star  State,  past  Houston,  the  great  cotton  mart,  and 
San  Antonio,  the  beautiful  city  of  the  Alamo  and  the  Missions. 
At  Spofford  the  Mexico  slee^Der  swings  off  from  the  main  line 
and  in  a little  while  one  crosses  the  Rio  Grande  at  Eagle  Pass, 
and  finds  one’s  self  upon  the  soil  of  the  sister  Republic.  From 
here  to  Torreon  the  way  leads  over  the  Mexican  International, 
and  then  straight  down  the  Mexican  Central,  past  many  quaint 
and  Medieval  towns,  through  fertile  valleys,  where  men  are 
plowing  with  slow-moving  oxen,  over  mountain  passes,  where 
the  hill  tops  flatten  into  grotesque  shapes — to  the  City  of 
Mexico.  Every  mile  of  the  way  is  fraught  with  novel  interest. 
At  each  stop  the  train  makes,  quaint  groups  gathered  at  the 
station  claim  attention.  Their  dress  is  picturesque,  their  speech 
is  vigorous  but  musical.  They  importune  one  with  all  sorts  of 
confections  and  trinkets  for  sale.  The  domed  cities  and  towns 
which  line  the  way  or  are  visible  in  the  distance,  have  the  at- 
mosphere of  villages  in  Palestine.  One  may  make  a visit 
limited  by  days,  or  wander  for  weeks  and  not  be  satiated.  The 
interest  of  the  city  itself  is  inexhaustible,  while  Zacatecas,  the 
great  mining  center  perched  high  among  the  mountains  ; Guada- 
lajara, the  Boston  of  the  country  ; San  Luis  Potosi,  with  its 
architecture  and  its  art,  or  Vera  Cruz  or  Tampico,  lying’ amid 
coffee  and  banana  plantations  upon  the  seacoast,  are  but  a few 
of  the  hundreds  of  places  that  attract  and  charm.  You  will 
never  regret  a journey  into  Mexico,  which  can  be  made  so 
cheaply  and  expeditiously  via  New  Orleans  and  the  Southern 
Pacific.  Consult  the  nearest  Southern  Pacific  agent  for  rates 
and  information,  or  write  to  S.  F.  B.  Mok.sk,  General  Pas.senger 
and  Ticket  Agent,  Southern  Pacific  Company,  New  Orleans,  La. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


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Northern  Pacific  Railroad, 


On  Your  Return  from 


CALIFORNIAN 


You  Can  See  the  Original  of  this  Scene. 


RAPIDS  NEAR  UPPER  FALL. 

fl  is  in  the  YELLOtVSTONE  PARK,  and  can  be  reached 
on  your  return  from  CALIFORNIA  if  you  will  see  that  your 
ticket  reads  as  above.  In  addition  you  will  see 

MT.  .SHASTA,  MT.  HOOD,  and  MT.  TACOMA, 
the  Giant  Peaks  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  pass  through  Port- 
land, Tacoma,  Seattle,  Spokane,  Helena  or  Butte,  Missoula, 
Bismarck,  Fargo,  Minneapolis,  and  St.  Paul. 

Send  me  6 cents  for 

SKETCHES  O WO  INI  D E FR  UA  I\l  D. 

CHAS.  S.  FEE,  Qen.  Pass.  Agent, 

Northern  Pacific  Railroad,  St.  Paul,  flinn. 


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NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE  • 
• OHliMUTE. 

“The  Rhine,  the  Alps  and  the  Battlefield 
Line.” 


FAMOUS  m/.  LIMITED 

FAST  FLYING  VIRGINIAN 

IS  THE  ONLY  SOLID  VESTIBULED  TRAIN,  ELECTRIC-LIGHTED,  STEAM-HEATED, 
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BETWEEN 

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lumbers  amonor  its  contributors  the  followinof  well-known  writers 

o o 

on  the  different  branches  of  geographic  science : 


^Ir.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

Ir.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsoiiiau  Institution. 

dr.  Marcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

2apt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 

3r.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Tlieol.  Seminary. 

dr.  E.  L-  Corthell,  C.  E.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Elliott  Coues. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  Assistant  Secre- 
tar\-  ol  Agriculture  and  rre.sident  (on  leave) 
of  the  Tenne.ssee  State  University. 

Dr.  Will.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  Institution, 
Pres,  of  the  Phil.  Society  of  Washington. 

Dr.  George  Davidson,  President  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

Mr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Wm.  M.  Davis,  Professor  of  Pli3’sical  Geog- 
raplij-  in  Harvard  University. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Stati.stics  and  Technology,  U.  S-  Geol.  Sur. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey’. 

H«m.  John  W.  I'oster,  ex-.Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.  Heur}’  Gannett,  Chief  Topographer,  U.  S. 
Geol.  Sur.  and  Geographer  of  i ith  Census. 

Mr.  (j.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey, 
Pres,  of  the  Geol.  Society  of  Washington. 

Dc*n.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

lion.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  Society. 

Dr  Mark  \V.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  Everett  Hayden,  U.  vS.  N.,  Secretary  of 
tlie  National  Geographic  Society. 

Mr.  Wm.  H.  Holmes,  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  .An- 
thropology, l-ield  Coluin.  Museum,  Chicago. 

Dr.  Ihnil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Slieldon  Jaek.soii,  U.  S.  Commissioner  of 
Education  for  Alaska. 


Mr.  George  Keiinan. 

Prof.  William  Dibbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Eth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  E.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Admiral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Mass. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Ornithologist  and  Mani- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Hon.  John  H.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  ,S. 

Prof.  W.  L-  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

Mr.  F'rederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hydrographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Lieut.  Robert  E-  Peary,  U.  S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Peary. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  S. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Profe.ssorof  Astron- 
omy in  Harvard  University. 

IMajor  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  .American  Ethnology  and  President  of  the 
Anthropological  Society'  of  Washington. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  vSuperintendent  ot  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  S. 
Civil  Service  Commission. 

IMr.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Professor  of  Geology  in 
the  Univer.sit)'  of  Michigan. 

Dr.  N.  S.  vShaler,  Professor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sig.sbee,  Hydrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy'  Dept. 

Miss  Eliza  Ruhaniah  Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L-  Tanner,  U.  S.  N. 

IMr.  I'rank  Vincent,  New  A”ork. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.  S. 
Geological  .Survey. 

Mrs.  I'annie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS  OF  RECENT  NUMBERS. 

JANUARY. — Rus.sia  in  Europe,  with  maj),  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Iliibb.ird  ; The  .Arctic  Cruise 
of  the  U.  S.  Revenue  Cutter  “Bear,”  with  illustrations.  Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson;  The 
Scope  and  Value  of  .Ar<'ti<‘  hixploration,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely. 

FEBRUARY.  Venezuela:  Her  ( lovernment,  People,  and  Boundary,  with  maj)  and  illustra- 
tion:', William  E.  Curtis  ; 'fhe  Panama  Canal  Route,  with  illustrations.  Prof.  Robert  'f. 
Hill;  'J'he  Tehuantepec  Shi])  Railway,  with  ma])S,  E.  L-  Corthell,  C.  Iv.,  LL.  D.  ; 'I’he 
Presimt  Slate  of  the  Nicaragu.i  Canal,  Gen.  .\.  W.  Greely  ; Ex])lorations  by  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology,  W J McCree. 

This  number  contains  a map  of  the  valley  of  the  Orinoco,  showing  the  extent 
of  territory  drained  by  that  waterway  and  the  bearing  it  has  on  the  Venezuelan 
question,  specially  compiled  for  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 
jy  T.  Heyward  Gignilliat.  of  the  U.  S.  War  Department. 

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THE  APRIL  NUMBER 


OF 


ft 


will  contain  several  important,  illustrated 
articles  relating  to 


THE  PACIFIC  SLOPE, 

- TOGETHER  WITH  A ^ 



MAP  OF  SERILAND,^*^ 

including  TIBURON  ISLAND,  based  upon* 
recent  geographic  explorations  and  surveys; 


ALSO  A MAP  OF 

THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


and  new  determinations  of  the  elevation  of 

several  of  the 

Principal  Peaks  of  the  Cascade  Range. 


JUDD  & DETWEILER,  PRINTERS,  WASHINGTON.  D.  C. 


VII 


AP^iL,  1896 


No.  4 


W' 

ir?v 


AN  I 





A.  W.  GREBIli'Zl. 


Honorary  Editor  : JO 

Honorary  Associate 
— W - J IVTcTTBE  H 


SCIDMORE 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 

3ERILAND  W J McGEE  AND  WILLARD  D.  JOHNSON  125 

With  map  and  illustration. 

rHE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY.  With  map.  THE  LATE  S.  C.  GiLMAN  133 

THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY.  ALASKA 

With  map  and  illustration.  ELIZA  RUHAMAH  SCIDMORE  140 

HYDROGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.  FREDERICK  H.  NEWELL  146 
RECENT  TRIANGULATION  IN  THE  CASCADES.  S.  S.  GANNETT  150 

THE  altitude  OF  MOUNT  ADAMS,  WASHINGTON. 

EDGAR  McCLURB  151 

Geographic  Literature,  p.  153 ; Proceedings  of  The  National  Geographic  Society, 
p.  155;  Miscellanea,  p.  156. 


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The  National  Geojrraphie  Society,  the  object  of  which  is  tlie  increase  and  diffusion 
of  geographic  knowledge,  has  a paying  inemhershii)  of  over  ],J00.  Its  ineinhership  is 
not  re,stricted  to  iiractical  geographers,  hnt  is  o|»en  to  any  Jierson  in  good  standing  who 
may  he  snlliciently  interested  in  its  work  to  seek  admission.  The  annual  snhscription 
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respectfully  solicited. 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG 


W.  D.  Johnson,  Topograplier 


SERI 


I 


Isla 
San  Esteban 


SONOR 

From  survey's  Bureau  Arne 
(Coctst-line  m.a.inl.y  ft'om 
Scale:  7 


VOL.  VII.  1896,  PL.  XIV 


Pun  t A \^nac  io 


Isla  Tahsrie 


Puntar  K!ino 


\XI) 


\V  J McGee,  Kthnoln^ist  in  ('liarjr^ 


:xico 


■Othriology  F,xppdilioT\,1895 

yfti'oyr'riphAi'  SijLTVk^ys) 


o I inch 


GEOO  mag 


J[2^^^-lB96,PL.XrV 


THE 


Yol.  VII  APRIL,  T896  No.  4 


SERILAND 

By  \V  J McGee  arid  Willard  D.  Johnson 

After  tliree  weeks  of  seasoning  in  the  saddle,  we  pushed  through 
the  water-gap  trenching  the  chief  range  of  central  Sonora  and 
descended  the  sand-wash  (commonly  dry,  locally  wet)  for  a hard 
day  to  the  adobe  hamlet  of  Bacuache,  and  next  morning  one  of 
us  climbed  a near-by  butte  to  make  a planetable  station  and  inci- 
dentally to  realize  the  peculiar  isolation  of  the  long-promised 
land  of  the  Seri  Indians,  still  fifty  miles  away.  On  the  same 
afternoon  of  November  29,  1895,  we  left  sand-wash  for  butte- 
dotted  plain  in  time  to  see  the  setting  sun  shadow  a jagged 
mountain  crest  far  out  on  the  broad  barrier  desert;  and  the  grim 
fatherland  of  a fierce  tribe,  the  terror  of  explorers  since  Coronado, 
the  dread  of  Sonora  today,  tlie  nightmare  of  the  few  local  set- 
tlers, the  cynosure  of  all  eyes  of  the  party,  was  spontaneously,  and 
so  uncon.sciously  that  no  one  could  remember  the  sponsor,  chris- 
tened Seriland.  Later,  in  traversing  the  hard  desert  and  climb- 
ing the  rugged  Sierra  Seri,  and  about  the  guarded  camj)  lire  on 
Isla  Tihuron,  alternative  names  for  the  territory  were  sought  and 
temporarily  used,  hut  they  soon  slijiped  away,  while  the  simple 
appellation  clung. 

So  Seriland  was  named,  and  for  present  purposes,  at  least,  the 
informal  christening  may  he  made  formal. 

The  little  party  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  pushed 
on  from  Ifacuache,  making  stations  by  the  way,  to  Rancho  San 
Francisco  de  Costa  Rica,  wheri;  they  were  met  hy  the  owner, 
Senor  I’ascual  Encinas,  the  now  aged  hut  always  intrepid  Seri 


g 


12G 


SERILAND 


figliter,  with  his  good  wife  Doha  Anita.  There  a small  party  was 
organized  and  a little  boat  was  built,  and  the  surveys  were  jmshed 
into  and  eventually  over  the  barrier  desert  and  harsh  mountains 
of  Seriland,  both  continental  and  insular.  The  story  of  the  work 
is  not  without  interest,  but  must  he  left  for  other  pages. 

The  instrumental  outfit  comprised  a planetable  with  compass 
and  alidade,  but  no  means  of  h3"psometric  determination.  The 
planetable  triangulation  was  carried  from  the  international 
boundaiy,  and  the  scale  is  fixed  by  the  boundary  work  in  con- 
junction with  the  coastwise  positions  determined  by  the  United 
States  Hydrographic  surveys  of  the  Narragamett  in  1873-75. 
From  Tihuron  the  surve.v  Avas  carried  eastward  beyond  Hermo- 
sillo,  and  from  this  line  the  survejmd  zone  contracts  somewhat 
northward  to  the  boundaiy.  The  area  covered  is  about  10,000 
square  miles;  47  stations  were  occupied  for  control,  and  a con- 
siderabl.y  larger  number  of  additional  jioints  for  sketching.  The 
acconqianying  map  of  Seriland  represents  only  the  extreme 
southwestern  portion  of  the  area  surveyed  ; ivithin  it  16  stations 
(including  the  culminating  point  in  Sierra  Seri)  Avere  occupied 
for  control  as  Avell  as  for  sketching.  It  should  be  noted  that  both 
control  and  sketching  are  hardly  Avhat  might  be  desired  on  the 
Avestern  slojies  of  Tihuron  island. 

The  district  including  Seriland  may'  be  likened  unto  a great 
roof-slojie  stretching  from  a lofty^  comb  in  the  Sierra  Madre  to 
and  under  the  gulf  of  California  as  into  a huge  eaves-trough  ; 
but  the  slope  is  diversified  and  the  eaves-line  interrupted  b.y 
outlying  ranges  and  buttes.  The  most  aberrant  part  of  roof- 
slojie  and  eaves-line  is  Seriland;  hirhere  the  outl.ying  ranges  are 
of  exceptional  magnitude  and  rise  even  beyond  the  general 
coastline  to  form  the  largest  island  in  the  gulf.  In  general  the 
outline  of  the  coast  Avould  not  be  greatly  changed,  but  only 
shifted  somewhat  inland  or  offAvard,  if  the  sloping  plain  of  Sonora 
Avere  to  sink  or  rise  a few  hundred  feet ; but  if  Seriland  Avere 
lifted  only  a hundred  feet  its  strait  Avould  be  drained  and  Tiburon 
island  Avould  join  the  continent,  Avhile  if  it  Avere  depressed  tAvo 
or  three  hundred  feet  the  entire  province  Avould  become  Iavo 
great  islands,  and  even  if  Sonora  Avere  sunk  3,000  feet  or  more 
Seriland  Avould  persist  as  an  archipelago  far  in  the  offing.  Thus 
the  land  of  the  Seri  stands  forth  conspicuously  on  the  broad 
continental  slope  by  reason  of  exceptional  altitude. 

Most  of  the  vapor  of  the  Pacific  boats  over  the  sun-parched 
plains  and  loAver  mountains  along  the  coast  and  rolls  far  up  the 


,'SEIULAND 


. 127 


slope  toward  the  Sierra  Madre  before  it  is  condensed,  and  thus 
the  region  is  arid.  Streams  rise  in  the  high  Sierra  indeed,  espe- 
cially during  the  midwinter  and  midsummer  rainy  seasons,  and 
rush  down  the  strong  slope  toward  the  gulf  in  roaring  torrents ; 
but  so  diy  are  air  and  sand  that  even  the  largest  floods  are  ab- 
sorbed well  up  the  incline — and  between  mountain-born  Colo- 
rado and  sierra-fed  Yaki,  500  miles  apart,  no  river  ever  reaches 
the  sea.  The  precipitation  is  greater  on  the  outlying  ranges, 
es})ecially  the  lofty  masses  of  Seriland,than  over  the  intervening 
plains ; yet  everywhere  tlie  rainfall  is  so  slight  that  the  region  is 
semidesert,  with  broad  belts  of  Saharan  sands  between  the  coast- 
ward ranges.  The  local  configuration  about  Seriland  appears  to 
favor  local  winds  (rising  into  nearly  continuous  gales  during  De- 
ceml)er,  1895),  and  the  unstable  air  brings  forth  fogs  which  feed 
the  flora  of  coast  and  foothills  ; but  little  moisture  in  rain,  dew, 
or  fog  ever  reaches  that  broadest  of  the  desert  plains  of  western 
Sonora,  the  natural  boundary  of  Seriland,  Desierto  Encinas.  So 
the  aboriginal  principality  of  Seriland  is  set  apart,  isolated,  prac- 
tically insulated  so  far  as  life  is  concerned,  hy  a natural  barrier. 
It  is  to  this  natural  isolation,  as  well  as  to  the  ferocity  of  the 
natives,  that  the  checking  of  exploration  and  evangelization  at 
the  Seri  frontier  is  to  be  ascribed ; yet  at  the  same  time  the  char- 
acteristics of  the  savages  are  in  a measure  due  to  their  isolation 
(as  shown  elsewhere),  and  thus  natural  condition  and  artificial 
custom  have  cooperated  cumulatively  through  the  centuries  to 
])revent  earlier  study  of  the  stanch  little  dominion  of  the  Seri. 

The  toi)Ography  of  Seriland  is  striking  by  reason  of  the  rugged- 
ness of  tlie  ranges  which  rise  steeply  from  great  apron-like  ex- 
]tanses  of  foot-slope  or  plain.  The  abrupt  transition  from  jagged 
cliffs  above  to  smooth  ])lains  below  conveys  irresistibly  the 
impression  that  the  mountains  are  buried  to  their  ears  in  vast 
torrential  deposits  which  line  the  intervening  valleys  to  profound 
depths ; and  the  geologist  is  surprised  and  distrustful  of  observa- 
tion until  many  times  repeated  when  he  finds  that  the  intermon- 
tane  expanses  are  simi)ly  ])laned  rock  strata  with  a scant  veneer 
of  torrent-spread  alluvium.  This  tojiographic  paradox,  of  which 
the  wh(fie  of  Seriland  and  much  of  adjacent  Pa))agueria  form  a 
great  example,  is  well  illustrated  in  a section  exposed  in  the  shore 
between  Puerta  Iidiermj  and  Punta  Ygnacio.  .A  (piarter  of  this 
15-mile  e.xposure  is  the  current-built  point,  another  (piarter  cuts 
butte  or  range  of  igneous  rock  or  ancient  granite,  while  the  remain- 
ing half  traverses  typical  intermontane  plain  in  clilfs  of  20  to  50 


128 


SEEILAND 


feet,  and  fully  5 out  of  the  7 J miles  of  the  low  eliff  reveal  the  sub- 
stratum of  planed  granite  beneath  a torrential  veneer,  while  there 
is  more  of  alluvium-free  granite  than  of  graniteless  alluvium. 
The  sharp  contrast  between  mountain  and  plain  is  doubtless  due 
to  the  character  of  the  scant  rainfall;  but  the  relation  need  not 
he  further  pursued  at  present.  Hardly  less  striking  than  this 
general  topographic  relation  are  the  strong  local  features  of  the 
topography.  Tiburon  island  is  but  30  miles  long  and  less  than 
20  wide,  yet  it  contains  several  ranges,  the  dominant  one  (Sierra 
Kunkaak)  of  Alpine  ruggedness  throughout  most  of  its  4,000  feet 
of  altitude.  Sierra  Seri  is  an  imposing  assemblage  of  peaks, 
aretes,  precipices,  and  profound  gorges,  cutting  the  azure  at  fully 
5,000  feet,  though  the  width  of  the  range  from  strait  to  desert  is 
but  10  miles.  Even  more  impressive  than  the  mountains,  to  the 
explorer  on  the  ground,  is  Desierto  Encinas — the  broad  waste  of 
playas  and  sand  dunes  lying  over  against  the  Papago  of  old,  the 
law-bound  Sonora  of  today.  Toward  its  broad  basin-shape  ex- 
panse storm  freshets  flow  apparently  from  all  directions,  yet  it 
is  never  filled  and  rarely  wetted,  and  the  scant  water  sometimes 
rising  to  the  surface  on  its  steeper  western  slope  is  saline  ; it  is 
partly  barred  from  the  gulf  and  lined  in  its  lower  levels  by  a 
sheet  of  sediment  charged  with  recent  marine  shells,  which  show 
that  at  no  remote  day  it  was  an  arm  of  the  sea.  Of  interest,  too, 
is  the  gale-swept  strait  El  Infiernillo,  for  the  foot-slo})es  on  island 
and  mainland  are  just  such  as  sweep  down  and  merge  between 
the  parallel  ranges  of  the  interior,  and  extend  nearly  or  quite  to 
the  coastline  where  they  are  cut  by  wave-carved  cliffs  or  pass 
into  current-built  sand-spits,  making  'it  manifest  that  the  strait 
was  original!}^  a subaerial  valley  like  those  of  the  interior  and 
onl}"  recently  occupied  and  slightly  modified  by  the  sea.  Isla 
Tassne,  too,  is  a noteworthy  feature ; though  but  a fraction  of  a 
mile  in  any  dimension  and  for  the  most  part  a wave-built  bench, 
its  nucleus  is  a 500-foot  spire  of  rock,  the  half-submerged  crest 
of  a twinned  peak,  on  which  myriads  of  water  fowl  nest.  The 
topographic  detail  of  Seriland  is  that  of  water-carving  or  water- 
building, yet  the  aridity  is  such  that  the  work  must  proceed 
at  infinitesimal  rate.  The  dearth  of  water  is  a burning  ques- 
tion to  the  explorer,  a vital  element  in  prospective  conquest  of 
Seriland  for  the  behoof  of  civilized  man.  In  all  the  half  dozen 
valle3''S,  the  hundred  barrancas,  and  the  thousand  storm-cut 
gorges,  there  are  probably  less  than  a dozen  nominally  perma- 
nent, and  but  two  or  three  actually  permanent,  sources  of  fresh 
water  in  the  territory. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XV. 


ICxpedition  boat  Anita  at  anchor. 


SERILAND 


129 


The  geolog}^  of  Seriland  is  worthy  of  study.  The  prevailing 
rocks  of  the  principal  ranges  are  rather  ancient  (probably  Meso- 
zoic or  early  Tertiary)  lava  sheets  with  associated  tuff's  and  brec- 
cias, while  in  several  localities,  notably  the  western  foot-slopes  of 
Sierra  Seri,  there  are  large  areas  of  still  more  ancient  granite, 
often  slightly  schistose  and  intersected  with  dikes  and  veins.  It 
is  tlie  current  belief  in  Sonora  (a  belief  based  partly  on  the  use 
of  rare  minerals  as  face-paint  among  the  Seri)  that  rich  deposits 
of  ores  and  precious  metals  exist  in  Seriland,  and  certain  por- 
tions of  the  area  examined  certainly  appear  worth  prospecting ; 
but  no  rich  deposits  were  found,  and  most  of  the  rocks  examined 
are  unpromising.  The  dominant  geologic  feature  of  the  territory 
is  that  reflected  in  the  topography — the  abrupt  transition  from 
rugged  mountain  to  smooth  peneplain  of  similar  rocks  with  a 
veneer  of  fragmental  debris.  Generally  this  debris  is  unconsoli- 
dated and  fresh-looking,  though  sometimes  it  is  cemented  by 
siliceous  or  ferruginous  matter,  and  toward  the  eastern  side  of 
Desierto  Encinas  even  the  superficial  portions  of  the  alluvium 
are  somewhat  indurated,  as  if  by  calcareous  infiltration,  into  a 
mass  known  as  caliche  in  western  Mexico  (the  tepitate  of  eastern 
INIexico).  No  deposits  postdating  the  extravasation  of  the  lavas 
and  the  outlining  of  the  mountain  ranges  were  seen  save  the 
shell-charged  sands  of  Encinas  desert;  these  deposits  and  the 
shelf  skirting  Tassne  island  on  north  and  east  suggest  relatively 
recent  uplifting,  while  the  configuration  of  shores,  especially  in 
Estrecho  Infiernillo,  demonstrates  relatively  recent  subsidence, 
so  that  to  one  of  us,  at  least,  the  combined  records  indicate  local 
warping.  To  some  extent  in  Seriland,  as  decidedly  in  contigu- 
ous Papagueria,  the  divides  are  migrating  northeastwardly,  and 
this  widesi)read  characteristic  suggests  a relatively  recent  tilting 
of  the  land  southwestward,  whereby  the  feeble  streams- flowing 
with  the  increasing  sloi)e  are  stimulated  while  those  flowing 
against  it  are  paralyzed. 

The  meager  flora  of  Seriland  is  peculiar.  The  conspicuous 
forms  are  cacti,  comprising  the  monstrous  saguesa  (a  Cereus 
related  to  f/Ujaideas  but  still  larger)  and  wide-branching  pita- 
liaya  (Cereus  Ihurheri)  on  the  foot-slopes,  with  the  cina  (Cereus 
sehoUil)  and  cholla  (a  cylindropuntia)  at  lower  levels  and  the 
water-bearing  bisnaga  ( Kchinocarlus)  here  and  there  on  thenniin- 
land,  though  few  and  far  between  on  the  island.  The  ghostly 
okatillo  (/'ba7/n>m  .s/>/(j/tdr/ix)  is  fairly  abundant,  and  there  are 
occasional  yuccas  and  a variety  of  the  more  slender  agaves.  The 


130 


SERI  LAND 


prevailing  trees,  which  are  usually  little  more  than  shrubs,  are 
mesquite,  catclaw  (^Acacia  greggii),  and  paloverde  {Parkinsonia 
microphglla)  on  plain  and  foothill,  and  paloblanca,  torote,  and 
torotito  among  the  mountains ; the  prevailing  shrub  is  the  creo- 
sote bush  (Larrea  tridentnta),  with  a variety  of  small  mimosas 
and  other  brambles,  all  scrubby  and  all  beset  with  thorns  or  en- 
dowed with  foul  flavors  and  odors  ; and  about'  the  few  perma- 
nent waters  there  are  patches  of  bamboo-like  reeds,  which  are 
used  l)y  the  Seri  in  making  balsas  and  sometimes  in  building- 
bowers  for  hal)itation.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  there  is  no 
soil  in  Seriland,  for  the  scant  moisture  and  slow-growing  plants 
do  not  produce  humus;  and  the  gray  or  ashen  earth  between 
the  scattered  plant-colonies  glares  starkly  in  the  glowing  sun- 
light, inflaming  the  eyes  of  the  traveler  as  in  snow-blindness. 
Two  general  features  of  the  vegetal  life  of  the  region  may  l)e 
noted : Partly  by  reason  of  the  absence  of  humus,  the  superficial 
deposits  are  comminuted  mechanically  but  imperfectly  reduced 
chemically,  so  that  the}^  vaiy  from  place  to  place  with  the  varia- 
tion in  rocks  and  quantity  .of  water,  and  thereb}^  tend  to  produce 
local  floras,  or  a provincial  habit  of  the  general  flora ; while  it 
results  from  the  dearth  of  water  anti  strength  of  sun  that  the 
plants  strive  against  the  inorganic  environment  rather  than 
against  each  other  for  continued  existence,  and  are  thereby 
brought  into  a curious  cooi)eration,  whereby  nearly  all  plants 
(and  animate  organisms  as  well)  gather  into  colonies  for  mutual 
support.  These  relations,  thougli  highly  significant  and  attract- 
ive, need  not  be  pursued  here;  it  suffices  to  say  that  they  pro- 
foundly affect  the  flora  which,  as  even  a casual  traveler  cannot 
fail  to  note,  varies  notably  from  place  to  place,  and  is  generally 
gathered  in  close-set  tufts  or  bunches,  with  broad  bare  spaces 
between-.  The  flora  on  island  and  mainland  is  essentially  the 
same  ; and  the  coasts,  insular  and  continental,  are  skirted  with 
a zone  of  i)ulpy-leaved  shrubs  and  bushes  apparently  watered 
by  fogs. 

The  fauna  of  Seriland  includes  the  bighorn  and  bura  (a  large, 
sluggish  deer)  in  the  mountains,  the  antelope,  peccary,  and  black- 
tail  deer  on  tlie  plains,  with  the  jackrabbit  and  coyote  every- 
where ; the  jaguar  is  reputed  common  and  the  puma  rarer — the 
assemblage  of  large  game  animals  being  rich  enough  to  tempt 
the  sportsman.  The  turkey  is  said  to  haunt  the  saguesa  forests 
and  the  California  quail  may  be  seen  hourly,  and  small  birds  are 
surprisingly  numerous,  while  hawks,  eagles,  and  burrowing  owls 


S ERIE  AND 


131 


abound.  The  rattlesnake,  scor[)ion,  centipede,  and  tarantula 
furnish  spice  for  the  fare  of  the  traveler,  while  rainbow-hned 
swifts  and  somber,  slow-moving  lizards  of  alleged  poisonous  bite 
harbor  numerously  in  the  scattered  plant  colonies.  Ground- 
squirrels  and  kangaroo-rats  are  common.  On  some  ])ortions  of 
the  island  the  squirrels  abound  exceedingl}^  so  that  the  land  is 
laid  out  in  hexagons  by  their  surface  trails,  while  each  third  or 
fifth  footfall  of  the  pedestrian  stops  half  knee-deep  in  subsurface 
burrows.  There  are  ants  galore,  and  myriads  of  black  bugs  that 
apparently  fertilize  the  cacti,  but  mosquitoes,  gnats,  and  other 
])ernicious  insects  are  apparently  unknown.  The  cooperation  of 
the  vegetation  extends  unto  the  animate  life  of  plain  and  moun- 
tain to  the  extent  that  all  living  things  dwell  together  in  singu- 
larl}’’  perfect  harmony  ; but  this  feature  of  the  life  may  be  passed 
over.  Along  the  coast  the  green  turtle  abounds  and  forms  the 
chief  fare  of  the  Indians,  and  his  shells  shingle  the  more  perma- 
nent house-bowers.  Fish  and  crustaceans  swarm,  edible  crabs 
and  oysters  and  superb  lobsters  await  gathering,  and  clams 
sprinkle  the  coastwise  mud  flats.  The  gray  pelican  breeds  on 
Isla  Tassne — the  first-formed  land  of  earth  as  built  by  the  Ancient 
of  Pelicans,  in  Seri  myth, — and  his  flesh  feeds,  while  his  feathered 
skins  clothe,  the  ever-warring  holders  of  Seriland;  and  other 
water-fowl,  from  swan  to  snipe  and  from  cormorant  to  curlew, 
chatter  and  scream  and  croak  about  the  rocky  islets  and  si)urs, 
especially  on  the  fowls’  paradise  of  Isla  Tassne.  The  seal  crec))s 
up  on  the  rocks  now  and  then,  the  shark  scavengers  the  sea  as 
the  coyote  the  land,  and  the  skeleton  of  a whale  fully  80  feet 
long  on  the  shores  of  Tiburon  records  a famous  feast  of  the  Seri 
when  for  weeks  they  found  no  need  for  hunting  and  fishing  and 
for  months  gnawed  gradually  softening  tendon  and  cartilage. 
'I'he  subdesert  fauna  of  Seriland  is  meager  and  peculiar,  but  the 
maritime  fauna  of  the  coasts  is  rich  and  varied. 

The  fierce  holders  of  desert-bouml  Seriland  have  ]>rotected 
their  inheritance  from  time  immemorial,  and  since  the  time  of 
Coronado  have  written  their  history  in  blood.  Throe  of  their 
many  interesting  characteristics  are  especially  notable  : 'riiey  are 
isolated  in  language,  belief,  custom,  and  sympathy  as  in  habitat; 
they  are  dominated  1)V  a moral  law  under  which  intermarriage 
with  other  [)eoples  is  ca[)ital  crime  and  under  which  they  attain 
righteou.mess  by  slaying  humans  of  alien  blood  with  only  greater 
avidity  than  beasts  are  slain,  always  save  when  dctemal  by  f(>ar ; 
and  they  are  of  a stature,  strength,  and  endurance  befitting  their 
hard  and  eventful  lives. 


132 


SERILAXD 


The  coast  of  Seriland  has  been  surveyed,  and  long  ago  a pearl 
fishery  was  maintained  for  a time  on  its  borders  near  Punta 
Tej)opa.  Tliere  is  a tradition  that  Sergeant  Escalante  (he  who 
later  swam  the  C4ila  and  saw  Casa  Grande)  ivandered  into  the 
bounding  desert  in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  dug  a shallow 
well  which  still  }nelds  a yellow  nitrous  water  and  is  known  some- 
times as  Poso  Escalante,  sometimes  as  Agua  Amarillo ; and  there 
are  vague  rumors  of  prospectors  and  other  ])arties  landing  on 
island  and  mainland,  but  soon  retreating  ivith  loss  of  life  from 
])oisoned  arrow  or  still  more  poignant  thirst.  It  is  known,  too, 
from  living  witnesses  that  Sr  Pascual  Encinas  pushed  stock- 
raising  well  toward  the  desert  and  sometimes  even  across  it  to 
the  saline  waters  at  the  eastern  base  of  Sierra  Seri,  the  Indians 
contenting  themselves  with  a heavy  im])Ost  of  surreptitiously 
slaughtered  stock,  and  that  he  twice  or  oftener  visited  Tihuron^ 
once  with  a small  party  for  a few  hours,  once  with  a larger  party^ 
including  horses  transported  by  a .steam  vessel,  for  two  or  three 
days;  hut  until  189o  (when  Encinas’ trustiest  assistants  were 
added  to  our  party  and  taken  far  beyond  their  })revious  knowl- 
edge) the  interior,  continental  and  insular,  was  never  surveyed, 
most  of  it  never  seen  by  white  men. 

The  previou-sly  publi.shed  nomenclature  is  ado[)ted  so  far  as  it 
goes,  together  with  a part  of  the  unpublished  field  nomenclature 
of  the  Hydrographic  Office,  save  for  a few  tritling  exceptions 
mostly  made  with  the  object  of  expressing  the  generic  elements 
in  the  language  of  Mexico  (articles  being  omitted  for  brevity)- 
So  far  as  practicable  the  s))ecific  elements,  especially  on  the 
insular  tract,  are  Seri,  the  accents  being  indicated  here  but  not 
on  the  map.  It  has  been  sought  to  use  names  originally  con- 
notive  yet  of  such  character  as  readily  to  become  denotive,  due 
regard  l)eing  given  to  euphony  and  brevity — qualities  not  easily 
found  among  the  simple-minded  savages.  The  names  a])])lied 
are  as  follows,  those  marked  bv  asterisks  being  new  and  those 
marked  by  obelisks  being  recast : 

* Seriland:  Extra- vernacular  name  of  tribe  with  English  locative. 

Mar  de  Cortez  (Sea  of  Cortez  = Gulf  of  California) : Customary  Spanish 
designation. 

tIslaTiburon  (Shark  island):  Spanish. 

t Isla  San  Esteban  (Saint  Stephen  island) : Spanish. 

t Isla  Tas5s'ne  (Pelican  island) : Specific  Seri  (sometimes  called  Alcatraz 
— Pelican  in  Spanish). 

Estrecho  [or  El]  Intiernillo  (Hellish  strait) : Spanish. 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


133 


t Puerta  Iiifierno  (Infernal  gate)  : Spanish. 

t Punta  Tepopa  (Tepopa  point) : Generic  Spanish,  specific  of  long  stand- 
ing. 

* Punta  Ygnacio  (Ygnacio  point) : Specific  in  honor  of  Ygnacio  Lozania, 
a trusty  aid  who  had  previously  visited  this  point. 

* Punta  Mashein'  (Mashem^  point) : Specific  in  honor  of  sub-chief  Ma- 
shein'  (sometimes  called  Francisco  Estorga),  who  speaks  Spanish  and 
acted  as  interi)reter  in  1894. 

t Punta  Kino  (Kino  point) : Specific  (of  long  standing)  in  honor  of  the 
early  missionary. 

* Sierra  Seri  (Seri  range) : Generic  Spanish,  specific  the  extra- vernacu- 
lar tribe  name. 

* Sierra  Kunkaak'  (Kunkaak'  range) : Specific  the  vernacular  tribe 
name. 

*Cerros  Anacoreta  (Anchorite  hills) : Spanish. 

* Disierto  Encinas  (Encinas  desert) : Generic  Spanish,  specific  in  honor 
of  the  intrepid  settler  on  the  outskirts  of  the  desert. 

Poso  Escalante  (Escalante  well) : Generic  Spanish,  specific  in  honor  of 
the  early  explorer. 

Rancho  San  Francisco  de Costa  Rica:  Spanish  (elements transposed  on 
map  through  error). 

Rancho  Santa  Ana  : Spanish. 

Rancho  Libertad:  Spanish  (now  abandoned). 

Rio  Sonora : Spanish. 

Rio  Bacuache. 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 
By  the  late  S.  C.  Gilman,  C.  E. 

[The  following  v.'ilnaV)le  article  is  based  largely  on  the  explorations  of  the  writer 
in  the  comparatively  unknown  region  he  describes.  A melancholy  interest  attaches 
to  it,  .Mr  Gilman  having  been  suddenly  cut  off,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-six  and  in  the 
midst  of  an  increasingly  useful  and  promising  career,  only  a few  days  after  the  trans- 
mission of  the  article  for  publication  and  before  he  could  be  made  aware  of  its  ac- 
ceptance.] 

The  Ol3MHpic  ])eninsula,  in  northwestern  Washington,  forms 
tlie  e.xtrenie  nortlnvcst  corner  of  tlie  United  Sttites  proper.  It 
lies  west  of  Puget  sound,  Admiralty  inlet,  and  Hood’s  canal, 
commonly  spoken  of  collectively  as  Puget  sound,  and  t'xtends 
over  1)0  miles  along  the  south  side  of  the  straits  of  Juan  de  Fuca. 
Its  west  coast  borders  for  100  miles  on  the  Paeilic  ocean,  while 
firay’s  harbor  and  the  Chehalis  river  furnish  deep-water  naviga- 
tion for  .‘>0  miles  tilong  its  southern  border,  leaving  only  a nock 
of  25  miles  in  width  connecting  its  southeastern  part  with  the 
mainland. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL. 


i-g  \ \ \ , 1 ^ \ . nN.-^  y,  _ 

HE  topography  of  THE  MOUNTAINOUS  REGION  OCCUPYING  THE  CENTRAL  pORTlOf^  OF  THI.S  MAP  IS  BASED  ON  TWc  cvn, 

WHOSE  ARTICLE,  ‘'THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY,.,  appears  IN  Tnfs  NUMbIr.  «• 


GILMAN,  C.  E., 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


l.'U 

As  the  northern,  eastern,  and  southern  sides  of  the  peninsula, 
bordering  on  Fuca  straits,  Puget  sound,  and  the  Chehalis  river 
and  Gray’s  harbor,  are  j)artially  settled  and  comparatively  well 
known  for  six  to  ten  miles  back  from  those  waters,  this  article 
will  have  reference  almost  exclusively  to  the  interior  and  western 
portions  of  the  peninsula.  The  whole  peninsula  contains  an  area 
of  about  5,700  square  miles,  of  which  protiably  3,000  square  miles 
arc  occupied  by  the  Olympic  mountains,  from  which  the  j^enin- 
sula  takes  its  name. 

The  main  watershed  of  these  mountains  begins  at  cape  Flat- 
tery and  extends  southeasterly  almost  parallel  with  the  straits 
and  about  12  miles  therefrom  until  nearly  south  of  Port  Angeles, 
where  an  abrupt  turn  to  the  south  is  made  for  about  6 miles, 
})assing  by  the  east  end  of  mount  0l3uupus;  thence  southeast  20 
miles  to  Pj’ramid  peak;  thence  southwest  and  gradually  swing- 
ing to  the  west  for  30  miles  to  mount  Frances  at  the  head  of 
Quinault  lake;  thence  southwest  for  about  18  miles,  rapidly  de- 
creasing in  height  until  it  reaches  its  termination.  Such  is  the 
general  course  of  the  divide  between  the  waters  flowing  west- 
ward to  the  Pacific  ocean  and  those  flowing  to  the  north,  east,  and 
south  into  Fuca  straits,  Puget  sound,  and  Gray’s  harbor.  From 
the  main  divide,  and  in  many  places  exceeding  it  in  height, 
branch  out  in  all  directions  spurs  and  ranges,  they  in  their  turn 
rel)ranching  and  branching  again,  until  the  complicated  rami- 
fications of  mountain  ridge  and  ])eak  so  completely  cover  the 
countiy  with  their  rugged  heights  that  there  is  hardly  room  for 
the  gorges  and  can}mns  and  ravines  that  lie  between,  and  none 
at  all  for  valley  or  plain.  These  mountains  are  a com]>aratively 
recent  upheaval,  and  nature  has  not  yet  had  time  to  round  off 
their  slopes  or  dull  the  jagged  sharpness  of  their  summits.  She 
has,  however,  through  the  agency  of  an  enormous  rainfall,  cut 
various  gigantic  sluices  in  the  rocky  face  of  the  mountains,  and 
through  these  a large  amount  of  detritus  is  brought  down. 

Mount  Ol^unpus,  the  name  peak,  8,150  feet  high,  is  the  highest 
and  most  conspicuous  mountain  in  the  range.  It  was  first  named 
La  Sierra  Santa  Rosalia,  by  Perez,  in  1774,  but  in  1788  Captain 
John  Hears  saw  and  described  it  under  the  name  of  mount 
Olynqms.  It  is  about  twenty  miles  south  of  Freshwater  bay  on 
the  straits  of  Fuca,  and  is  southwest  of  the  main  divide,  with 
which  it  connects  by  a short,  sharp,  high  ridge.  It  is  a cluster 
of  sharp,  jagged  rock  peaks  projecting  upward  through  an  accu- 
mulation of  ice  which  forms  a cap  two  miles  wide  and  four  miles- 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


135 


long  to  the  main  body  of  the  mountain.  It  is  difficult  to  esti- 
mate the  thickness  of  this  ice  cap.  At  the  close  of  summer,  when 
it  is  thinnest,  there  are  ])laces  where  it  has  the  appearance  of 
being  at  least  500  feet  thick.  It  is  built  up  many  additional  feet 
in  thickness  by  the  storms  of  winter,  to  be  correspondingly  melted 
away  again  by  the  succeeding  warm  summer  months.  The 
Queets,  Hoh,  and  Solduck  rivers  head  in  mount  Olympus,  and 
Higley  and  Tunnel  creeks,  branches  of  the  Elwha,  have  their 
sources  in  an  ice-field  two  miles  long  and  three-fourths  of  a mile 
wide  close  to  the  northeast  end  of  Olympus.  Tunnel  creek  has 
formed  a beautifully  arched  tunnel  20  feet  high  and  40  feet  wide 
(in  summer),  through  which  it  flows  for  two  and  one-half  miles 
under  an  accumulation  of  ice  that  fills  the  gorge  to  a depth  of 
100  to  300  feet.  These  accumulations  of  ice  are  very  numerous 
among  the  higher  peaks  all  through  the  range. 

As  for  scenery,  perched  on  one  of  the  numerous  accessible 
peaks  you  are  surrounded  by  towering,  sky-piercing  pinnacles 
and  ragged,  rocky  ice-capped  ridges  that  are  plowed  and  har- 
rowed by  slides  of  rock  and  ice  and  chiseled  and  worn  by  ages 
of  rushing  water,  mantled  with  snow  and  garlanded  with  great 
patches  of  roses  and  daisies  and  dainty  mountain  flowers  and 
gowned  with  dense,  dark  evergreen  forests,  reaching  far  down 
into  cavernous  depths  of  canyon  and  ravine,  across  which  on 
some  oppo.site  mountain  side  is  rushing  down  from  its  icy  foun- 
tain head  a tumultuous  mountain  torrent  which  finally  dashes 
over  a lofty  precipice  apd  is  lost  in  a veil  of  mist  in  the  valley 
below.  Away  to  the  west  is  seen  the  ocean  with  its  lazily  rolling 
billows,  the  dark  trail  of  a steamer’s  smoke,  and  the  white  sails 
of  a ship  just  showing  above  the  horizon.  To  the  east  lie  Hood’s 
canal  and  Puget  sound,  with  their  bays  and  arms  and  inlets 
si)read  out  like  silver  leaf  on  a carpet  of  green.  Beyond  rise  the 
dark,  wooded  slopes  and  snow-clad  summits  of  the  Cascades, 
with  grand  old  Rainier  standing  guard  to  the  southeast  and  the 
majestic  Baker  to  the  northeast. 

flakes  Cushman,  Crescent,  and  Quinault  are  all  of  considerable 
e.\tent  and  great  dei)th.  At  (iuinault  lake,  nearly  20  miles  from 
the  ocean,  the  boom  of  the  breakers  on  the  lujach  is  plainly 
heard  during  and  after  a storm,  but  the  sound  comes  from  the 
opposite  direction  to  the  ocean,  being  rellecti'd  from  the  slopes  of 
mount  Frances  on  the  east.  For  25  miles  north  from  the  mouth 
of  Cray’s  harbor  is  a stretch  of  broad,  smooth,  hard,  sand  beach 
reaching  to  [joint  Crenville.  From  [loint  Crenville  to  cape 


136 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


Flatteiy,  bluffs  100  to  250  feet  high  border  the  ocean.  Some- 
times they  stand  a little  back,  leaving  a narrow  strip  of  loose 
sand,  gravel,  boulders,  or  slippery  ledge  between  them  and  the 
sea.  Sometimes  they  approach  a little  closer  ; the  strip  of  sand 
or  rock  is  correspondingly  narrower  and  covered  with  water  as 
the  tide  rises.  Often  they  push  boldly  into  the  sea,  which  con- 
tinually surges  and  dashes  at  their  feet  and  leaps  high  up  their 
face.  About  five  miles  southwest  of  the  mouth  of  the  Hoh 
river  and  four  miles  offshore  is  Destruction  island,  so  called  on 
account  of  the  numerous  wrecks  that  have  occurred  on  its  reefs 
and  on  the  adjacent  main  shore.  The  island  stands  among 
many  broad  reefs,  some  of  which  are  just  visilde  at  low  tide,  and 
over  these  the  ocean  swells  foain  and  boil  at  high  tide.  It  rises 
abruptly,  with  precipitous  sides,  80  feet  above  the  water,  and 
then  spreads  out  smooth  and  level  about  60  acres  in  extent.  The 
Ploh  Indians  have  long  cultivated  several  small  potato  patches 
on  it  and  have  also  used  it  as  a lookout  station  for  whale,  in  the 
capture  of  which  animal  they  have  attained  great  proficiency. 
The  United  States  Government  has  built  on  the  island  a light- 
house of  the  first  order,  80  feet  high,  with  a double  fog-horn  and 
the  usual  auxiliaiy  buildings.  It  commands  a fine  view  of  the 
coast  and  mountains. 

On  the  mountains,  above  4,000  feet,  the  timber  is  very  scrubby 
and  infrequent,  owing,  probably,  as  much  to  the  barrenness  of  the 
soil  and  the  great  depth  of  snowfall  as  to  the  elevation.  At  a 
lower  altitude,  among  rocky  crags,  are  thousands  of  acres  of  the 
finest  grazing  lands,  well  watered  by  innumerable  rivulets  and 
pools,  fanned  by  the  winds  from  the  ocean,  and  free  from  flies, 
mosquitoes,  and  all  other  annoying  insects.  Of  course,  these  grass- 
lands would  not  be  habitable  during  the  winter,  but  they  would 
be  available  from  the  first  of  June  until  December.  Among  the 
rocks  at  the  edge  of  the  grasslands,  and  just  below  the  ice-fields, 
blueberries,  huckleberries,  and  bearberries  grow  in  profusion,  and 
the  season  for  them  lasts  from  July  to  October,  as  they  follow 
the  snow  U{)  as  it  melts  away,  blossoming  just  below  it  and  ripen- 
ing a little  lower  down.  These  berries  attract  thither  large  num- 
bers of  black  bear,  and  it  is  the  exception  when  none  are  in  sight 
among  the  peaks  during  the  beriy  season.  These  open  grass- 
lands are  also  favorite  ranges  for  large  numbers  of  the  elk  that 
are  common  all  over  the  peninsula  and  bands  of  fifty  or  more 
are  often  seen.  From  4,000  feet  down,  the  timber  is  good  and 
thrifty.  The  Alaska  cedar,  from  one  and  one-half  to  five  feet 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


137 


in  diameter  and  running  up  smooth  and  tall,  is  a very  valuable 
variet}^  of  timber  aud  is  common  down  to  1,000  feet  above  sea 
level.  The  mountains  and  uplands  of  the  peninsula  generally 
are  heavily  timbered  with  hemlock,  cedar,  spruce,  fir,  balsam, 
pine,  vine-maple,  alder,  cottonwood,  yew,  cherry,  etc.,  prevalent 
in  about  the  order  named  and  of  the  usual  Puget  sound  size  and 
quality.  The  valleys  and  bottom  lands  are  densely  covered  with 
alder,  vine-maple,  cottonwood, willow,  boxelder,  crab-apj^le,  ash, 
dogwood,  and  occasional  immense  bottom-land  si:>ruces.  There 
is  frequently  also  a very  heavy  undergrowth  of  sallal  or  salmon- 
berry  or  of  hazel  or  of  mountain  hemlock.  It  is  also  a great  coun- 
try for  moss,  which  grows  deep  on  the  ground  and  down  timl:)er 
and  on  the  trunks  of  standing  trees  and  hangs  in  long  streamers 
from  the  twigs  and  branches,  and  is  always  wet  and  slipper}^  ex- 
cept in  the  dry  season.  Many  beautiful  varieties  of  small,  delicate 
ferns  grow  among  the  forests.  On  the  prairies,  which  are  neither 
numerous  nor  large,  and  Avhich  are  often  gravelly,  though  some- 
times containing  a very  rich  soil,  a large  and  coarse  variety  of 
fern  grows  four  to  ten  feet  high. 

Between  the  mountains  and  the  coast  are  about  1,300  square 
miles,  or  830,000  acres,  of  comparatively  level  valley  and  bench 
lands.  Of  this  about  225,000  acres  are  rich  bottom  lands  along 
the  various  streams.  The  soil  of  these  bottom  lands  cannot  be 
surpassed  an^Mvliere  on  the  coast.  The  uplands  are  general!}’' 
rolling,  but  there  are  several  quite  extensive  and  comparatively 
level  tracts.  The  fact  of  these  lands  not  draining  readily  has 
encouraged  the  growth  of  fine  bodies  of  large  cedar,  with,  in  some 
places,  tall,  smooth,  large,  white  pines  scattered  among  tliem. 
These  cedar  lands  are  in  no  sense  swamps  or  bogs.  The  soil  is 
a heavy  clay,  into  which  the  sluggish  streams  have  not  cut  very 
deep  channels,  and  they  are  frequently  clogged  or  turned  by 
fallen  timber,  so  that  during  the  rains  the  streams  overrun  their 
banks  and  spread  ]>retty  much  all  over  the  country,  keeping  the 
ground  Avell  soaked  all  through  the  rainy  season.  There  are, 
liowever,  abundant  facilities  for  drainage.  The  soil  is  excellent, 
and  there  are  numerous  small  oi)enings  sufficiently  large  for  nice 
farms.  The  soil  of  the  rolling  u|)lands  is  generally  a rich,  shot 
clay,  but  sometimes  quite  gravelly.  The  timber  is  generally  very 
heavy  and  it  will  l)e  many  years  before  all  the  goo<l  land  is  under 
cultivation.  There  are,  however,  many  open  ))laces  and  small 
creek  lafitoms  and  depressions  among  the  hills  that  can  be  v(‘ry 
easily  cleared.  In  fact,  there  are  few  IfiO-acre  tracts  on  which 


138 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


cannot  be  found  ten  or  more  acres  of  good  land  comparatively 
easy  to  clear,  and  the  timber  on  all  these  lands  will  be  valuable 
in  a few  years  and  be  a help  instead  of  a hindrance  in  establish- 
ing a home. 

The  principal  streams  draining  this  slope  are  the  Quillyhute 
and  its  four  branches,  the  Dickey,  the  Solduck,  the  Killawah, 
and  the  Bogachiel ; the  Hoh,  Quects,  Quinault,  and  Humptulips. 
Tliey  are  all  clear,  cold,  rapid  streams,  capable  of  floating  logs 
and  being  canoed  considerable  distances.  They  teem  with  sal- 
mon and  trout.  The  Quinault  salmon,  peculiar  to  that  stream, 
is  a short,  thick  fish,  weighing  from  three  to  seven  pounds  and 
said  to  be  the  finest  variety  of  salmon  on  this  coast.  Oppor- 
tunities for  developing  good  water-power  at  very  small  cost  are 
numerous  along  these  streams,  and  especially  so  in  the  moun- 
tains. Game  is  plentiful,  and  .it  would  be  a ])aradise  for  the 
hunter  were  it  not  so  difficult  of  access.  In  addition  to  elk  and 
bear,  before  mentioned,  are  deer,  mountain  goat,  cougar,  beaver, 
otter,  fisher,  wildcat,  marmot,  geese,  ducks,  grouse,  partridge, 
quail,  pelican,  and  many  smaller  or  less  desirable  birds  and 
animals.  Off'  the  beach  from  Gray’s  harbor  to  ])oint  Grenville  is 
one  of  the  few  sea-otter  ranges  of  the  world.  It  still  furnishes  a 
few  hides  of  that  valuable  fur  to  market  each  year. 

The  country  rocks  of  the  mountains  are  syenite,  gneiss,  quartz- 
ite, i)rotogene,  crystalline  and  chlorite  schists,  slate  (hard  black 
flinty  to  soft  green  talc)  shale,  sandstone,  trap,  and  basalt.  In 
the  foothills  on  tlie  west  and  along  the  coast  the  formation  is 
])rincipally  shales,  sandstone,  cement  gravel,  conglomerate  (in 
one  place  near  IIoli  Head,  boulder  conglomerate),  clays  and  drift 
gravel  and  sand.  Limestone  much  criss-crossed  with  small 
quartz  seams  is  found  in  a few  places.  Claj^s  are  especially 
al)undant  and  good-appearing,  and,  so  far  as  tried,  give  very  ex- 
cellent analytic  returns.  Beds  of  partially  formed  lignite  are 
abundant  along  the  coast  between  the  Quinault  and  Quill3diute 
rivers.  In  a bluff,  a few  miles  south  of  the  mouth  of  the  Hoh 
river,  four  seams  of  such  lignite,  from  18  inches  to  3 feet  thick, 
show,  lying  horizontally  one  above  the  other,  and  separated  b,y 
4 to  12  feet  of  sand  or  clay  or  both.  In  this  lignite  the  form  of 
roots,  trunks,  and  limbs  of  trees,  also  the  grain  of  the  wood, 
show  veiy  distinctly,  and  occasional!}^  pieces  of  Avood,  but  little 
changed,  are  found.  Small  seams  of  very  good  coal  crop  out  in 
several  ]daces  in  sandstone  and  shale,  but  the}"  are  too  small,  so 
far  as  found,  to  l)e  of  any  value.  Between  Pillar  point  and 


THE  OLYMPIC  COUNTRY 


139 


Clallam  ba}’’,  on  the  straits  of  Fuca,  is  the  abandoned  Thorn- 
dike coal  mine.  There  are  said  to  have  been  “ six  leads  of 
coal,  ranging  in  thickness  from  1 to  3 feet,  dip  10  degrees,  dis- 
tance between  coal  leads,  12  to  100  feet,  formation  sandstone.” 
This  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the  best  coals  found  in  Wash- 
ington. It  was  mined  for  some  time,  until  it  pinched  out  or  was 
cut  off  by  a fault  and  the  vein  Avas  lost  and  Avork  abandoned. 

In  the  valley  of  the  Solduck  riA'er,  among  the  mountains,  is  a 
group  of  springs  Avhich  discharge  quite  a volume  of  hot  Avater  of 
undetermined  medicinal  value.  Fine  springs  heavily  charged 
Avith  iron  or  sulphur  are  A^ei’}^  numerous.  On  the  coast  just 
south  of  the  Queets  river,  in  the  bluff  along  the  beach,  are  several 
small  alum  springs.  The  alum  is  present  in  A'ery  small  quanti- 
ties, and  cannot  be  detected  during  the  rainy  season,  Avhen  the 
natural  floAV  of  the  springs  is  reinforced  by  the  numerous  rains ; 
but  during  the  diy  season,  AAdien  the  springs  are  at  their  loAvest 
ehb  and  Avhen  the  Avater  from  them  is  evaporated  A'^ery  fast  as  it 
trickles  doAvn  the  cliffs  exposed  to  the  afternoon  sun,  the  alum 
marks  AA'ith  Avhite  streaks  the  margin  of  the  rivulets.  There  is 
also  some  borax  present,  and  probably  other  chemicals  might  be 
found  in  measurable  quantities. 

ScA^eral  A'arieties  of  iron  ore  are  scattered  promiscuously  OA^er 
the  peninsula  in  limited  quantities,  and  ocher  and  iron  stains  are 
numerous.  Near  Port  ToAvnsend  is  a deposit  of  limonite  that 
has  been  Avorked  for  some  time.  On  the  headAvaters  of  the 
Ilumptulips  river  is  a vein  of  magnetite  al)out  one  foot  thick. 
On  the  coast  south  of  Raft  river  is  a bed  of  clay  ironstone  of  very 
loAV  grade  and  so  badl}^  mixed  Avith  sulphurets  as  in  all  proba- 
bility to  be  Avorthle.ss.  The  traces  of  iron  are  so  ainmdant  and 
AA'idespread  that  it  Avould  seem  that  there  must  be  someAvhere  in 
the  peninsula  extensive  deposits  of  a pure  and  valuable  ore. 

Colors  of  gold  are  found  in  the  beach  sands  and  along  several 
of  the  streams  in  the  mountains,  and  in  a feAV  i)laces  fair  AA'ages 
luiA'e  been  made  Avashing  it.  Low  grade  silver  and  cop))er  ore 
arc  found  in  good-sized  A'eins  in  the  mountains.  Com])aratively 
little  prospecting  has  been  done,  OAving  to  the  inaccessi))ilit}^  of 
the  region;  not  enough  to  determine  its  value  as  a mineral 
country. 

It  does  not  seem  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  great  upheaval 
of  these  mountains  has  been  aecom])lislie(l  Avithout  bringing 
Avithin  reach  some  valuable  mineral  de])osits.  The  i>rineipal 
ai)i>arent  wealth  of  the  p(‘uinsula  is  in  its  immense  foicsts  of  line 


140 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 


timber,  of  which  the  Alaska  cedar  of  the  mountains  will  soon  be 
an  important  factor,  and  in  the  large  area  of  fertile  valley  and 
benchland  on  its  western  slope. 

The  climate  of  the  western  slope  of  this  peninsula  is  a little 
different  from  that  of  the  rest  of  western  Washington.  Owing 
})robably  to  its  proximity  to  the  ocean  and  its  acces.sibility  to  the 
ocean  breezes,  there  is  more  wind  and  much  le.ss  foggy  weather. 
The  amount  of  rainfall  on  the  average  is  in  excess  of  that  of  the 
Sound  country,  but  it  comes  in  the  shape  of  sharper  showers  and 
heavier  storms,  thus  allowing  a much  greater  proportion  of  fair 
weather.  In  the  summer  the  nights  are  cool,  but  not  cold,  allow- 
ing tomatoes  and  corn  to  ripen  ]>erfectly  and  naturally,  as  they 
do  not  elsewhere  west  of  the  Cascades.  Except  in  the  moun- 
tains, ice  or  snow  is  seldom  seen,  and  then  only  for  a few  hours 
at  a time. 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 

By  Eliza  Kuhamah  Scidmoke 


{The  Cerdunj  Dictionary) 

“Di.scover — t.  To  gain  sight  of,  especially  for  the  first  time,  or  after  a 
period  of  concealment ; espy ; as,  land  was  discovered  on  the  lee  bow. 

“ Hence  5.  To  gain  the  first  knowledge  of,  as  something  that  was  be- 
fore entirely  unknown,  either  to  men  in  general,  to  the  finder,  or  to 
j)crsons  concerned;  as,  Columbus  discovered  the  new  world;  Newton 
dijscovered  the  law  of  gravitation  ; we  often  discover  our  mistakes  when 
too  late,  &.C. 

“6.  To  explore;  bring  to  light  by  examination.” 

( Webster' H International  Dictionary,  1892) 

“Discover — 2.  To  disclose;  to  lay  open  to  view;  to  make  visible;  to 
reveal ; to  make  known ; to  show  ^what  has  been  secret,  unseen,  or 
unknown!. 

“ 3.  To  obtain  for  the  first  time  sight  or  knowledge  of,  as  of  a thing 
e.xisting  already,  but  not  perceived  or  known;  to  find  out;  to  a,scer- 
tain  ; to  espy ; to  detect.” 

( The  Standard  Dictionary) 

“Dlscover — To  get  first  sight  or  knowledge  of,  as  something  previously 
unknown  or  unperceived;  find  out;  ascertain;  espy;  detect;  specific- 
ally, to  find  and  bring  to  the  knowledge  of  the  vsorld  ; as,  to  discover  a comet, 
a princii»le,  or  plot.” 

“ It  is  in  the  highest  degree  probable  that  Lief  Ericsson  and  his 
friends  made  a few  voyages  to  what  we  now  know  to  have  been  the 
coast  of  America ; but  it  is  an  abuse  of  language  to  say  that  they  ‘ dis- 
covered’ America.” 

Fiske,  Discovery  of  America,”  vol.  1,  ch.  2,  p.  255. 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  T,  ALASKA 


141 


In  a recent  communication  to  the  Geograihiical  Society  of  the 
Pacific,  Rear-Admiral  L.  A.  Beardslee  has  raised  questions  as  to 
the  discovery  of  Glacier  bay,  prompted  thereto  by  an  article  liy 
Professor  John  IMuir,  pulilished  in  the  Century  Magazine,  June, 
189-5.  Admiral  Beardslee  very  tlatteringly  refers  to  and  quotes 
in  proof  certain  published  notes  of  my  own — notes  puldished  in 
such  condensed  form  for  general  and  average  tourist  information 
that  not  all  the  details  and  facts  relative  to  the  discoveiy  of  and 
earliest  visitors  to  the  bay  could  be  given. 

Vancouver’s  descrii)tion  would  dispel  some  of  Admiral  Beards- 
lee’s  references  to  later  visitors,  since  he  very  plainly  noted  the 
fact  that  there  was  a navigable  bay  with  an  entrance,  and  wrote  : 

“The  shoves  of  the  continent  form  two  large  open  bays,  which  were 
terminated  (July  12,  1794)  by  compact,  solid  mountains  of  ice  rising  per- 
pendicularly from  the  water’s  edge  and  hounded  to  the  north  hy  a con- 
tinuation of  the  united,  loft\%  frozen  mountains  that  extend  eastward 
from  mount  Fairweather.  In  these  bays  also  were  great  quantities  of 
broken  ice,  which,  having  been  put  in  motion  by  the  springing  up  of  a 
norther! wind,  were  drifted  to  the  south waixl.” 

The  Fairweather  ice-sheet  extended  then  some  40  miles  south 
of  its  present  limit  in  the  bay.  The  Russian  traders  aptly  named 
Icy  straits  into  which  the  bay  debouches,  and  as  there  were  no 
Indian  villages  on  its  north  shore,  where  currents  and  floating 
ice  made  navigation  dangerous,  they  kept  away,  and  their  charts 
" only  repeated  Vancouver’s  lines. 

J'he  first  really  known  of  the  existence  of  this  great  bay  of 
tide-water  glaciers  was  in  1869,  when  Kloh-Kutz,  the  Chilkat 
chief,  told  Professor  George  Davidson  of  a l)ay  full  of  breaking 
ice  clifl's  lying  to  the  westward  of  the  Davidson  glacier  in  Lynn 
canal.  It  was  distant  only  one  day’s  journey  on  snow-shoes 
(30  miles),  be  stated,  and  Kloh-Kutz  urged  the  astronomer  to 
make  the  little  excursion  with  him  and  see  the  hair-seal  riding 
around  on  ice  cakes  and  the  ice  rumbling  down  like  landslides 
into  the  water.  The  visit  of  ex-Secretary  Seward  to  the  eclipse 
ol)servatory  ami  his  waiting  to  convey  Professor  Davidson  hack 
to  Sitka  on  his  private  steamer  prevented  the  full  discovery  of 
the  hay  that  season  hy  that  first  and  greatest  of  Pacific  coast 
scientists  whose  name  is  so  inseparably  connected  with  all  of  geo- 
graphic record  on  that  side  of  our  continent. 

In  1S77,  when  Lieutenant  C.  F.  S.  Wood,  U.  S.  A.,  and  Mr 
Charles  J'aylor  were  ]»revented  from  making  their  pro|)ose(l  ex- 
ploration of  the  mount  St.  Flias  region  by  the  mutiny  of  their 
10 


142 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 


native  boatmen,  the  old  chief  pointed  to  mount  Fairweather  and 
said  : “ One  mountain  is  as  good  as  another.  There,  is  a very  big 
one.  Go,  climb  that,  if  }’OU  want  to.”  The  disappointed  ex- 
plorers were  forced  to  turn  Ijack,  and  then  visited  the  most  west- 
erly of  Vancouver’s  great  ba3"s  south  of  mount  Fairweather, 
afterward  named  Taylor  bay  b}^  Coast  Survey  officials.  In  that 
most  interesting  and  beautifully  illustrated  article,  “ Among 
the  Thlinkets,”  Century  Magazine,  July,  1882,  Lieutenant  Wood 
wrote : 

“ !Mr  Taylor  decided  to  return  home,  and  we  accompanied  him  to  Sitka. 
There  I reengaged  Sam  and  Myers,  and,  obtaining  a new  crew,  returned 
at  once  to  a bay  about  twenty  miles  southeast  of  mount  Fairweather. 
My  purpose  was  to  explore  the  bay,  cross  the  Coast  range,  and  strike  the 
upper  watere  of  Chilkaht.” 

From  that  bay  he  “ went  with  a party  of  mountain-goat  hunters 
up  into  the  St.  Elias  Alps  back  of  mount  Fairweather — that  is, 
to  the  northeast  of  that  mountain.”  He  found  that  great  game, 
also  the  rare  St.  Elias  silver-tipped  bear,  crossed  the  divide  to 
sight  of  the  bush  country  explored  Mr  E.  J.  Glave  in  1891, 
and  returning  to  the  ba}’’  spent  several  days,  in  the  seal-hunters’ 
camp  in  Geikie  inlet  near  the  Wood  glacier,  as  they  were  later 
named  by  Professor  Reid.  Lieutenant  Wood  had  applied  for  a 
year’s  leave  of  absence,  with  the  intention  of  making  further 
in;lependent  ex[)loration  in  the  interior  of  Alaska,  ljut  it  was 
denied  him.  His  brief  reference  to  the  Ijay  in  a popular  maga- 
zine article  cannot  be  accepted  as  Inlnging  it  detinitel}^  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  world,  since  he  did  not  specihcally  describe, 
sketch,  ma]),  or  name  any  part  ot  the  region.  In  ]>rivate  letters 
and  verbally,  wlienever  the  subject  has  been  Innached.  Lieutenant 
Wood  entirely  disclaims  being  the  discoverer  of  Glacier  bay,  and 
very  modestly  protested  against  Professor  Reid’s  naming  for  him 
the  glacier  beside  Avhich  he  had  camped.  It  was  not  vital.to  him 
at  the  time  that  the  bay  was  not  charted ; he  simpl}’-  went  along 
with  the  Hoonahs  to  the  region  where  they  promised  great  game — 
not  going  for  glaciers  nor  glory,  but  only  to  shoot  mountain  goat 
and  see  the  alpine  region  behind  mount  Fairweather. 

In  October,  1879,  Professor  John  Muir,  who  for  two  seasons 
had  been  searching  for  and  visiting  the  glaciers  of  the  Alaska  coast 
from  the  Stikine  river  northward,  found  this  bay  full  of  glaciers 
of  which  native  seal-hunters  had  told  him.  He,  with  his  com- 
panions, Rev.  Hall  Young  and  four  Christian  Indians  from  Fort 
MT-angell,  canoed  to  the  head  of  the  bay,  camped  for  a few  da}'S, 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG.  VOL.  VII,  1896.  PL.  XVII. 


FRONT  OF  MUIR  GLACIER  FROM  THE  WEST  MORAINE  — MOUNT  CASE  IN  THE  BACKGROUND 


>?■  ■.■  V ?■ 

^ 1 ’ »-.  ■■  ■■»  p *.'  4 I 

" i'  > ■ 

• /^.--^/''V.j'.Mwy«.. 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 


143 


iind  made  the  circuit  of  its  shores.  Having  found  these  glaciers, 
he  l)i’OUght  them  to  the  knowledge  of  the  world  in  the  series  of 
letters  from  Alaska  published  in  the  San  Francisco  Evening 
Bulletin,  and  described  them  in  lectures  illustrated  by  blackboard 
sketches  of  these  remarkable  “ Fairweather  glaciers.” 

In  July,  1880,  Captain  Beardslee  brought  the  steamer  Favorite 
into  the  ba}%up  to  that  time  unknown  to  the  Russian  pilot  who 
accompanied  him.  They  proceeded  a little  beyond  the  island 
then  named  for  the  trader,  Willoughby,  who  was  with  them,  and 
then  turned  back,  fleeing  from  storm-clouds  and  fog  that  greatly 
alarmed  the  owners  of  the  chartered  steamer,  who  feared  the  loss 
of  their  insurance  in  the  event. of  any  disaster  befalling  them  in 
those  uncharted  and  dangerous  waters.  While  Captain  Beardslee 
held  parle}^  with  the  Indians  in  Berg  bay.  Ensign  Hanus  made  a 
ruijning  surve}’’  of  the  lower  end  of  the  ba}’’,  the  lines  of  its  north- 
ern extension  and  indentations  being  drawn  in  roughly  from  the 
descriptions  of  the  native  seal-hunters.  The  Indians  at  the  same 
time  told  of  the  two  white  men  who  had  come  the  preceding- 
year,  and  Captain  Beardslee  easily  recognized  Mr  Muir  from  this 
description,  the  glacial  prospector  being  well  known  on  the  coast. 
Mr  Muir  returned  to  the  bay  in  September,  1880,  and  spent  some 
weeks  exploring  the  ice-fields.  On  his  return  that  winter  to  San 
Franci.sco,  he  again  wrote  and  lectured  about  the  “ Fairweather 
glaciers,”  the  onl}”  designation  he  gave  to  these  ice-streams. 

Captain  Beardslee  described  his  visit  in  an  official  report 
(Forty-sixth  Congress,  Second  Session,  Senate  Ex.  Doc.  No.  145), 
accompanied  l»y  his  map  of  the  bay,  and  also  ])ublished  an 
account  in  letters  to  Forest  and  Stream.  B}^  his  own  ))ersonal 
insistence  and  a determined  stand  made  at  the  Coast  Survey 
office,  (.’a|)tain  Beardslee  had  his  very  apt  name  of  Glacier  ba}' 
retained  on  official  charts,  instead  of  giving  to  it  the  name  of 
some  inconsequent  and  now  forgotten  statesman  whom  it  seemed 
oflicially  desirable  to  flatter  at  the  time.  All  ^Alaska  tourists  owe 
it  to  Captain  Beardslee  that  this  reserve  of  such  uni)aralleled 
scenic  grandeur  is  not  vulgarized  by  some  great  misnomer. 

Captain  Beardslee  gave  a tracing  of  this  chart  and  notes  to 
Captain  James  Carroll,  and  Mr  Muir  assured  that  navigator  that 
there  was  clear  navigation  beyond  the  Beardslee  islands,  and 
tliat  if  be  followed  tlie  eastern  shores  he  would  find  anchorage 
in  a broad  inlet  into  which  one  of  the  largest  glaciers  l)roke  away. 
Captain  Carroll  took  the  steamsliip  Idaho  into  the  bay  in  .luly, 
1884,  found  the  inlet  and  glacier  as  descril>ed,  and  named  them 


144 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 


both  for  ]\Ir  Muir.  Cai)tain  Mblliam  George,  pilot  of  the  Idaho, 
sent  a sketch  maj)  and  notes,  -with  record  of  the  names  they  had 
bestowed,  to  the  Coast  Survey.  It  was  ni}’’  good  fortune  to  be 
one  of  the  Idaho's  passengers  on  that  voyage,  and  a pleasure  later 
to  inform  Mr  Muir  at  his  Martinez  ranch  that  the  great  glacier 
had  been  named  for  him.  “ M’hich  one  of  the  glaciers  do  they 


call  mine?”  was  his  amused  question  and  only  reply.  Mr  INIuir 
did  not  bestow  any  names  in  the  course  of  his  first  ice  explora- 
tions in  Alaska. 

The  bay  has  not  yet  been  surveyed  and  charted  by  the  gov- 
ernment, although  the  Pacific  Coast  Steamship  Compan}'’s  ves- 
sels have  regularly  visited  it  since  1883  and  landed  thousands 


THE  DISCOVERY  OF  GLACIER  BAY,  ALASKA 


145 


of  enthusiastic  passengers  in  Muir  inlet.  Through  private  enter- 
prise the  Muir  glacier  and  all  its  tributaries  have  been  explored 
and  mapped,  and  the  work  of  Professor  Harry  Fielding  Keid 
and  his  assistants  leaves  nothing  for  the  delinquent  government 
to  do  in  that  quarter.  Mr  Muir  canoed  across  the  front  of  the 
Grand  Pacific  glacier  and  the  shores  of  the  bay’s  end  in  1879; 
Professor  Reid  made  a similar  canoe  cruise  in  1892,  and  succeed- 
ing in  it,  accompanied  Captain  James  Carroll,  who  took  the  large 
ocean  steamer  Queen  around  those  upper  reaches,  found  the  un- 
suspected Johns  Hopkins  glacier,  and,  penetrating  two  deep 
inlets,  discovered  the  hitherto  unknown  Rendu  and  Carroll 
glaciers,  as  then  named  by  Professor  Reid  and  published  on  the 
map  accompanying  Appleton’s  Guide  to  Alaska. 

Mr  Muir  seems  to  be  justly  entitled  to  the  honors  as  the  dis- 
coverer of  Glacier  ba}'',  since  he  first  fulfilled  the  conditions 
of  botli  finding  and  bringing  its  wonders  to  the  knowledge  of 
the  world.  Lieutenant  Wood,  as  he  himself  says,  did  not  surely 
know  that  the  bay  was  waiting  to  be  found;  that  it  definitely 
needed  a discoverer,  and  his  scant  geographic  references  in  the 
Century's  pages  did  not  altogether  bring  it  to  the  knowledge  of 
the  world  or  stimulate  others  to  explore.  He  awards  all  the 
honor  to  Mr  INIuir.  Lieutenant  Wood  was  the  Lief  Ericsson, 
l\Ir  Muir  the  Columbus,  in  this  instance. 

. In  five  summer  visits  to  Alaska,  during  one  of  which  our  party 
camped  for  several  weeks  in  the  cabin  at  tbe  side  of  INIuir  glacier, 
I made  every  effort  to  learn  of  earlier  visitors  than  Mr  Muir  and 
Lieutenant  Wood  and  to  meet  those  mythical  miners  who  were 
said  to  have  known  the  bay  well  for  years  before  the  great  glacial 
geologist  went  there.  The  closest  questioning  of  those  residents 
making  these  statements  resulted  in  vague  and  foggy  generalities. 
“ I guess  so ; ” “I  was  told  so ; ” ‘‘1  supposed  so.”  Not  a fact, 
not  a date,  nor  a definite  statement,  nor  a j>article  of  proof  could 
be  obtained  from  these  free  and  easy  talkers  of  steamer  wharves 
on  toufist  days.  Tlie  alleged  miners  had  always  “gone  to  the 
Yukon;”  it  was  not  known  whether  letters  would  reach  them 
at  Forty  Mile  creek  or  not;  it  was  quite  possil)le  they  liad  left 
the  Yukon,  etc.  These  ready  dispensers  of  information  did  not 
know  the  full  names  or  the  nial  names  of  these  miners;  even 
“Slim  Jim,”  of  .Juneau,  could  not  help  them  there,  but  they 
were  always  sure  that  “a  lot  of  miners”  had  prospected  all 
around  the  bay  at  least  one  year  before  .Mr  .Muir  went  tln're 
(1879),  onhq  tin;  miners  never  thought  it  worth  while  to  say 


146 


HYDROGRAPHY  IX  THE  EXITED  STATES 


anything  “ until  these  tourists  began  making  such  a fuss  over 
the  glaciers.”  Not  one  of  them,  however,  had  ever  heard  of 
Lieutenant  Wood’s  visit  in  1877,  two  years  before  Mr  Muir  and 
one  year  before  the  mythical  miners. 


HYDROGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

By  Frederick.  PI.  Newell, 

Chief  Ilydeographer,  United  States  Geological  Survey 

Hydrograph}'  has  been  defined  as  that  branch  of  the  science 
of  i)hysical  geograjdiy  which  ])ertains  to  the  waters  of  the  earth’s 
surface.  The  river  systems,  the  annual  regimen  of  the  streams 
and  their  function  in  sculpturing  the  land,  the  lakes  with  their 
fluctuations,  and  the  oceans  with  their  tides  and  currents,  all 
come  within  the  province  of  the  hydrographer.  In  the  United 
States  explorations  and  discoveries  in  this  lu’anch  of  geography 
are  being  made  largely  through  surveys  carried  on  by  the  P'ed- 
eral  Government  througli  its  various  executive  dejiartments — as, 
for  instance,  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  a bureau  of  the 
Treasury  Deiiartment ; the  Geological  Survey,  a part  of  the  De- 
partment of  the  Interior,  and  others.  In  common  use,  especially 
among  mariners,  the  term  hydrograpliy  is  understood  as  per- 
taining only  to  marine  surveying  and  charting,  but  as  employed 
in  scientific  usage  it  embraces  far  more  than  the  knowledge  of 
the  coa.sts  and  includes  all  waters,  without  reference  to  naviga- 
tion, thus  covering  the  continents  as  well  as  the  oceans. 

In  tracing  the  order  in  which  these  hydrographic  surveys  are 
being  made  by  the  various  organizations  or  Imreaus  of  the  gov- 
ernment, it  may  be  well  to  begin  with  the  waters  as  they  first 
occur  upon  the  land  and  trace  them  downward  in  their  course 
to  the  ocean.  First  in  this  system  comes  the  Weather  Bureau, 
which  measures  and  records  the  precipitation  at  various  j)laces. 
From  these  data  certain  general  deductions  can  be  made  regard- 
ing the  h}'drography  of  the  country,  Vmt  the  operations  i)ertaining 
more  directly  to  this  subject  are  those  incident  to  the  prediction 
of  floods  along  important  streams.  For  this  pur])ose  the  Weather 
Bureau  maintains  river  gauges  at  various  points,  the  observers 
reporting  the  height  of  water  at  certain  intervals,  and  at  times  of 
threatened  floods  telegraphing  the  facts  regarding  the  behavior 


HYDROGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


147 


of  the  stream,  in  order  that  the  central  office  of  the  district  or 
that  at  Washington  may  be  informed  in  time  to  issue  predictions 
or  warnings  as  to  impending  disaster.  The  operations  of  this 
bureau,  as  far  as  they  relate  to  the  h3ulrography  of  the  rivers  and 
of  the  lake  and  seacoast  navigation,  are  for  the  exclusive  purpose 
of  issuing  prompt  notices,  which  shall  be  of  immediate  value  to 
the  farmer  or  other  resident  upon  the  lowlands  and  to  the  sailor. 

Coming  next  in  the  scheme  of  the  study  of  the  waters  of  the 
countiy  is  the  work  of  the  Geological  Survey,  which,  taking  the 
facts  relating  to  precipitation  and  moisture  given  the  Weather 
Bureau  and  utilizing  the  data  as  to  river  heights  as  far  as  possi- 
ble, expands  these  into  a general  stud\^  of  the  occurrence  of  water 
within  the  United  States,  tracing  out  the  causes,  especiall}’-  those 
of  topographic  and  geologic  character,  which  lead  to  variations 
in  distribution  and  fluctuations  in  supplv,  and  in  short  bringing 
together  material  by  which  the  water  resources  of  the  country 
may  be  known  as  thoroughly  as  its  mineral  wealth.  From  the 
time,  therefore,  that  the  rain  reaches  the  ground  the  Geological 
Surve}^  endeavors  to  trace  its  course  on  or  below  the  surface  and 
to  ascertain  the  laws  governing  its  circulation  and  its  reai)pear- 
ance  by  seepage  or  through  natural  outlets  in  springs  or  in  arti- 
ficial openings,  such  as  artesian  or  other  wells. 

This  Surve}",  as  incidental  to  the  preparation  of  the  great  map 
of  the  United  States,  examines  in  detail  the  surface  of  the  country, 
determines  the  age  and  character  of  the  rocks,  their  structure  and 
position  with  relation  to  each  other,  their  permeability  or  im- 
l)erviousness  to  water,  and  the  probal)ilities  of  their  l)eing  able 
to  _yicld  a .suppl  v at  points  not  yet  penetrated  l^y  the  well-digger. 
As  in  all  scientific  work,  the  ultimate  object  is  that  of  prediction, 
of  revealing  that  Avhich  is  now  unknown  or  but  partly  under- 
stood. Such  extension  of  knowledge  rests  ui)on  a thorough  ex- 
amination and  understanding  of  the  history  of  the  ]>ast  and  of 
the  conditicjns  in  the  present.  Before  questions  can  be  answered 
as  to  what  is  the  probable  supply  of  water  at  this  or  that  point, 
for  ))Ower,  f(jr  irrigation,  or  for  municipal  supply,  it  is  nece.ssary 
that  long-continued  and  aceurat<‘  work  be  done. 

'I'he  Work  of  the  United  States  (Jeological  Survey  n'lating  to 
water  resources  is  carried  on  by  the  Division  of  1 Ivdrograidiy. 
The  field  operations  of  this  division  consist  of  the  nuaisurement 
at  selected  j)oints  of  the  flowing  waters  of  springs,  erc(‘ks,  and 
rivers,  the  estimation  of  the  discliarge  of  artesian  wells,  and  of 
the  (piantities  of  water  which  can  be  obtained  bv  other  metins. 


148 


HYDROGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


Permanent  river  stations  are  estaljlished  at  man}"  points  on  im- 
})ortant  streams,  usually  near  their  headwaters,  and  daily  records 
kept  of  the  fluctuations.  These  fluctuations  are  in  turn  inter- 
preted into  quantities  of  discharge  by  means  of  measurements  of 
area  and  velocity  made  at  .short  intervals  by  the  hydrograi)hers. 
The  quantities  thus  ascertained  furnish  the  basis  for  compari- 
sons day  by  day,  month  by  month,  and  year  l)y  year,  throwing 
light  U])on  the  relation  Ijetween  preci})itation  and  discharge, 
and  upon  the  modifying  influences  introduced  by  topography, 
geologic  structure,  and  cultural  conditions.  The  non-periodic 
fluctuation  of  waters,  the  questions  of  erosion,  transportation) 
and  sedimentation,  the  apj)earance  and  di.sapjiearance  of  surface 
streams  and  the  minerals  in  solution  are  all  matters  connected 
more  or  less  directly  with  this  .study  of  stream  behavior. 

The  surveys  of  the  surface  streams,  their  sloj)e  as  oldained  by 
the  toi)Ographers,  their  volume  as  measured  l)y  the  hydrogra- 
])hers,  and  their  composition  as  determined  h}"  the  chemist,  are, 
however,  simjfle  matters  in  comparison  with;  those  which  relate 
to  the  waters  immediately  beneath  the  surface.  In  the  fir.st  case 
the  ])henomena  are  visible  and  tangible;  in  the  second,  keen 
ol)servati(jn  must  he  followetl  by  correct  reasoning  from  well- 
established  facts  and  conclusions.  The  occurrence  of  under- 
ground water  in  quantities  sufficient  to  be  of  value,  its  character 
as  regards  mineral  contents,  and  the  ])ressure  under  the  influence 
of  which  it  may  rise  toward  the  surface,  are  all  details  which 
vary  with  the  geology  of  the  i)articular  area.  To  be  aide  to  i)re- 
dict  that  water  can  be  found  at  a given  })lace,  at  a certain  depth, 
and  in  quantity,  it  is  necessary  to  know  thoroughly  all  the  facts 
which  can  be  ascertained  concerning  the  geology  of  the  region. 
ToAvard  this  end  the  Geological  Survey  is  collecting  and  i)utting 
ui>on  record  all  obtainable  data  concerning  deep  Avells,  Avhether 
successful  or  not,  and  is  making  examinations  of  the  Avater-bearing 
rocks  Avherever  they  come  to  the  surface  or  are  penetrated  by 
underground  Avorkings.  In  the  course  of  the  prei)aration  of  the 
systematic  sheets,  de.signed  ultimately  to  coA’er  the  AA'hole  country, 
much  of  this  AA’ork  has  been  done,  but  in  certain  ]Aortions  of  the 
country,  such  as  the  subhumid,  Avhere  information  is  needed  in 
advance  of  the  completion  of  these  atlas  .sheets,  the  held  exami- 
. nations  of  the  hydrogra])hic  division  are  l)eing  pushed  forAA'ard 
for  this  one  object.  The  inve.digations  of  this  division  are  thus 
seen  to  touch  very  closely  the  Avork  of  the  Weather  Bureau  in  its 
records  of  precipitation  and  in  its  material  for  flood  prediction, 


HYDROGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


149 


and  to  connect  these  intimately  with  the  mapping  of  the  topog- 
rapher and  the  studies  of  the  geologist. 

Passing  from  the  many  small  streams  of  the  country  to  the 
larger,  navigable  rivers,  the  work  of  the  Engineer  Coi’i^s  of  the 
Arm}'’  is  reached.  As  far  as  this  relates  to  hydrography,  the  sur- 
veys of  the  Engineer  Corps  consist  of  examinations  of  particular 
points  with  the  object  of  obtaining  information  preliminary  to 
construction  for  the  benefit  of  navigation.  A considerable  num- 
ber of  river  gauges  have  been  maintained  and  readings  continued 
in  order  to  ascertain  the  periods  of  low  and  high  water  and  to 
obtain  other  data  essential  to  correct  plans.  A few  measure- 
ments of  volume  havebeen  made  upon  some  of  the  larger  streams. 
^^'ith  the  work  of  the  Engineer  Corps  can  l)e  placed  that  of  the 
INIississippi  and  Missouri  River  Commissions,  these  organizations 
having  conducted  series  of  observations  throwing  light  upon  the 
behavior  of  these  great  rivers.  Nearly  related  to  this  has  been 
the  work  of  the  Lake  Survey,  conducted  by  army  engineers,  who 
have  ju’epared  detailed  maps  of  the  shores,  showing  the  harbors, 
passages,  and  depths  of  water  at  all  the  shallow  places. 

At  the  head  of  tide  water  begins  the  work  of  the  United  States 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  This,  the  oldest  of  the  surveying 
organizations  of  the  Government,  maps  the  navigable  tidal  waters 
of  the  United  States  from  the  remotest  waters  to  tlie  shore  line 
and  from  the  shore  lipe  outward  to  the  oceanic  abyss,  studying 
the  currents  and  fluctuations  of  water  surface  and  map])ing  in 
great  detail  the  harbors,  shoals,  cliannels,  and  all  other  features 
■of  importance  to  mariners.  The  investigations  of  this  Survey 
have  Ijeen  conducted  with  the  utmost  accuracy,  and  its  charts 
and  ])ublications  relating  to  hydrograi)hy  have  reached  tlie 
liighcst  ])oint  of  scientific  attainment.  With  the  work  of  the 
Coast  Survey  may  be  considered  that  of  tlie  Light-house  Board, 
also  a bureau  of  the  Treasury  Department,  which  in  a relatively 
more  limited  and  less  detailed  way  has  made  hydrogra])hic  sur- 
veys for  the  ])urp()se  of  erecting  danger  signals  or  light-houses, 
and  has  thus  contributed  somewhat  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
navigable  waters. 

Extending  beyond  the  bounds  of  the  Uniteil  States,  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  hydrography  of  the  great  s(‘as  is  being  added  to  by 
the  Hydrographic  OHice  ol' the  Navy,  which  bi-ings  together  and 
]»ublishes  maps,  charts,  and  everything  of  interest  to  mariners 
relating  to  foreign  lands,  and  covering  with  jierhaps  less  minute- 
ness the  shores  of  other  countries  in  a iminner  similar  to  that 


150 


RECENT  TRI ANGULATION  IN  THE  CASCADES 


with  which  the  Coast  Survey  has  mapj^ecl  out  the  waters  of  the 
United  States. 

Historically  the  investigations  set  on  foot  l)y  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  should  be  noticed,  for  from  these  has  come,  directly 
or  indirectly,  nearly  all  our  information  concerning  hydrograj^hy 
in  its  broader  aspect.  The  systematic  study  of  precipitation  was 
first  begun  under  this  institution,  and  after  being  well  established 
was  turned  over  to  the  Signal  Office,  the  predecessor  of  the 
^^’eather  Bureau.  In  other  lines  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
has  in  similar  manner  shown  the  way,  and  when  feasible  has 
entrusted  the  continuation  of  the  investigations  to  other  organ- 
izations, in  order  that  it  might  concentrate  its  own  energies  on 
other  original  lines  of  research  tending  to  “the  increase  and  dif- 
fusion of  knowledge.” 


RECENT  TRIANGULATION  IN  THE  CASCADES 

By  S.  S.  Gannett, 

United  States  Geological  Survey 

During  the  field  season  of  1895,  the  United  States  Geological 
Survey  extended  triangulation  over  a portion  of  central  Wash- 
ington. An  astronomical  determination  of  Ellensburg  having 
been  made,  a Ijase  was  measured  on  the  roadbed  of  the  Northern 
Pacific  railroad.  From  this  base,  triangulation  Avas  extended 
into  the  Cascade  mountains.  Horizontal  angles  Avere  measured 
Avith  an  eight-inch  theodolite,  reading  by  micrometers  to  tAvo 
seconds  of  arc.  Vertical  measures  Averc  also  taken  upon  some  of 
the  more  prominent  peaks,  angles  being  measured  by  a vertical 
circle  four  and  one-half  inches  in  diameter  and  reading  by  ver- 
nier to  one  minute  of  arc.  EleAUitions  are  based  upon  the  height 
of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  at  Ellensburg. 

The  ])reliminary  comi)utation  gives  the  eleA’ation  of  mount 
Aix,  by  recii)rocal  observations  to  and  from  stations  in  the  base 
ex|iansion,  28  miles  distant,  as  7,815  feet  above  sea  level. 

Mount  Rainier,  by  foresights  from  mount  Aix,  24  miles  dis- 
tant, is  found  to  be  14,532  feet,  mount  Adams,  likeAvise  l)y  fore- 
sights from  mount  Aix,  42  miles  distant,  12,470  feet,  and  mount 
Stuart,  by  foresights  from  several  stations  in  the  base  expansion 
24  to  30  miles  distant,  9,500  feet,  above  sea  level. 


THE  ALTITUDE  OF  MOUNT  ADAMS,  WASHINGTON 


By  Edgar  McClure 

On  July  10.  1895,  in  company  with  the  heliograph  party  of 
the  Mazamas,*  I carried  a mercurial  barometer  to  the  summit  of 
mount  Adams,  a snow-capped  peak  in  the  Cascade  range,  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  state  of  Washington. 

M^e  traveled  from  Eugene,  Oregon,  by  rail  to  Portland,  Oregon 
thence  b}’’  steamer  down  the  M^illamette  river  to  its  mouth,  and 
thence  up  the  Columbia  river  to  M^hite  Salmon  landing.  From 
this  last-mentioned  point  we  traveled  north  by  Avagon  road  27 
miles  to  Trout  lake,  and  thence  by  trail,  still  northward,  14  miles 
to  the  snow  line  on  the  mountain  side.  This  camp  was  called 
Mountain  VieAV  camp,  and  is  situated  near  the  foot  of  the  Mdiite 
Salmon  glacier.  From  this  point  it  is  a continuous  climb  of  four 
miles  to  the  summit  of  the  mountain. 

The  instrument  used  AA^as  barometer  No.  1612,  made  by  James 
Green,  of  Brooklyn,  New  York.  It  AA^as  compared  Avith  the 
’Weather  Bureau  instrument  at  Portland,  Oregon,  and  Avith  the 
large  standard  barometer  belonging  to  the  State  Weather  Service 
at  the  University  of  Oregon,  at  Eugene,  Oregon.  Parallel  ol)ser- 
Auitions  Avere  made  by  previous  arrangement  at  Portland,  Oregon, 
Eugene,  Oregon,  and  Seattle,  M’’ashington. 

Mountain  View  camp,  at  the  snow-line,  Avas  left  at  4:30  a.  m. 
on  July  10,  and  the  summit  of  the  mountain  Avas  reached  about 
11:00  a.  m.  The  ascent  Avas  madeover  a large  snoAV-field  imme- 
diately west  of  a long  lava  ridge  Avhich  runs  southeastward  Irom 
the  summit  of  the  mountain.  The  climl)  is  long  and  hard,  l)ut 
it  has  no  points  of  danger  along  the  route.  The  summit  Avas 
left  for  the  return  trip  about  4:00  p.  in.  and  camp  Avas  reached 
about  5:30  p.  m. 

Observations  began  on  th'e  summit  at  12:30  p.  m.  and  Avere 
continued  until  3:3')  p.  m.  'Phe  air  thermometer  having  been 
accidentally  broken  on  the  evening  before  the  climb,  the  air 
temperature  on  the  summit  was  taken  from  the  attached  ther- 

* Tho  Mu/.nmnH  Ih  an  iiMSociiition  of  mniintiiin  olimlicrs,  witli  liciul'nmrtors  ut  Port 
Inml.  Oronori.  Tlio  object  of  the  orKanizittioii  in  the  colle<'tion  of  Hcientific  ilutii  coii- 
eerniriK  the  moiintaiiiH  of  Orej;oii  niid  WiiHbiiiKton. 


152  THE  ALTITUDE  OF  MOUNT  ADAMS,  WASHINGTON 


inometer  by  subtracting  three  degrees.  Parallel  readings,  taken 
iit  Trout  lake  and  Mountain  View  camp,  of  the  attached  ther- 
mometer and  the  air  thermometer,  before  the  latter  was  broken, 
gave  readings  of  the  latter  2°  and  3°  below  the  former.  The 
belief  that  the  reading  on  the  summit  of  the  mountain  on  the 
-afternoon  of  the  climb  would  have  been  in  the  same  proportion 
is  strengthened  h}^  the  fact  that  the  air  temperature  shown  by  the 
nir  thermometer  used  with  the  boiling-point  apparatus  closely 
corresponded  with  my  air  temperature  obtained  in  the  manner 
above  stated. 

OBSERVATIONS. 


Portland,  Oregon. 


Seattle,  Washington. 


State  Weather  Bureau,  July  10, 1895. 


P.  M. 

Barograph. 

Thermograph. 

1:00 

29.80 

90  F. 

2:00 

29.79 

92  “ 

3:00 

29.77 

93  “ 

Pref-sure  figures  corrected  for  tem- 
perature. Barometer  157  feet  above 
sea  level. 

B.  S.  Payne, 

Director. 


Eugene,  Oregon. 


Univer 

sity  of  Oregon, 

July  10,  1895. 

P.  M. 

Standard 

Exp. 

barometer. 

thermometer. 

1:00 

29.380 

93.5 

2:00 

29.374 

94.0 

3:00 

29.361 

95.0 

Weather  Bureau,  July  10,  1895. 


P.  M. 

Barograph. 

Thermograph. 

1:00 

29.875 

85  F. 

2:00 

29.865 

86  “ 

3:00 

29.850 

87  “ 

Pressure  figures  corrected  for  tem- 
perature. Barometer  119.4  feet 
above  sea  level. 

George  N.  Salisbury, 

Observer. 


Summit  of  Mount  Adams,  Washington. 
Mazama  Expedition,  July  10, 1895. 


P.  ii/. 

Barometer 

Air 

No.  1612. 

temperature. 

1:00 

19.256 

38.0 

2:00 

19.272 

38.5 

3:00 

19.281 

43.0 

Pressui’e  figures  corrected  for  tem- 
perature. Barometer  485.7  feet 
above  sea  level. 

S.  II.  McAlister, 

Observer. 


Pressure  figures  corrected  for  tem- 
perature. Cistern  of  barometer  1.1 
feet  above  the  level  of  snow. 


The  calculations  were  made  h}^  two  methods — by  iMajor  R.  S. 
M’illiamson’s  tables,  based  on  Plantamour’s  formula,  and  by 
Guyot’s  tables.  In  the  former  case,  since  no  observations  were 
taken  to  determine  the  humidity  of  the  air,  the  temperature  cor- 
rection Avas  calculated  by  the  formula  of  La  Place.  Three  esti- 
mates Avere  made  on  each  place  as  a base  from  observations  taken 
at  1:00,  2:00,  and  3:00  o’clock  p.  m.  This  gives  nine  estimates 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


155 


by  each  method,  or  a total  of  eighteen  estimates  on  the  elevation 
of  the  peak.  The  two  results  agree  within  44.7  feet. 

P.  M.  Williamson.  Guyot. 


Portland,  Oregon 1:00  12,459.8  12,413.5 

2:00  12,457.7  12,412.4 

3:00  12,495.3  12,449.8 

Mean 12,470.9  12,425.2- 

Seattle,  Washington 1:00  12,427.8  12,382.6 

2:00  12,414.4  12,.369.2 

3:00  12,458.1  12,411.8 

Mean 12,433.4  12,387.9- 

Eugene,  Oregon 1:00  12,436.6  12,393.8 

2:00  12,414.0  12,371.1 

3:00  12,455.7  12,412.6 

Mean 12,4.35.4  12, .392.5 


Grand  mean 12,446.6  12,401.9 


The  mean  of  these  two  estimates,  12,446.6  and  12,401.9,  is  12,424.2. 

Trout  Lake  and  iMonntain  View  Camp. — An  estimate  based  on 
observations  made  before  the  climb  gives  the  following  eleva- 


tions : 

Trout  lake  (camp  at  Wagnitz  place) 1,854  feet. 

^Mountain  View  camp  (snow  line,  July  10, 1895) 5,714  feet. 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 

Archeological  Studies  among  the  Ancient  Cities  of  Mexico.  Part  I : l\Ionu- 
ments  of  Yucatan.  By  William  H.  Holmes.  Pp.  137,  with  18  plates. 
Chicago,  1895. 

This  is  the  eighth  publication  of  the  Field  Columbian  IMuseum  and  the 
first  of  the  Anthropological  series.  It  opens  with  an  itinerary  of  tlie 
voyage  of  the  yaclit /Omu  (tlie  property  of  i\Ir  Allison  A'.  Armour),  which 
sailed  fromXew  York  December  16,  1894,  and  reached  the  coast  of  A'ucatan 
a fortnight  later,  carrying  a scientific  party  lieaded  l>y  Professor  Holmes  ; 
and  thereafter,  for  two  months,  the  services  of  the  vessel  and  the  energies 
of  the  party  were  devoted  to  researches  in  the  land  of  ancient  cities. 
Ever  since  the  compiest  Yucatan  has  been  noteil  for  ruins  of  astonishing 
magnificence,  and  the  names  c>f  the  ancient  cities,  Palemiueand  Chichen- 
Itza  and  Uxmal,  an?  hanlly  less  known  than  those  of  ))iesent  population 
centers.  8te|»hens,  Maudslay,  Bandelier,  Charnay,  and  other  archeolo- 
gists have  drawn  on  the  rich  store  of  records  of  ancient  culture  allorded 
by  these  citic'S,  and  the  liC  IMong(*ons,  husband  and  wife,  have  made 
voluminous  collections  ainl  evolved  curious  speculations  amid  the  ruins  ; 
and  mnv  a well-known  archcohjgist  and  artist  has  traversed  this  singu- 


154 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITER  A TURE 


larl\"  fertile  field,  and,  with  the  aid  of  camera  and  pencil,  has  reproduced 
some  of  the  most  striking  features  of  the  ancient  work.  The  ]>hotographs 
are  excellent  and  remarkably  well  reprodiu-ed  ; the  author’s  device  of 
representing  the  ruins  in  i)anoramas,  with  the  mantle  of  vegetation 
omitted,  is  quite  effective,  and  the  wealth  of  detail  depicted  in  the  minor 
drawings  adds  much  to  the  value  of  the  book.  In  this  treatise  and  the 
succeeding  ])art,  which  is  i>romised  soon  to  follow,  a clear  and  faithful 
picture  of  the  Yucatec  ruins  will  be  found;  and  the  great  IMuseum  at 
Chicago  is  to  be  felicitated  as  the  i)atron  of  the  research  and  the  depository 
of  the  collections  growing  out  of  it. 

Geolof/iral  Hhtorii  of  Ihe  Chantauqua  Grape  Belt.  Bulletin  No.  109,  Cornell 

T^niversity  Agricultural  Plxperiment  Station,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  By  R.  S. 

Tarr.  Pp.  30,  with  maps  and  illustrations. 

This  is  issueil  as  the  first  specific  attempt  in  this  country  on  the  part 
of  an  exiieriment  station  to  analyze  the  physical  geography  of  a fruit  belt. 
Notwithstanding  most  excellent  opportunities,  very  little  has  been  at- 
tempted in  the  United  States  in  the  way  of  studying  the  conditions  of 
soil  and  climate  existing  in  what  may  be  called  type  fruit  regions.  It  is 
obvious  that  such  studies,  if  properly  carried  on,  would  be  of  great  prac- 
tical value,  for  if  once  the  conditions  prevailing  in  the  type  regions  for 
certain  fruits  were  thoroughly  understood  it  would  be  possible  within 
given  limits  to  determine  the  practicability  of  growing  such  fruits  in  other 
sections  of  the  country.  Work  bearing  on  this  subject  has  for  several 
years  lieen  in  jirogressby  Professor  Milton  Whitney,  of  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture,  and  as  a result  the  geological  and  physical 
characteristics  of  the  type  soils  for  several  important  crops  have  been 
worked  out.  The  work. by  Profe.ssor  Tarr,  although  somewhat  different 
in  its  character,  has  the  same  object  in  view,  namely,  that  of  ascertaining 
the  natural  conditions  existing  in  a region  famous  for  the  excellence  of 
one  of  its  ju-oduc.ts,  in  this  instance  the  grape.  Professor  Tarr  has  con- 
lined  his  studies  largely  to  the  geological  side  of  the  question,  first  discuss- 
ing the  topography  and  then  following  with  a consideration  of  the  bed 
rock.  The  different  kinds  of  soils  and  their  relative  values  are  also  dis- 
cussed. Altogether  the  bulletin  is  very  interesting,  and  is  especially 
valuable  as  taking  up  a line  of  work  that  has  been  somewhat  neglected. 

Die  Liparisclien  Lmda.  In  eight  Parts,  fully  illustrated  with  excellent 

wood  cuts  of  Sket(dies  by  F redricb  Hawranek.  Prag.  Ileinr.  Mercy,  1895. 

This  handsome  work  gives  a compk?te  ])icture  of  the  present  condition 
of  these  interesting  historical  islands  and  contains  much  information  of 
value  to  the  student  and  traveler.  Each  of  the  first  seven  parts  is  de- 
voted to  an  elaborate  illustration  of  one  of  the  islands,  with  a brief  de- 
scription of  its  natural  features  and  culture.  One  cannot  but  regret  that 
the  numerous  illustrations  of  these  remarkable  volcanic  islands  are  drawn 
wholly  from  sketches  instead  of  from  photographs,  which  have  so  much 
higher  a value  as  a source  of  information.  For  example,  in  part  5,  chapter 
III,  the  illustrations  of  the  cavernous  coast  show  no  definite  relation  of 
the  caverns  and  arches  to  the  structure  of  the  rock,  as  is  well  known  to 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 


155 


be  the  case  along  coasts  of  volcanic  rocks.  An  excellent  hachnre-shaded 
contour  map  is  given  of  each  island,  on  a scale  in  some  cases  as  large  as 
1:25000.  The  eighth  ]>art  contains,  besides  a map  of  the  whole  group, 
brief  descriptions  of  the  climate,  sea,  anchorage,  springs,  flora,  fauna,  and 
poi)ulation  of  the  islands,  as  well  as  fuller  accounts  of  the  occui)ations  of 
the  j)eople,  their  habits,  customs,  and  commerce,  with  their  means  of 
intercommunication  and  accommodations  for  tourists. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY,  SESSION  i895-’96 

Special  HeeCuKj,  Febraari/  28,  1896. — Vice-President  Greely  in  the  chaii'. 
Mrs  Fannie  B.  Ward  read  a narrative  of  Two  Years’  Travel  in  and  about 
South  America,  illustrated  by  lantern-slides,  mostly  from  original  draw- 
ings and  i)hotographs. 

Special  Meeting,  Slarch  2, 1896. — First  lecture  of  the  course  of  seven  illus- 
trated Monday  afternoon  lectures  descriptive  of  a trip  to  Alaska.  Presi- 
dent Hubbard  in  the  chair.  IMr  W J IMcGee  described  the  route  from  St. 
Paul,  Minnesota,  to  Banff,  Alberta,  and  Mr  Bailey  Willis  an  excursion 
to  Mount  Rainier,  Washington.  Both  addresses  were  illustrated  by 
lantern-slides. 

Regular  Meeting,  March  6,  1896. — Vice-President  Merriam  in  the  chair. 
^Ir  F.  V.  Coville  read  a paper,  illustrated  by  lantern-slides,  on  the  Adaj)- 
tations  of  Plants  to  Desert  Environment.  The  pa])er  was  discussed  by 
Mr  W J IMcGee,  Surgeon-General  George  IM.  Sternberg,  U.  S.  A.,  Mr  G.  K. 
Gilbert,  Dr  C.  Hart  Merriaiii,  and  otliers. 

Special  Meeting,  March  9,  1896. — Second  ^londay  afternoon  lecture. 
President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Prof.  Charles  E.  Fay,  of  Tufts  College, 
^Massachusetts,  ilelivered  an  address  on  the  Glaciers,  Peaks,  and  Canyons 
of  the  Canadian  Rockies,  illu.strated  by  lantern-slides. 

Special  Meeting,  March  12,  1896. — Reception  at  the  Arlington  Hotel  to 
the  Venezuelan  Boundary  Commission.  Presiilent  Hubbard  and  a com- 
mittee of  ladies,  headed  by  Mrs  liichard  Olney,  received  the  Society’s 
guests  and  presented  to  them  u])wards  of  400  of  the  members  of  the  So- 
ciety ainl  their  friends. 

Special  Meeting,  .March  IS,  1896. — President  Hnl)bard  in  the  chair.  i\Ir 
C.  E.  Borchgrevink,  of  Norway,  adilressed  the  Society,  giving  a grai)hic 
description  of  his  voyage  to  the  .Cntarctic  continent,  and  exhibiting  a 
number  of  lantern-slide  reproductions  of  photographs. 

Special  .Meeting,  .March  16,  1896. — Third  Monday  afternoon  lecture. 
President  Huhhard  in  tlnichair.  IMr. lames  Fletcher,  of  Ottawa,  Cainnla, 
de.scrih(Ml  the  triji  from  the  Canadian  National  Park  to  the  Pacific  Coast, 
illustrating  his  adflress  hy  means  of  lantern-slides  ami  specimens  of  the 
flora  and  fauna  of  the  region  traversed. 


156 


MISCELLANEA 


Rrfjnhir  Meeting,  March  20,  1806. — Vice-Presi«lent  Gannett  in  the  chair. 
3Ir  N.  II.  Darton  read  a paper,  illustrated  by  lantern-slides,  on  the 
Physiographic  Development  of  the  District  of  Columbia  Region,  tie  was 
followed  by  ^lajor  Gilbert  Thompson,  who  spoke  on  the  Use  of  Geodetic 
Control  Lines  in  Geogi'aphic  Work. 

Special  Meeting,  March  23,  1896. — Fourth  Monday  afternoon  lecture. 
President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Lieut.  A.  P.  Niblack,  L’’.  S.  N.,  de- 
scribed the  trip,  “From  Puget  Sound  to  Sitka;  Fiords,  Islands,  and 
Canals,”  with  lantern-slide  illustrations. 

Elections. — New  members  have  been  elected  as  follows: 

Fehruarg  28. — Rev.  Dr  Alfred  II.  Ames,  Edward  Burge.ss,  Prof.  J.  A.  I. 
Cassedy,  Rev.  Ernst  Drewitz,  D.  Wallace  Duncan,  O.  J.  Edwards,  Miss 
Mary  H.  Elliott,  James  Fletcher,  A.  B.  de  Guerville,  Dr  Herbert  Harlan, 
Chr.  Heurich,  Dr  A.  L.  Howard,  W.  J.  Lampton,  Edmond  S.  Meany, 
Daniel  Murray,  Rev.  Jos.  B.  North,  Walter  T.  Paine, Col.  Henry  A.  Pierce, 
'Win.  11.  Saunders,  H.  Jaudon  Smith,  Chas.  C.  Snow,  Chas.  M.  Staley, 
W . P.  Van  Wickle,  Win.  G.  Webster,  S.  T.  'White,  John  W.  Winder, 
Dr  D.  P.  M'olhaupter,  F.  G.  Wiirdemann. 

March  20. — Perry  Allen,  Judge  Victor  Barringer,  Miss  ^larie  E.  Bying- 
ton,  Henry  A.  Curtis,  James  A.  Edgar,  Dr  R.  Farnham,  Henry  F.  Getz, 
Francis  R.  Hart,  .Mrs  \.  G.  Hensley,  Marshall  H.  Jewell,  Prof.  L.  M. 
Keasbey,  Chief  Engineer  Absalom  Kirby,  U.  S.  N.,  F.  R.  McCormick, 
Lieut.  A.  P.  Niblaek,  U.  S.  N.,  Miss  M.  L.  Nicholson,  Frederick  Law 
Olmsted,  Jr.,  Leojioldo  S.  Pietra,  D.  ^1.  Quackenbush,  C.  C.  Randolph, 
W.  L.  Symons,  Hon.  G.  P.Wetmore,  U.  S.  S.,  Wm.AVhelan,  'W.  D.M’ilco.v. 


MISCELLANEA 

The  Congress  of  Chambers  of  Commerce  at  Bloemfontein,  South  Africa, 
has  resolved  to  adhere  to  meridian  22°  .”0'  east  as  the  standard  time  for 
South  Africa. 

The  total  output  of  gold  in  the  seven  Australasian  colonies  in  1895  is 
oflicially  announced  as  2,350, -562  ounces,  an  increa.se  of  106,928  ounces 
over  the  production  in  1894. 

The  salmon  pack  of  the  Columbia  river  last  year  amounted  to  655,410 
cases,  of  the  airgregate  value  of  S3, .342,928.  The  industry  gave  employ- 
ment to  3,775  fishermen  and  to  1,574  cannery  operatives. 

The  population  of  the  city  of  Melbourne  at  the  end  of  1895  is  officially 
reported  as  447,461,  an  increase  during  the  year  of  8,.506.  The  estimated 
population  of  the  seven  Australasian  colonies  at  the  end  of  1895  was 
4,238,000,  an  increa.se  of  11.25  per  cent  since  the  census  of  1891. 

Upw.\ri)S  of  100,000  bales  of  .\merican  and  Egyptian  cotton  have  l^een 
received  at  5Ianchester,  via  the  ship  canal,  since  September  last.  There 
has  also  been  a very  large  increase  in  the  receipts  of  lumber  and  other 
raw  products,  and  much  concern  is  again  being  felt  in  Liverpool  as  to  the 
probable  effect  of  this  great  enterprise  upon  the  commerce  of  that  city. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


TOURS  THROUGH  TOLTEC  TOWNS. 

The  travel  into  Mexico  annually  becomes  larger  as  people 
come  to  realize  the  novelty  of  the  delightful  journey  and  the 
ease  and  cheapness  with  which  it  can  be  made  via  the  Southern 
Pacific  aud  connecting  lines  in  Mexico.  At  Spofford  Junction 
the  Northern  and  Eastern  tourist,  who  has  presumabl}^  taken  the 
Southern  Pacific  at  New  Orleans  because  of  its  quick  and  direct 
service  and  splendid  equipment,  finds  his  sleeper  switched  from 
the  main  line,  and  a waiting  train  speedily  takes  him  to  Eagle 
Pass  and  the  Rio  Grande.  His  car  goes  direct  to  the  City  of 
Mexico  via  the  Mexican  International  and  Mexican  Central 
Railways,  and  the  way  leads  through  some  of  the  most  beauti- 
ful and  inspiring  .scenery  in  the  world.  The  whole  native  life 
is  so  quaint  and  so  at  variance  with  all  preconceived  ideas — so 
different  from  anything  one  sees  in  the  United  States — that  the 
tourist  is  in  a constant  tremor  of  excitement  and  finds  himself 
continually  edified  and  interested.  The  life  of  the  cities  is  no 
less  unique  than  is  that  of  the  rural  district.  Making  the  City 
of  Mexico  a center,  a great  many  points  may  be  profitably  vis- 
ited— from  the  snow-clad  summits  of  the  great  mountains  to  the 
lowlands  where  the  coffee  and  banana  plantations  .sweep  to 
the  seacoast.  P'or  adflilional  information  call  on  or  write  to  8.  F. 
R.  Morse,  General  Passenger  Agent,  vSouthern  Pacific,  New 
Orleans,  La. 


1 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


B 


Y TAKING  THE 


SHASTA  ROUTE 


On  Your  Return  from 

^CALIFORNIAN 

You  Can  See  the  Original  of  this  Scene. 


RAPIDS  NEAR  UPPER  FALL. 

ft  is  in  the  YELLOWSTONE  PARK,  and  can  be  reached 
on  your  return  from  CALIFORNIA  if  you  witl  see  that  your 
ticket  reads  as  above.  In  addition  you  will  see 

MT.  SHASTA,  MT.  HOOD,  and  MT.  TACOMA, 

the  Giant  Peaks  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  pass  through  Port- 
tand,  Tacoma,  Seattle,  Spokane,  Helena  or  Butte,  Missoula, 
Bismarck,  Fargo,  Minneapolis,  and  St.  Paul. 

Send  me  6 cents  for 

SKETCHES  OF"  WO  ISi  D E R l_  A N D. 

CHAS.  S.  FEE,  Qen.  Pass.  Agent, 

Northern  Pacific  Railroad,  St.  Paul,  flinn. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


TM  E 

FAMOUS  LIMITED 

FAST  FLYING  VIRGINIAN 

IS  the:  only  solid  ve;stibuled  train,  electric-lighted,  steam-heated, 

WITH  THROUGH  DINING  CAR, 

BETWEEN 

NEW  YORK,  PHILADELPHIA,  BALTIMORE,  WASHINGTON 


AND 

CINCINNATI,  LOUISVILLE,  ST.  LOUIS,  CHICAGO,  AND  THE  WEST. 


OBSERVATION  CAR  ATTACHED. 

H.  W.  FULLER,  General  Passenger  Agent,  Washington,  D.  C. 


5-'  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Companj 

OR  INJEIW  YORK, 

RICHARD  A.  McCURDY,  President, 

IS 

*TIie  Largest  and  Best  Life  Insurance  Company  in  the  World.® 
Assets  over  $220,000,000. 


The  Mutual  Life  has  Paid  since  Organization  . . . . 

Over  $388,440,897  to  Policy-holders. 


The  New  Instalment  Policy  issued  by  this  Company 
is  admirably  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  Insurin;^  Public. 

EVERY  DESIRABLE  FORM  OF  POLICY  IS  ISSUED  BY 


THE  MUTUAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  COMPANY  OF  NEW  YORK. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


National  Geographic  Monographs 

On  the  Physical  Features  of  the  Earth’s  Surface,  desig-ned  especially  to  supply  to  teachers  and 
students  of  geography  fresh  and  interesting  material  with  which  to  supplement  the  regular  text-book. 


I.IST  OF  MONOGRAPHS  COMPRISING  VOEUME  I : 


General  Physiographic  Processes  . - - - 

General  Physiographic  Features 

Physiographic  Regions  of  the  Fnited  Statijs 
Beaches  and  Tidal  Marshes  of  the  Atlantic  Coast 
Present  and  Extinct  Lakes  of-  Nevada  - - - 

Appalachian  Mountains— Northern  Section 
Appalachian  Mountains— Southern  Section  - 
Mt.  Shasta- a Typical  F'xtinct  Volcano  . - - 

The  New  England  Plateau 

Niagara  Falls  and  Its  History 


|j.  W.  Powell 

Prof.  N.  S.  Shaler 
Prof.  I.  C.  Russell 
Bailey  Willis 
C.  Willard  Hayes 
J.  S.  Hiller 
Prof.  W.  M.  Davis 
G.  K.  Gilbert 


Price  for  one  set  of  ten  monographs,  $1.50.  Five  sets  to  one  address,  $6.00.  Single  monographs,  120c. 


Remit  with  order  to  AMERICAN  BOOK  COMPANY, 

New  YorPc  - Cincinnati  . OHicago 


WHEXHVHK  YOU  \'IS1T  WASHINGTON 


YOU  ARE  INVITED  TO  INSPECT  THE 


Where  the  LATEST  PARIS  NOVELTIES  are  always  on  Exhibition. 
The  attention  of  those  who  anticipate  purchasing  . . . . 


^ BRIDAL  TROUSSEAUX 

Is  invited  especially  to  extreme  Paris  Novelties  in  matched  sets 
of  French  Hand-made  Lingerie,  including  Gowns,  Skirts,  Chemises, 
Drawers,  Corset  Covers,  &c.  These  can  be  furnished  in  any  number 
of  pieces  desired.  ........... 


HAND=MADE  bridal  TROUSSRAUX,  personally 
selected  in  Paris  and  exclusive  in  style  and 
design  : Three  or  more  pieces  . . . . 


$10  to  $250. 


CORRESPONDENCE  SOLICITED.  MAIL  ORDERS  RECEIVE  PROMPT  AND  CAREFUL  ATTENTION. 


TENTH,  ELEVENTH,  AND  F STREETS  N.  W WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


NA  TIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MA  GA  ZINE 


BEST  LINE 

Chicago  OR  St.  Louis 


MINNEAPOUS 


The  OixA 
Number  OlA.  Model 


REMINGTO 


e- 


Typewriter. 


The  Improvements. 

ALIGNMENT 

Perfect,  and  permanently  maintained. 
PAPER  FEED 

Absolute  control,  any  width,  on  any  part  of 
cylinder. 

PAPER  CARRIAGE 
Wider,  Lighter,  Stronger,  Steadier. 
PAPER  GUIDES 

Self-adjustable  anywhere.  No  rubber  bands. 
TOUCH 

Superlatively  easy  and  non-fatiguing. 
SPACING  MECHANISM 
Works  with  greater  speed  and  unerring 
certainty. 

RinnON  MOVEMENT 
Simplicity  and  economy  combined. 
SHIFTING  MECHANISM 
Entirely  new  and  more  perfect  system. 
DESIGN 

Scientifically  correct,  mechanically 
wrought  out. 
CONSTRUCTION 

Every  possible  improvement  in  material 
and  the  making. 


WYCKOFF,  SEAMANS  di  BENEDICT, 

327  BROADWIT,  NEW  (ORK.  U.  S.  A. 
Washington,  D C.,  Branch,  800  F Street. 
Branchti  In  all  Principal  Cititi  of  tha  World. 


NA  TIONA  L GEOGRA FHIC  MA  GA ZINE 


A GOLD  MEIDAL 

WILI,  BE  AWARDED  BY* 


The  National  Geographic  Society 

to  such  pupil  in  a public  high  school  in  the  United  States  as  shall  compose 
and  submit  by  October  15,  1896,  the  best  original  essay,  not  exceeding 
2,000  words  in  length,  on  the  Mountain  Systems  of  the  United  States. 

A Certificate  of  Proficiency  will  also  be  awarded  for  the  best  essay 
received  from  each  State,  provided  such  essay  is  of  sufficient  merit  to 
justify  the  award. 

Essays  will  be  received  only  from  such  public  high  schools  as  formally 
announce  their  intention  to  compete  by  May  31. 

All  competitors  will  be  required  to  make  a formal  certification  on  honor 
that  they  have  not  received  aid  from  any  person  in  the  composition  of 
their  essays. 

The  Adjudication  Committee  consists  of  General  A.  W.  Greely,  Chief 
Signal  Officer,  U.  S.  Army  ; Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Mass.,  and  Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent 
of  Public  Schools  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 

EVERETT  HAYDEN, 

Washington,  1515  H Street  N.  W.  Secretary. 


THE 

To 


* POINTS 


BEST  ROUTE 

CALIFORNIA, 

PACIFIC  COAST, 

PUGET  SOUND, 

IN  THE  GREAT  NORTHWEST  ^ 

IS  VIA  THE 


UNION  PACIFIC 

“Tme:  overland  route,” 


From  either  KANSAS  CITY,  LEAVENWORTH,  ST.  JOSEPH,  COUNCIL  BLUFFS. 

OMAHA,  or  SIOUX  CITY. 

Tlie  Great  Merits  of  tills  I.tiie  are  I'ullmaii  Palace  Sleeping  Cars,  Buffet 
Library  ami  Smoking  Cars,  Pullman  lllning  Cars,  Pullman  Tourist 
Sleepers,  Elegant  Day  Coaclies,  L'nion  Depots,  Fast  Time.  ..... 

PULLMAN  DIXIXG  CARS  are  run  daily  between  Council  Bluffs  and  Denver,  Council  Bluffs  and 
Portland,  and  San  Francisco,  Kansas  City  and  Denver. 

PULLMAN  TOURIST  SLEEPERS  run  on  the  Unio.v  Pacific  are  almost  equal  for  comfort 
and  convenience  to  the  First-Class  Pullman  Sleeper. 

For  more  complete  information  relative  to  this  line,  time  of  train.*,  pamphlets  descriptive  of  the 
country  traversed,  etc.,  call  on  your  nearest  ticket  agent,  any  agent  ot  this  syst<-m,  or  address 

R.  TENBROECK,  General  Eastern  Agent,  ‘487  Broadway,  New  York  City. 

E.  DICKINSON,  Gen  1 Manager.  E.  I-.  LOMAX,  Gen’l  Pass,  and  Ticket  Agent. 

Omalia,  Nebraska. 


NATIONAL  GEOGBAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


The  Chicago,  Milwaukee  and , . . 
e-®-*  k Paul  Railway  Co, 

OWNS  AND  OPERATES  6,169  MILES  OF  ROAD. 


u 


«{1’ 


T operates  its  own  Sleeping  Cars  and 
Dining  Cars. 

It  traverses  the  best  portions  of  the 
States  of  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  Northern 
Michigan,  Iowa,  Missouri,  Minnesota, 
South  and  North  Dakota. 

Its  Sleeping  and  Dining  Car  service  is 
first-class  in  every  respect. 

It  runs  vestibuled,  steam-heated  and 
electric-lighted  trains. 

It  has  the  absolute  block  system. 

It  uses  all  modern  appliances  for  the 
comfort  and  safety  of  its  patrons. 

Its  train  employes  are  civil  and 
obliging. 

It  tries  to  give  each  passenger  “value 
received”  for  his  money,  and 

Its  General  Passenger  Agent  asks 
every  man,  woman  and  child  to  buy 
tickets  over  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee 
and  St.  Paul  Railway — for  it  is  A Great 
Railway.  ..... 


For  Maps  and  7'ime  Tables  and  any  desired  information,  free  of  cost, 
Address — 

GEO.  H.  HEAFFORD, 

(ieneral  Passenger  Agent,  Chicago,  III, 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


“improvement  the  order  of  the  age." 

THREE  NEW  MODEL 


SMITH  PREMIER  TYPEWRITERS 

Nos.  2,  3 AND  4. 


Great 
Progress  in 
Mechanical 
Art. 


Many 

Improvements 
Heretofore 
Overlooked  by 

Other 

Manufacturers 


DURABILITY  the  first  consideration. 


Send  for  Catalogue.  Machines  sent  you  for  trial. 

The  Smith  Premier  Typewriter  Company, 

IVIAIIM  ORRICE:;  SYRACUSE,  IM.  Y. 

BRANCHES:  1416  F STREET.  WASHINGTON,  D.  C , AND  28  OTHER  LEADING  CITIES. 


F.  H.  LORD,  Gen’l  Passenger  and  Ticket  Agent 
Quincy  Building,  Chicago. 


fi  il  il  iiil  ii  ii  fi  00  fi.fi  fl  fi 

a . sIb 


Its  Trains  are  tboroaQbly 

UpTo  Date  in  the  excellence 
of  their  EQUIPMENT  ^ ^ The 
appointments  of  the  PULLMAN 
CARS  on  all  trains  are 
complete  ^ LUXURY  SPEED 
and  SAFETY  are  COMblNED  to 
conduce  to  the  PLEASURE  and 
COMEORTof  its  PATRONS'^ 


MAPLE 


ROUTE 


^ Between 

CHIOVOO  ^ MINNEAPOLIS  ST.PAUL 
DES  MOINES  ST.  JOSEPH  'h  KANSAS  CITY 


THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine, 

PUBLISHED  ON  THE  FIRST  OF  EVERY  MONTH, 
numbers  among  its  contributors  the  following  well-known  writers 

o o 

on  the  different  branches  of  geographic  science  : 


Mr.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

Dr.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Mr.  iMarous  Baker,  U.  vS.  Geological  Survey. 

Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  vS.  N. 

I)r.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Theol.  vScminary. 

Mr.  R.  L.  Corthell,  C.  R.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Rlliott  Cones. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Rthuolog}'. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dal)uey,  Jr.,  .Assistant  ,Secre- 
tary  of  Agriculture  and  President  (on  leave) 
of  the  Tennessee  State  University. 

Dr.  Win.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  lu.stitution, 
Pres,  of  the  Phil.  Society  of  Washington. 

Dr.  George  Davidson,  President  of  tlie  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

Mr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  vSurvey. 

Mr.  Wm.lM.  Davis,  Professor  of  Physical  Geog- 
raphy in  Harvard  University. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  IMining 
Statistics  and  Technolog)',  U.  ,S.  Geol.  Sur. 

•Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Hull.  John  W.  h'oster,  ex-Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Chief  Topographer,  U.  S. 
Geol.  Sur.  and  Geographer  of  i ilh  Census. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey, 
Pres,  of  the  Geol.  Society  of  Washington. 

iien.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  .Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geograjihic  Society. 

Dr  Alark  W.  Harrington,  President  f>f  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Wa.shiiigton. 

bieiit.  I'lverett  Hayden,  U.  S.  N.,  Secretary  of 
the  National  Geograjihic  Society. 

Mr.  Win.  H.  Holmes.  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  .\n- 
throjiology,  I'ield  Coliini.  Mu.seiim,  Chicago. 

Dr.  I'hnil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Sheldon  Jack.soii,  Ib  S.  Commissioner  of 
Rducation  for  Alaska. 


Mr.  George  Keiinan. 

Prof.  William  Ribbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Rth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  R.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Admiral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S-  N. 

Dr.  T.  C.  iMeiidenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Ma.ss. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Oruithologi.st  and  Mani- 
nialogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Hon.  John  II.  Mitchtdl,  U.  S.  S. 

Prof.  W.  R.  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

Mr.  Frederick  II.  Newell,  Chief  Ilydrographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  .Survey. 

IMr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coa.st  Survey. 

Rieut.  Roliert  R.  Peary,  U.  S.  N. 

IMrs.  Robert  R.  Peary. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  .S.  .S. 

Mr.  William  II.  Pickering,  Professor  of  Astron- 
omy in  Harvard  University. 

jMajor  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Rthiiology  and  President  of  the 
Anthropological  .Society  of  Washington. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent ol  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  S. 
Civil  .Service  Commi.ssion. 

IMr.  Israel  C.  Ru.s.sell,  Professor  of  Geology  in 
the  University  of  IMichigan. 

Dr.  N.  .S.  Shaler,  Profes.sor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  I).  .Sigsbee,  Ilydrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy  Itept. 

Aliss  Rliza  Ruhamah  .Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  R.  Tanner,  U.  .S.  N. 

Mr.  I'rar.k  Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.  .S. 
Geological  .Survey. 

Mrs.  I'annie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS  OF  RECENT  NUMBERS. 

JANUARY.  Russia  in  liurojie,  with  maj),  Hon.  G.irdiner  G.  Hubbard;  'I'he  .Arctic  Cruise 
of  the  U.  .S.  Revenue  Cutter  “ Bear,”  with  illustrations.  Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson  ; The 
Sco])c  and  \’ahu‘  ol  Arctic  Rxjiloration,  Gen.  .A.  W.  Greelv. 

FEBRUARY.  Venezuela:  Her  Government,  Peo])le,  ;nul  Bonmlary,  with  ma])  and  illustra- 
tions, William  R.  Curtis;  'I'he  Panama  C.in.il  Route,  with  illustrations.  Prof.  Robi-rt '1'. 
Hid;  'I'he  'rehuante]iec  .Sliij)  Rinlw.iy,  with  maps,  R.  R.  Corthell,  C.  !(.,  RR.  D.  ; 'I'he 
Present  State  of  the  Nicaragua  Canal,  Gen.  .A.  W.  Greely;  I'ixjjlor.ations  b\- the  Bureau 
of  .\nierican  Rthnology,  W J McGee. 

This  ininihrr  ron/aitis  a ///n/>  of  llir  volh-y  of  ihr  (h  inoco,  s/hneiuy  /hr  rxtrut  of  tnriloyy 
hoiurd  hv  Hull  -ouilrntuiv  ami  thr  hrai  iity  U has  on  thr  I 'riir-itrlaii  Houmlary  (Jitrs/ioti. 

MARCH. — 'I'he  .So-Called  ‘‘Jeaniutle  Relics,”  Prof.  Wm.  II.  Dali  ; N.iiisen's  Polar  Rxpedi- 
tion,  Gti  ii.  .A.  W.  Gtreely  ; 'I'he  Sidnnarine  C ibles  of  the  World,  CiUStav*-  Herrle  ; 'file 
Survey  .and  Subdivision  f)f  Indian  Tt  riitorv,  with  map  .and  illustr.ation,  Ili  nry  ('..aniiett  ; 
” I'rec  linrghs”  in  the  United  States,  James  H.  I’lodgett. 

This  itamhrr  roitiaitts  a rharf  m x jo  it/rhrs,  shoicitiy  /hr  Sithmari m-  Triryiafh  ('ahirs  of 
hr  H'or/d  and  thr  Triiiiifal  /.ami  Liurs^  rlr.  /(  also  loutaius  fall f>ai/r  foiltails  of  />r. 
Va/iH'/i  and  I't  o/.  H m.  //.  //all. 

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PRESIDENTIAL  ADDRESS 


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TO  THE 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY, 

ON 


AFRICA 


with  special  reference  to  the  Transvaal  and  the 
Italian  Possessions. 


JUDD  A DETWEII.ER,  PRINTERS,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


MAY,  1896 


No.  5 


! i ' I 

Honorary  Editor : JOHN;  HjYDE 

Honlorary  Associate  Edit(j>rs 
'W  J ^cQEE  ELIZ^  HTJECAMA.H  SCIDjkfO 


pONXPNTS / / / 

AFRICA  SINCE  1888,  WITB'i^EClAL  REFERENCE  TO  SPUTaVpMCA 
AND  ABTsSinia.  With  taap.  HON.  0.4liDINBR  O.  ’HOBBARD. 
^Accompanied  by  portrait  of  Presjldent  Hubbard.) 

FPNDAMENTAL  OEOORAPHIc'^LATION  ,6f  the  THREE  AMERI- 
CAS.  With  map.  ; ROBERT  T.  HILL 

THE  KANSAS  RIVER  ' ' a 

i ARTHUR  P„  DAVIS. 

- " ■ r ■ 

OEOORAPHIC  LITERATURE,  p.  184  ; MISCELLANEA,  p,  188 

\Va\.SUL>‘C.'yON/ 

BY  Till-:  NATB^’AI.  Ki<:<)<;ua1MII(’  S<X’IKTY 

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National  Geograpliic  Societ^^ 

ORiaVNIZKT),  JANUARY,  18SS 


PnicsinicxT 

OARDINKU  fi.  ULTBBAUl) 

V ICE-  BrESIDEN'I’S 

MARCUS  BAKER  A.  W.  CUIEELY 

CHARLES  W.  HAI'.XEY,  Ju.  C.  HART  MERRIAM 

HENRY  GANNETT  HERBERT  G.  OGDEN 

Tkeasukek 
CHARLES  .T.  BELL 


1 1 ECOUDI .NG  SeCRETA  K Y 

Co RRESI’OX DING  SeCRETA R Y 

EVERETT  HAYDEN 

ELIZA  R.  8CID.M0RE 

Managers 

II.  E.  BLOUNT 

F.  II.  NEWELL 

G.  K.  (HLBI*. Rr 

AV.  B.  ROWELL  ; 

.lOHN  HYDE 

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W .1  McGEE 

J.  B.  WIGHT  . 

V - J 

THE  NATIONAL 

GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 

Back  Numbers  wanted  by  the  Society. 

For  tlie  purpose  of  making  up  complete  sets  of  the  Magazine, 
the  National  Geographic  Society  is  prepared  to  purchase  at  rea- 
sonable prices  the  following  back  numbers  : 

Of  Vol.  I,  1889,  numbers  2 and  4;  of  Vol.  II,  1890,  num- 
bers 2 and  3 ; of  Vol.  IV,  1892,  numbers  1,  3,  4,  5,  and  6. 

Members  of  the  Society  or  other  persons  having  spare  copies 
of  any  of  these  numbers  are  invited  to  sell  or  present  them  to  the 
Society,  as  they  may  prefer. 

Address;  EVERETT  HAYDEN,  Secretary, 

1517  H Street,  Washington. 


I 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XVIIL 


HON.  GARDINER  GREENE  HUBBARD,  LL.  D., 
Piesidenl  of  the  \at tonal  Geographic  Society. 


THE 


VoL.  VII  MAY,  1896  No.  5 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888,  WITH  SPECIAL  REFERENCE  TO 
SOUTH  AFRICA  AND  ABYSSINIA* 

By  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  LL.  D., 

'President  of  the  National  Geographic  Society 

Eight  years  ago  I selected  Africa  as  the  subject  of  ni}'-  annual 
address  before  the  National  Geographic  Societ}".  Since  then  the 
nations  of  Europe,  seeking  new  outlets  for  trade  and  possible 
homes  for  their  surplus  population,  have  taken  possession  of  the 
larger  part  of  the  continent.  They  have  developed  Africa  more 
rapidly  than  in  an}’’  preceding  age,  and  have  greatly  increased 
our  knowledge  of  it. 

Africa  and  America  were  discovered  about  the  same  time — the 
one  by  Portugal,  the  other  by  Spain.  Soon  afterward  the  slave 
trade  was  established  between  the  two  continents  to  supply  the 
place  of  Indian  labor,  the  natives  of  America,  unable  to  stand  the 
tasks  imposed  ui>on  them  liy  the  Spaniards,  having  been  extermi- 
nated. This  trade  proved  so  profitable  that  England  soon  took 
part  in  it,  exchanging  her  })roducts  for  slaves  transj)orted  to 
the  Spanish  colonies  in  America.  This  continued  for  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  years,  or  until  the  early  j>art  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  when  the  slave  trade  was  abolished  and  the  trade  in 
intoxicating  liquors  substituted,  which  has  been  to  the  African 
a greater  evil  than  the  slave  trade.  A recent  writer  says  that 
four  million  gallons  of  the  most  jtoisonous  gin  and  rum  arc  im- 
ported yearly  into  the  Nagos  and  Niger  coast  protectorates. 

•Annual  presidential  address,  delivered  April  24,  1890. 

11 


158 


AFRICA  SINCE  188S 


Xearl}^  half  a centuiy  ago  two  or  three  large  mercantile  firms 
of  Hamburg  and  Bremen  established  trading  stations  on  the 
west  coast  of  Africa.  Their  jjrofits  were  very  large,  as,  in  ex- 
change for  rum,  trinkets,  beads,  and  worthless  arms,  cocoanut  oil, 
ivory,  india-rubber,  and  other  tropical  products  were  obtained. 
This  trade  finally  resulted  in  the  starting  of  a regular  line  of 
steamers  from  Hamburg  to  the  west  coast,  and  also  of  one 
through  the  Suez  canal  to  the  east  coast.  Prince  Bismarck  real- 
ized that  he  had  a most  urgent  problem  to  solve,  either  to  re- 
strain German  emigration,  or,  failing  in  that,  to  keep  it  under 
the  control  of  the  empire.  America  was  closed;  Asia  was  all 
taken ; his  only  opportunity  was  colonization  in  Africa.  He 
ordered  German  ships  of  war  to  visit  the  African  coast,  and  estab- 
lished consulates  at  different  ports.  Treaties  were  made  with 
the  natives  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring  colorable  titles  to  large 
tracts  of  land,  the  German  flag  was  raised,  and  the  countr}’-  de- 
clared to  be  under  German  protection.  These  settlements  are 
merel}’’  stations,  where  two  or  three  families  of  foreign  merchants 
reside,  and  outstations  of  natives — middlemen,  who  carry  on  the 
trade  between  the  natives  of  the  interior  and  the  foreigners  on 
the  coast.  Germany  also  claims  the  hinterland  or  interior 
country  behind  the  stations,  although  most  of  it  had  been  re- 
garded by  the  English  as  under  their  flag. 

At  the  time  of  the  uprising  in  Egypt  against  the  rule  of  England 
and  France,  in  1882,  France  declined  to  act  with  England,  but 
soon  bitterly  regretted  her  mistake,  and  to  offset  her  loss  in 
Pigypt  she  extended  her  dominion  in  northwest  Africa  and  on 
the  Gold  Coast  and  the  upper  Niger,  although  most  of  these 
regions  had  been  claimed  ly' English  traders.  About  the  same 
time  the  Kongo  Free  State  was  founded  and  claimed  the  whole 
of  the  Kongo  valley.  This  was  opposed  b}^  both  France  and 
Portugal,  the  one  claiming  the  countiy  north  of  the  Kongo,  the 
other  that  to  the  south.  Thus  in  1883  and  1884  it  seemed  that 
all  the  groat  nations  of  Europe  might  come  into  conflict  regarding 
their  different  claims  in  Africa.  For  the  j^urpose  of  settling  these 
questions  and  defining  the  rights  of  each  country,  Germany, 
France,  Belgium.  Portugal,  and  England  held  a conference  at 
Berlin  in  1884,  to  which  the  United  States  was  invited,  the  only 
conference  between  the  great  powers,  relating  to  foreign  affairs, 
in  which  it  has  participated..  At  this  convention  and  by  subse- 
quent agreements  made  between  1885  and  1895  the  European 
powers  fixed  the  boundaries  of  their  several  African  possessions. 


AFRICA  SINCE  1SS8 


159 


It  was  determined  that  free  navigation  and  free  trade  should  be 
established  for  all  nations  within  the  regions  watered  by  the 
Kongo  and  its  affluents — a right  subsequently  annulled — and 
on  the  Zambesi  to  a point  five  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the 
Shire,  and  free  trade  for  transit  to  regions  on  the  Niger  beyond 
British  influence. 

Under  these  agfeements  England  and  France  each  claim  a 
little  more  than  twenty-five  per  cent  of  the  Continent ; Portugal, 
Germany,  and  Belgium  together  claim  about  twenty-three  per 
cent.  The  other  European  poAvers,  with  the  Boers  of  the  Trans- 
vaal and  the  sultan  of  Turkey,  together  hold  about  twelve  per 
cent,  leaving  to  the  Africans  the  desert  of  Sahara  and  part  of  the 
Sudan,  about  fifteen  per  cent.  This  gives  to  the  European 
powers,  having  no  right  but  that  of  might,  all  those  j^ortions 
of  Africa  supposed  to  be  habitable  or  valuable. 

It  has  been  the  policy  of  Great  Britain  to  alloAV  her  merchants 
to  establish  commercial  relations  with  the  natiA^es  by  opening 
trading-stations,  but  not  until  the  trade  becomes  profitable,  and 
priA'ate  enterprise  and  money  have  established  the  value  of  the 
trade,  to  raise  her  flag,  claim  them  as  British  possessions,  and 
exercise  gOA’ernmental  control.  The  East  Indian  empire  Avas 
the  outgroAvth  of  a trading-station.  France  and  Germany  reversed 
this  policy,  first  taking  possession  of  different  parts  of  Africa, 
establishing  territorial  governments,  and  aftei’Avard  offering  in- 
ducements to  mercantile  companies  to  establish  trading-stations 
and  in  addition  guaranteeing  protection  from  the  natiA^es.  Eng- 
land as  a result  of  her  policy — the  flag  folloAving  the  trade — has 
secured  the  most  valuable  parts  of  Africa. 

France  holds  an  immense  territory  on  the  Mediterranean, 
Avith  Algiers  as  its  capital,  the  country  south  of  Algiers  and  Avest 
of  Senegarnbia,  and  on  the  upper  Avaters  of  the  Niger,  AA’hile 
England  claims  the  Niger  and  Benue,  the  onl}^  navigable  rivers 
in  Africa.  England  formerly  claimed  Damaraland  and  Nama- 
qualand,  on  the  soutlnvest  coast  of  Africa,  l)ut  yielded  them  to 
Germany,  reserving  a small  tract  of  land  near  the  center  of  the 
territory,  M'alfish  Ijay,  the  only  good  harl)or  on  the  coast  and  the 
best  means  of  access  to  the  interior  of  the  German  possessions. 

England  alloAved  Germany  to  secure  a vast  region  in  East 
Africa  over  Avhich  she  had  claimed  dominion,  Imt  claims  for  her- 
self a large  j)ortion  of  Houth  Africa,  the  Shire  and  the  upper 
Avaters  of  the  Zaml^esi,  tl»e  part  of  Africa  best  fitted  for  the  occu- 
pation of  Europeans.  She  retained  Egypt,  alloAAung  France  to 


160 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


acquire  Tunis  and  the  desert  of  Sahara.  She  yielded  to  Italy 
the  southwest  coast  of  the  Red  sea  and  south  on  the  Indian 
ocean  to  the  river  Juba,  including  Massowah,  the  most  unhealthy 
part  of  the  Red  sea,  on  condition  that  Italy  should  occupy 
Kassala  and  drive  out  the  Mahdists,  reserving  also  for  herself  the 
best  harbors  in  the  Italian  territory’  on  the  Indian  ocean. 

The  occupation  of  Africa  has  cost  France  8750,000,000  and  Italy 
her  reputation  as  one  of  the  leading  powers  of  Europe ; Germany 
has  failed  in  her  colonization  scheme,  for,  as  a recent  writer  says, 
her  colonists  in  Africa  number  less  than  1,000  and  cost  about 
82,750  a year  each,  while  the  only  portions  of  Africa  that  have 
3'ielded  large  returns  for  investments  made,  by  colonists  are  the 
regions  controlled  by  England  on  the  Niger  and  in  South  Africa. 

THE  BRITISH  SOUTH  AFRICAN  COMPANY. 

The  government  of  these  va.st  tracts  and  colonies  has  gener- 
ally been  granted  to  companies  chartered  bj’’  the  governments  of 
Europe.  One  of  these  companies,  the  British  South  African  Com- 
pan\qwas  founded  in  1889  by  Mr  Cecil  Rhodes.  The  son-in-law 
of  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  other  members  of  the  nobility  were 
made  directors  and  officers,  receiving  full-paid  founders’  shares. 
Dr  Jameson  was  one  of  the  subordinate  officers.  The  par  value 
of  the  stock,  £1,  soon  rose  in  the  market  to  £3  or  £4,  thus 
securing  a handsome  profit  to  the  companj^’s  noble  directors. 
The  company  was  authorized  “ to  acquire  by  any  concession, 
grant,  or  treaty  all  or  any  rights,  authorities,  jurisdictions,  and 
powers  of  any  kind  or  nature  whatever,  including  powers  neces- 
sar}’  for  the  purposes  of  government,  comprised  or  referred  to  in 
the  concessions  and  agreement  made  as  aforesaid  or  affecting 
other  territories,  lands,  or  property  in  Africa  or  the  inhabitants 
thereof.”  Among  the  privileges  given  to  it  are  “ the  right  to  es- 
tablish banking  and  other  companies  and  associations  ; to  make 
and  maintain  railroads,  telegraphs,  and  lines  of  steamships;  to 
carry  on  mining  operations  and  license  mining  companies ; to 
settle,  cultivate,  and  improve  the  lands  ; to  preserve  peace  and 
order  in  such  ways  and  manner  as  it  shall  consider  necessary, 
and  for  that  object  maj"  establish  and  maintain  a force  of  police* 
and  have  its  own  flag.” 

The  territory  originally  included  in  the  charter  of  the  com- 
pany "was  many  times  larger  than  Great  Britain, but  Mr  Rhodes 
and  his  associates,  still  unsatisfied,  penetrated  into  Khama’s 
country,  Matabeleland  and  Mashonaland,  defeated  Lobengula, 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


161 


and  added  a large  tract  to  that  already  under  British  protection. 
But  still  beyond  lay  richer  lands,  and  in  June,  1895,  a territory 
called  Northern  Zambesia  and  N3^assaland,  larger  and  more  val- 
uable than  the  original  grant,  was  added  to  the  South  African 
Company.  This  was  the  land  discovered  by  Dr  Livingstone,  set- 
tled by  Scotchmen  at  his  instance,  and  here  on  lake  Bangweolo 
he  died.  The  whole  territoiy  is  now  called  -Rhodesia,  or  Zam- 
besia, and  extends  from  Cape  Colony  north  over  two  thousand 
miles  past  lake  Nyassa,  with  lake  Tanganyika  as  its  northeastern 
boundary  and  the  Kongo  Free  State  its  northwestern.  The  com- 
pany now  claim  a territoiy  of  nearly  one  million  square  miles, 
an  area  larger  than  Europe  exclusive  of  Russia. 

The  country  is  very  thinly  populated,  and  the  valleys  of  the 
LimjDopo  and  Zambesi  are  infested  by  the  tsetse,  a stinging  ily 
unknown  elsewhere  ; its  bite  is  fatal  to  the  horse  and  ox ; it 
seems,  however,  to  disappear  with  the  advance  of  civilization. 
But  notwithstanding  this  pest,  Zambesia,  with  its  great  elevation, 
its  fine  climate,  its  fertile  soil  (much  of  it  capable  of  cultivation 
by  irrigation),  and  its  great  mineral  deposits,  may  become  one  of 
the  most  wealth  v and  densely  populated  portions  of  Africa. 

^^dthin  the  territoiy  of  the  South  African  Company  are  the 
richest  diamond  mines  in  the  world,  and  just  over  its  border,  in 
the  Transvaal,  the  richest  gold  mines. 

DIAMONDS 

India  was  formerly  the  onl}'-  countr}un  which  diamonds  were 
found  to  any  great  extent.  They  were  afterward  discovered  in 
Brazil,  and  some  of  small  size  have  been  found  in  other  jilaces. 
The  diamond  fields  of  both  India  and  Brazil  appear  to  be  nearly 
exhausted.  The  first  diamond  discovered  in  South  Africa  was 
found  in  1868  near  Kimberley,  620  miles  north  of  Cape  Town. 
Since  1870,  when  mines  were  opened,  the  production  has  ra])idly 
increased,  and  in  twent}’’-five  years  these  mines  have  ]n’odiiced 
more  and  larger  diamonds  than  all  other  countries,  98  per  cent 
of  the  present  production  of  the  world  coming  from  Kimberley. 

The.se  stones  are  found  in  a region  about  twelve  miles  in  cir- 
cumference, where  four  small  hills  or  pipes,  as  they  arc  called, 
rise  from  60  to  80  feet  above  the  ground,  i)rol)al)l}^  natural  chim- 
nej's  or  extinct  craters,  lined  with  walls  of  basalt,  broadening 
out  below  the  surface  to  a great  dei)th.  'I'hese  craters  are  filh'd 
with  a blue  diamantiferous  formation,  which  has  been  forced  to 
the  surface  of  the  ground  by  the  [U’cssure  of  the  subterranean 


162 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


gases.  In  this  formation  the  diamonds  are  imbedded,  in  a reg- 
ular order  known  to  miners.  Formerly  the  earth  was  thrown 
out  from  the  surface  until  several  hundred  feet  in  depth  over  a 
large  area  had  been  removed.  This  method  of  working  was  dan- 
gerous and  expensive,  and  now  shafts  are  sunk  at  a little  distance 
from  the  craters  and  the  blue  earth  is  reached  by  underground 
galleries.  The  workings  are  inclosed  by  high  walls,  within  which 
the  workmen  are  confined  during  the  time  of  their  service.  Each 
night  they  are  stripi)ed  and  their  persons  and  clothing  subjected 
to  a most  careful  examination.  The  secretion  of  diamonds  or 
their  purchase  from  workmen  is  punished  most  severely ; but 
with  all  these  precautions  diamonds  to  the  value  of  probably  a 
million  dollars  a ,year  are  secured  by  the  miners.  Instances  like 
the  following  are  not  uncommon ; A man  escaping  on  horse- 
back was  carefully  examined  and  released,  no  diamonds  being 
found  upon  him,  but  on  crossing  the  border  he  stopped,  dis- 
moimted,  shot  his  horse,  and  took  from  the  animal  a small  bag  of 
these  precious  stones. 

There  were  originally  so  many  different  claims  and  rival  com- 
j)anies  that  their  consolidation  seemed  almost  impossible.  It 
was  then  that  Mr  Cecil  Rhodes  first  appeared  prominently  before 
the  world.  Througli  his  financial  genius  and  marvelous  man- 
agement the  companies  were  consolidated  into  one  corporation, 
with  a capital  of  $20, 000, 000,  The  net  profits  in  1895  are  said 
to  have  been  over  $11,000,000  from  the  sale  of  the  diamonds; 
$5,000,000,  or  25  per  cent,  was  divided  and  the  balance  carried 
to  a reserve  fund.  The  production  is  limited  to  the  demand,  so 
that  the  market  may  not  be  overstocked  and  the  diamond  de- 
crease in  value. 

TRANSVAAL,  OR  SOUTH  AFRICAN  REPUBLIC 

Not  far  from  the  diamond  mines  are  the  richest  gold  mines  in 
the  world.  These  are  in  the  Transvaal,  a country  of  from  110,000 
to  120,000  square  miles,  240  miles  from  north  to  south  and  360 
miles  from  east  to  west,  and  with  a population  of  700,000  to 
750,000.  Of  these  75,000  are  Boers.* 

The  ancestors  of  the  Boers  were  Dutch  and  French  Hugue- 
nots, who  had  with  our  own  Pilgrim  Fathers  found  in  Holland 
a refuge  from  persecution  for  more  than  a generation.  The}^  left 
Holland  about  the  same  time  that  the  Pilgrims  and  Dutch 
sailed  for  America — the  one  to  an  inhospitable  climate  and  a 


Boer  is  the  same  word  as  the  German  Bauer  and  English  boor,  a peasant  farmer. 


AFRICA  SINCE  1S88 


163 


life  of  hardship,  privation,  and  intense  activit3^  the  other  to  a 
genial  climate,  where  toil  was  unnecessary  and  where  all  the 
surroundings  were  favorable  to  life  and  a rapid  increase  of  popu- 
lation. The  one  has  steadily  advanced,  the  other  retrograded,  a 
difference  largely  due  to  environment. 

The  southern  coast  of  Africa  for  nearly  eight  hundred  miles, 
is  entirely  destitute  of  navigable  rivers ; has  neither  harbors 
nor  islands,  has  only  one  or  two  open  roadsteads,  and  therefore 
offers  no  inducements  to  commerce.  Nearly  parallel  with  the 
coastline  are  three  chains  of  mountains  running  from  east  to 
west,  the  first  about  fifty  miles  from  the  ocean  and  the  others 
from  fifty  to  one  hundred  miles  apart,  each  succeeding  range 
rising  higher  than  the  one  in  front  of  it.  On  the  coast  the  soil  is 
rich  and  fertile,  producing  excellent  grapes,  yielding  more  wine 
per  acre  than  those  of  any  other  country,  though  of  an  inferior 
quality.  There  is  an  abundant  rainfall  and  the  crops  are  large, 
but  the  rain  clouds  passing  over  the  mountains  leave  the. pla- 
teau between  them  dry  and  barren.  North  of  the  third  range  is 
the  valley  of  the  Orange,  various  branches  of  which,  rising  to  the 
north  and  south  among  the  mountains,  flow  across  Africa  to  the 
Atlantic.  Its  eastern  watershed  is  well  watered  and  can  be 
easily  irrigated,  but  until  irrigated  it  is  only  adapted  to  grazing. 

The  railroad  from  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  to  Johannesburg 
runs  almost  through  the  middle  of  the  country.  The  land  west 
of  the  railroad  is  arid,  and  the  Orange  river  grows  shallower  as 
it  approaches  the  sea.  Only  a small  portion  of  the  country  is 
suitable  for  agriculture,  but  a large  part  offers,  wdth  but  little 
labor,  good  pasturage  for  cattle  all  the  year  round.  The  climate 
is  delightful,  the  thermometer  rarely  rising  to  90°  Fah.  or  falling 
below  the  freezing  point. 

This  country  was  formerly  inhabited  by  the  Hottentots,  among 
the  lowest  in  the  .scale  of  negro  races.  About  the  time  the  Boers 
landed  in  South  Africa,  the  Bantus,  the  highest  in  the  scale,  were 
pushing  their  wa}"  to  the  south,  along  the  eastern  coast,  forcing 
the  Hottentots  into  the  interior  and  thence  to  the  west.  After 
the  advent  of  the  Boers  the  increase  in  j)opulation  was  very  slow, 
the  total  number  of  inhabitants  being  only  about  twenty  thou- 
sand when  the  English  took  possession  of  Cape  Colony  in  ISOO. 
The  English  emigrants  wen;  better  educated  than  the  Boers,  and 
the  two  races  have  rarely  intermarried. 

After  the  Crimean  war  in  2, (MX)  t<j  3,0()()  Germans,  volun- 

teers in  that  war,  were  given  homesteads  in  southeastern  .Africa 


164 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


by  the  English;  these  have  in  the  main  been  absorbed  by  the 
Boers. 

Between  1820  and  1830  slavery  was  abolished  by  Great  Brit- 
ain. The  Dutch,  who  were  engaged  in  trade  and  agriculture, 
freed  their  slaves  and  remained  in  Cape  Colon}',  mingling  more 
and  more  with  the  English ; those  engaged  in  the  raising  of  cat- 
tle, dissatisfied  with  the  compensation  offered,  moved  north- 
ward, though  still  under  British  dominion. 

Tlie  English  and  the  Boers  were  engaged  in  continual  conflict 
with  the  natives,  hut  the  home  government  was  unwilling  to 
defend  the  settlers.  The  Boers  w'ere  therefore  compelled  to 
defend  themselves,  and  thereby  gradually  became  independent, 
roaming  with  their  families  and  cattle,  crushing  out  or  enslav- 
ing the  natives,  until  they  reached  the  Orange  river,  in  the 
country  now  called  the  Orange  Free  State.  Between  1835  and 
1838  they  settled  beyond  the  river  Vaal,  in  the  Transvaal.  Here 
scattered  over  a vast  area  each  family  occupies  as  many  acres  as 
it  desires.  There  is  no  means  of  intercommunication,  .save  by  ox 
wagons,  traveling  only  twelve  miles  a day.  The  people  are  with- 
out near  neighbors,  and  there  are  very  few  towns  or  villages. 
In  such  a community  education  is  necessarily  neglected.  Inter- 
mingling with  English,  Germans,  and  Kaffirs  they  speak  a 
dialect  unlike  either  the  pure  Dutch  or  the  Dutch  spoken  in 
Cape  Town.  They  live  in  perfect  social  equality,  with  a strong 
sense  of  personal  dignity — ])roud,  independent,  neither  rich  nor 
poor,  but  shrewd  and  self-willed.  Mr  Glad.stone  has  described 
them  as  “ Protestants  in  religion,  Hollanders  in  origin,  vigorous, 
obstinate,  and  tenacious  in  character,  even  as  we  are.” 

In  time  of  drought  they  move  with  their  families  and  cattle 
from  place  to  place  for  pasturage,  returning  after  the  rains  to 
their  homes.  The  hunting  of  game  is  an  absolute  necessity,  not 
only  for  the  protection  of  the  cattle  from  wild  animals,  but  for 
food,  clothing,  and  trade.  In  consequence,  the  elephant,  lion, 
rhinoceros,  ostrich,  and  zebra  have  been  almost  entirely  driven 
to  the  north.  Mdien  they  are  gone  the  Boer  will  probably  lose 
his  remarkable  skill  with  the  rifle. 

When  the  Boers  receive  a summons  to  arms  from  the  president 
they  take  their  provisions,  rifles,  and  ammunition,  mount  their 
horses,  and  are  off,  the  best  sharpshooters  and  guerillas  in  the 
world,  as  the  English  have  frequently  learned  to  their  cost, 
especially  in  the  battle  of  Majuba  hill,  where,  though  strongly 
entrenched,  they  were  defeated  with  great  lo.ss. 


NAT.  GEIOG.  MAG. 


or 


SHOWING 

PRINCIPAL  POLITICAL  DIVISIONS 


English  Statute  Miles 


Geographical  Miles 


<lcx*ndrl< 


Sttaki  n 


Dongoli 


yiCTi 


\i%  NYAi 


) Mombasa 


unztbar 


'GAMYIt 


Tr^oj>j^c_  of _ C^_r  i_co r n 


CHUANAL  ~H[> 


^Joh«nft«*b4irgj_  _yt>alag^aBay 

r'V  I 


Vfybuji  . 


t C O L|0  N Y 


>^Pofttinab*j 


John  Q.Torb^rt.  I 


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4 

rtum  1 

\ 'J^assala 

VX.  VI 

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saowah  j 

i w 

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4^:T> . J 

ri*i\ 


I.  ^MOtO-L'tMO.  Wft«HrH«<VrfN 


VOL,  VII. 


■1896,  PL.  XIX 


AFRICA  SINCE  ISSS 


165 


When  the  Boers  were  in  Cape  Colony,  and  for  some  time  after- 
ward during  their  nomad  life,  they  Avere  under  English  rule. 
They  rebelled  at  times,  but  it  was  not  until  1852  that  they  threw 
off  the  English  yoke  and  became  a free  people.  In  1882  Paul 
Kruger  was  elected  president,  and  by  the  Convention  of  London 
in  1884  the  Transvaal  was  recognized  as  a nation,  England  merely 
retaining  the  right  to  approA'e  “ all  treaties  made  Avith  any  state 
or  nation  other  than  the  Orange  Free  State,  and  Avith  any  native 
tribes  outside  the  Transvaal.”  The  Boers  agreed^  that  “all  per- 
sons, Avith  their  families,  should  have  full  liberty  to  reside  in  any 
part  of  the  Transvaal  and  to  carrry  on  any  kind  of  business, 
and  such  persons  Avere  to  be  subject  to  no  higher  taxation  than 
is  or  may  be  imposed  upon  citizens  ; ” also  that  no  slavery  was 
to  be  tolerated.  If  these  privileges  are  conceded,  England  has 
no  right  to  interfere  in  its  internal  affairs. 

The  government  of  the  Transvaal  is  nominally  administered  by 
a parliament,  but  the  poAver  is  in  the  hands  of  Paul  Kruger,  the 
president,  the  grandson  of  a German,  a stolid  Boer  of  great  nat- 
ural abilitA"  and  shrewdness,  Avith  strong  homely  features  and  blue 
eyes  shoAving  keen  Avatchfulness  and  great  firmness  of  purpose. 
When  parliament  is  not  in  session,  he  has  poAver  to  issue  proc- 
lamations, Avhich  can  be  enforced  until  its  next  meeting,  and 
Avben  it  is  in  session  he  rules  the  members,  it  is  said,  b}’'  threat- 
ening to  reduce  their  salaries. 

In  1885  gold  Avas  discovered  on  a ridge  about  six  thousand 
feet  above  sea-level,  near  the  present  cit}'’  of  Johannesburg.  Im- 
migrants immediately  flocked  in.  Today  Johannesburg  is  the 
center  of  a district,  according  to  an  informal  but  relial)le  census, 
of  120,850  Euroj>eans  and  Americans,  all  of  Avhom  are  engaged 
in  mining.  This  discovery  of  gold  has  been  most  fortunate  for 
the  Avorld.  As  the  production  of  the  mines  of  California  fell 
off,  the  loss  has  been  made  up  in  the  Transvaal.  After  the  dis- 
covery of  the  California  mines,  the  gold  production  of  the  Avorld 
gradually  increased  until  1853,  Avhen  it  reached  the  maximum 
of  §155,000,000  ; tlien  it  stcadil^Mliminished  until  1883,  Avhen  it 
Avas  only  §05,W0,000;  at  this  time  the  African  mines  began  to 
supply  the  market.  Since  then  production  has  rapidly  increased, 
and  it  is  believed  that  in  1800  it  Avill  be  over  §200,0(_K),0()(),  the 
largest  amount  ever  mined,  and  one-half  Avill  come  from  the 
Transvaal.  The  veins  have  been  carefully  surveyed  and  traced 
for  several  hundred  miles,  and  it  is  believed  that  they  are  more 
extensive  than  any  other  gold  fields.  In  many  places  the  re- 


166 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


mains  of  ancient  surface  workings,  probably  hundreds  of  years 
old,  have  been  found,  supposed  by  some  to  be  the  mines  of  King 
Solomon. 

Beside  the  gold  mines,  the  Transvaal  is  rich  in  all  kinds  of 
minerals,  especially  silver,  copper,  coal,  and  iron.  The  soil  also 
is  very  rich,  and  with  a proper  system  of  irrigation  is  capable  of 
yielding  large  returns ; but  the  farms  of  the  Boers  are  neglected 
and  unproductive.  The  late  Lord  Kandolph  Churchill,  who  vis- 
ited it  in  1892,  wrote  of  it  that  “ it  might  be  the  most  wealthy 
and  prosperous  spot  on  earth,  but  Providence  has  cursed  it  with 
the  rule  of  fifty  thousand-  Boers.” 

The  foreigners,  or  Uitlanders,  as  they  are  called,  desire  rep- 
resentation in  the  government  and  claim  rights  and  privileges 
to  which  as  foreigners  and  unnaturalized  citizens  they  are  not 
entitled.  They  assert  that  taxes  in  Johannesburg,  contrary  to 
the  convention  of  1884,  are  ten  times  as  high  as  in  Pretoria, 
and  that  nine-tenths  of  all  the  taxes  are  paid  by  them ; that 
they  have  no  right  to  vote  or  to  participate  in  the  administra- 
tion of  the  general  or  local  governments ; that  they  are  com- 
pelled to  sustain  schools  where  all  the  instruction  is  in  the 
Dutch  language.  In  answer  it  is  said  that  Pretoria  is  a town  of 
poor  farms ; Johannesburg  a bustling,  growing,  thriving  mining 
city,  with  a large,  unruly  population,  where  taxes  must  be  high  ; 
tliat  the  foreigners  are  absorbing  the  trade  and  carrying  away 
the  wealth  of  the  country,  and  should  therefore  pay  the  larger 
part  of  the  taxes;  that  the  laws  give  the  Uitlanders  the  right  to 
vote  after  naturalization  and  to  become  members  of  the  lower, 
though  not  of  the  higher,  house ; that  the  sehools  were  established 
b}’’  the  Boers  for  their  own  children,  not  for  the  English,  and 
that  naturally  no  provision  has  been  made  for  instruction  in  a 
foreign  language;  that  the  Uitlanders  came  into  the  Transvaal  a 
short  time  ago  without  invitation  from  the  Boers,  without  any 
fixed  determination  to  remain,  solely  for  their  own  profit,  and 
have  therefore  no  right  to  complain  of  laws  to  which  they  have 
voluntarily  submitted. 

The  Uitlanders  looked  to  Mr  Cecil  Rhodes  and  his  company  for 
help  and  gladly  promised  to  join  any  force  that  might  be  sent 
to  their  relief.  In  response  to  tins  appeal  Dr  Jameson  collected 
the  police  force  of  the  chartered  company,  crossed  the  boundary 
into  the  Transvaal  in  the  last  days  of  1895  to  restore  the  Trans- 
vaal to  English  rule  ; but  he  had  underestimated  the  strategical 
skill,  the  strength,  and  ability  of  tbe  Boers.  General  Joubert, 


A FRICA  SINCE  18S8 


167 


the  commander,  showed  on  this,  as  on  prior  occasions,  great  mili- 
tar}'  ability,  and  by  his  quick  movements  put  down  the  incipient 
rebellion  at  Johannesburg,  and  defeated  and  captured  the  En- 
glish forces.  All  South  Africa  would  have  rejoiced  in  the  suc- 
cess of  Dr  Jameson,  and  England  would  have  accepted  the 
situation.  Germany  might  have  objected,  though  we  cannot  see 
what  right  she  would  have  had,  for  the  Transvaal  is  hundreds  of 
miles  from  her  possessions,  and  the  new  doctrine  of  “ Sphere  of 
Influence  ” could  not  have  applied. 

The  Boers  have  shown  great  forbearance,  wisdom,  and  good 
judgment  in  this  emergency.  In  time  of  peace  armed  men  in- 
vaded their  country  to  overthrow  the  government.  They  could 
justly  have  been  hanged,  but,  at  the  request  of  the  British  govern- 
ment, the  president  surrendered  Dr  Jameson  and  his  men  for 
trial  according  to  the  laws  of  Great  Britain.  We  doubt  if  it 
would  be  eas}’’  to  find  in  all  history  an  instance  of  like  forbear- 
ance and  mercy.  It  should,  however,  be  remembered  that  the 
fathers  of  the  present  Boers  .either  drove  the  natives  from  the 
Transvaal  or  reduced  them  to  slavery,  the  higher  civilization 
driving  out  the  lower. 

This  country,  with  its  delightful  climate,  fertile  soil,  forests  of 
valuable  timber,  mines  of  precious  metals,  and  large  deposits  of 
coal,  will  continue  to  draw  large  numbers  of  emigrants  from 
England.  Further  disturbance  is  therefore  sure  to  arise  unless 
the  Boers  give  the  Uitlanders  the  civil  rights  they  claim,  and  these 
once  secured,  it  is  inevitable  that  the  British  flag  will  float  over 
the  Transvaal. 

Other  gold  veins  are  worked  in  various  places  on  the  territory 
of  the  chartered  company.  Buluwayo,  in  November,  1893,  the 
chief  kraal  of  Lobengula,  has  now  a population  of  4,000,  and 
is  the  center  of  one  of  the  gold  fields.  None  of  these  fields  has 
thus  far  proved  j)rofitable,  but  there  is  every  reason  to  believe 
that  gold  will  be  found  in  great  abundance. 

There  are  political  movements  which  politicians  do  not  initiate ; 
revolutions  accomplished  without  statesmen  or  captains.  In 
these  we  look  in  vain  for  a master-mind,  acting  either  alone  or 
with  others.  Not  the  least  significant  are  the  changes  efl’ectod 
by  the  discovery  of  gold.  The  middle  of  the  century  witnessed 
a wonderful  flevelopment  in  the  United  States  and  Australia; 
its  close  promises  to  witness  an  even  greater  revolution  in  South 
Africa. 


168 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


ABYSSINIA 

We  will  now  turn  from  the  Transvaal  to  Ab5’'ssinia  and  the 
Italian  jiossessions  on  the  Red  sea,  where  Italy  is  engaged  in 
what  may  prove  to  be  a life-and-death  struggle. 

Abyssinia,  or  Ethiopia,  as  it  was  formerly  called,  is  the  most 
elevated  plateau  of  Africa.  The  coast  of  the  Red  sea  is  here  low, 
dry,  and  utterly  devoid  of  vegetation,  consisting  of  great  sand 
wastes,  only  relieved  by  alkali  plains,, salt  marshes  and  salt  lakes, 
hot,  and  most  unhealth3^  A traveler,  writing  of  this  region,  sa}'’s ; 
“ The  country  is  a parched,  desolate  region ; the  climate  an  inten- 
sified, perpetual,  torrid  heat;  the  rainfall  one  or  more  terrific 
thunder-storms  in  the  year;  the  occupation  of  the  inhabitants 
tending  scanty  and  wretched  flocks  and  herds,  watching  the  ap- 
})roach  of  enemies ; their  fears  always  alive  for  sudden  death  > 
their  hopes  for  peace.’’ 

The  ground  rises  abruptly  to  the  height  of  nine  or  ten  thou- 
sand feet,  forming  a steep  mountain  chain  about  six  hundred 
miles  long,  at  first  parallel  to  the  Red  sea,  but  near  Massowah 
the  coast  trends  to  the  southeast,  while  the  range  continuas  its 
southerly  course.  Some  of  these  mountains  rise  to  the  height 
of  sixteen  thousand  feet.  Far  away  on  the  west  the  countiy 
falls  gradually  to  the  Nile  valley,  and  on  the  southwest  to  the 
great  lakes.  The  only  access  to  this  plateau  from  the  Red  sea 
is  up  great  gorges  or  canyons  1,000  to  3,000  feet  in  depth,  each 
canyon  vaiying  in  width  from  two  or  three  feet  to  one  hun- 
dred feet,  with  sudden  turns  shutting  off  the  view  beyond. 
Down  these  canjmns  in  the  wet  season  the  water  rushes  with 
great  violence,  bringing  masses  of  stone  and  rock ; but  the 
greater  part  of  the  year  they  are  diy,  and  the  traveler  must  often 
go  from  twenty  to  thirty  miles  without  finding  water.  This 
plateau  when  reached  is  not  a level  plain,  but  is  broken  and 
tossed  up  b^’’  volcanic  action,  the  mountains  assuming  wild  fan- 
tastic forms,  with  abrupt,  precipitous  valleys,  only  accessible 
through  deep  passes.  The  plateaus,  between  six  thousand  and 
eight  thousand  feet  above  sea-level,  are  the  temperate  region, 
never  either  veiy  hot  or  very  cold.  Some  of  the  canyons  are  so 
deep  that  one  can  stand  on  the  edge  and,  looking  down,  see  at 
one  glance  the  vegetation  of  the  frigid,  temperate,  and  torrid 
zones.  The  rivers  flowing  through  these  canyons  act  as  barriers 
to  communication,  instead  of  facilitating  it.  In  this  region  the 
Blue  Nile  rises  and  flow's  through  deep  can}mns,  falling  about 


AFRICA  SINCE  1SS8 


169 


4,000  feet  in  less  than  three  hundred  miles  and  cutting  Abyssinia 
into  Northern  and  Southern  Ethiopia.  The  volume  of  this  river 
is  increased  from  6,000  cubic  feet  per  second  in  the  dry  season 
to  220,000  in  the  rain}'-  season,  and  it  carries  down  the  earth  from 
these  high  lands  to  Egypt,  which  owes  its  prodigious  fertility 
to  the  Blue  Nile. 

From  its  elevation  Abyssinia  is  healthy,  and  the  climate  is  said 
to  be  as  salubrious  as  any  on  the  globe.  Th&  valleys  on  the 
western  slope  are  fertile,  producing  abundant  fruits  and  the  vege- 
tation of  the  temperate  and  tropical  zones.  Its  lofty  ranges  are 
the  home  of  Abyssinians,  Copts,  Arabs,  and  Jews  of  the  Cauca- 
sian race — partially  civilized  tribes,  once  converted  to  Christi- 
anity, and  still  calling  themselves  Christians.  The  people  are 
strong  and  active,  but  rude  and  barbarous.  The  different  tribes 
are  generally  at  war  with  each  other,  but  at  present  they  are  all 
united  under  one  ruler,  who  claims  descent  from  the  Queen  of 
Sheba. 

During  the  ages  many  attempts  have  been  made  to  conquer 
the  Abyssinians,  but  this  has  always  been  most  difficult,  as  they 
can  only  be  reached  either  from  Egypt  up  the  valley  of  the  Nile 
or  from  the  Red  sea  through  one  of  the  canyons.  The  latter  has 
been  the  route  most  usually  attempted,  with  results  generally 
disastrous  to  the  invader.  The  Ab}''ssinians,  hidden  in  the  clefts 
of  the  mountains,  behind  the  rocks  and  bushes,  wait  until  the 
enemy  has  reached  a difficult  part  of  the  canyon  before  attack- 
ing him.  The  most  notable  exception  was  in  1868,  when  the 
British,  under  Sir  R.  Napier,  marched  through  one  of  these 
canjmns,  captured  Magdala,  and  took  prisoner  King  Theodore  ; 
but  at  that  time  Theodore  had  by  his  atrocities  alienated  the 
other  chiefs  and  tribes,  and  through  their  aid  the  British  passed 
up  the  canyon  without  opposition.  It  was  in  one  of  these  can- 
yons that  the  Abyssinians,  under  Menelek,  the  Negus  Negus  or 
King  of  Kings,  as  their  emperor  is  called,  lying  in  ambush, 
recently  surprised  and  completely  routed  the  Italians.  It  is  said 
that  the  Aby.ssinian  army  of  one  hundred  thousand  men  was 
sui>])lied  with  the  best  i*e})eating  rifles  ]>y  the  French  and  Rus- 
sians, and  was  aided  by  French  officers. 

The  Russians  have  recently  sent  an  embassy  to  Abyssinia 
and  received  an  ambassador  from  that  country,  and  negotia- 
tions are  in  progress  to  bring  the  Abyssinians  into  the  Greek 
church. 

About  twenty  years  ago  the  Egyptians  occupied  the  whole  of 


170 


AFRICA  SINCE  18S8 


tlie  upper  Nile,  even  to  the  Gi*eat  Lakes  and  the  valley  of  the 
Red  sea.  Ab}’ssinia  lay  between  these  possessions,  and  the 
Khedive  desired  to  conquer  it.  He  sent  two  large  armies,  which 
marched  up  the  eastern  branches  of  the  Nile  to  Abyssinia ; both 
armies  were  defeated.  The  son  of  the  Khedive,  in  command  of 
the  second  army,  was  captured  with  a large  number  of  men, 
but  was  subsequently  ransomed. 

A Mohammedan,  born  in  Dongola,  calling'himself  El  Mahdi — 
i.  e.,  the  leader,  prophet,  or  guide — appeared  in  the  Sudan  about 
1880,  and  raised  the  flag  of  the  Prophet  on  a small  island  in  the 
Nile  near  Khartum.  Soon  Arabs  from  the  desert  joined  him,  and 
later  the  Bedouins  flocked  from  all  parts  of  Egypt.  About  the 
same  time  Arabi  Pasha,  then  an  officer  in  the  Egyptian  army, 
cons{)ired  with  El  Mahdi  and  seized  Cairo,  the  Khedive  and 
English  retiring  to  Alexandria.  Sir  Garnet  Wolseley  was  sent 
to  command  the  English  and  Indian  armies,  and  at  the  battle 
of  Tel-el-Kebir,  September,  1882,  Arabi  was  defeated  and  taken 
]>risoner.  He  was  subsequently  sent  to  Ceylon,  but  the  disaffec- 
tion in  the  upper  Nile  continued  to  extend,  and  soon  the  whole 
population  of  the  Sudan  and  upper  Nile  was  gathered  under 
the  banner  of  the  prophet  El  Mahdi.  He  defeated  four  expedi- 
tions, and  in  1883  General  Hicks  Pasha,  with  an  Anglo-Egyptian 
army  of  10,000,  was  sent  against  him.  They  marched  into  the 
desert,  and  for  months  nothing  was  heard  of  the  expedition,  then 
slowly  the  news  of  its  annihilation  reached  Cairo.  In  June  El 
Mahdi  ca]>tured  Khartum,  killing  General  Gordon  a few  days  ' 
])efore  General  Wolseley  with  the  English  army  came  in  sight  of 
the  city — too  late.  They  returned  without  even  attempting  to 
avenge  his  death. 

El  Mahdi  died  a few  months  later,  but  his  army  was  not  dis- 
])ersed.  Osman  Digna,  the  general  of  the  Mahdists,  overran  the 
region  east  of  the  Nile,  ca])turing  and  massacring  Egyptian 
garrisons  at  different  places  and  marching  to  the  very  gates  of 
Suakin  on  the  Red  Sea,  where  the  Mahdists  desired  to  have  a sea- 
port for  communication  with  Arabia,  in  order  to  obtain  a good 
market  for  slaves  from  the  interior  of  Africa.  With  these 
INIahdists  the  Italians  have  now  to  contend.  Soon  after  their 
occupation  of  Massowah  they  acquired  control  of  Tigre  and 
Kassala,  then  held  by  the  Mahdists  and  Dervishes.  These 
fanatics,  encouraged  by  the  defeat  of  the  Italians,  are  now  said 
to  be  preparing  to  attack  Kassala. 

The  English,  for  the  purjjose  of  aiding  the  Italians  and  re- 


AFRICA  SINCE  ISSS 


171 


covering  the  valley  of  the  upper  Nile,  wrested  from  Egypt  by 
the  Mahdists  ten  years  ago,  have  sent  a body  of  English  troops, 
with  an  army  of  Sudanese  and  Egyptians,  under  English 
officers,  from  Cairo  up  the  Nile  to  Dongola,  between  the  fourth 
and  fifth  cataracts,  in  the  expectation  that  the  Mahdists  and 
Dervishes  will  be  drawn  from  Kassala  to  attack  the  English.  If 
the  latter  are  successful  they  will  probably  march  up  the  valley 
to  Khartum.  If  they  are  unsuccessful  it  is  feared  that  the 
Mahdists  will  march  down  the  valley  to  Cairo. 

To  an  American  it  seems  difficult  to  understand  the  reason 
that  led  Italy  to  attempt  the  acquisition  of  such  a territory  in 
Africa,  and  why  Signor  Crispi,  under  whose  ministry  it  was 
undertaken,  should  assert  that  “ colonial  extension  is  a vital 
question — the  advantage  which  it  brings  not  being  translatable 
into  figures.” 

Unfortunately  for  Signor  Crispi  it  has  been  translated  into 
figures  which  show  a large  and  serious  deficit  in  Italian  finances. 

THE  PHYSICAL  FEATURES  OF  AFRICA  AS  THEY  AFFECT  ITS  ECO- 
NOMIC VALUE,  FUTURE  OCCUPATION,  AND  CIVILIZATION. 

The  growth  and  prosperity  of  a country  depend  on  its  forma- 
tion, including  its  mountains,  temperature,  and  rainfall,  its 
mineral  and  vegetable  productions,  and  its  facilities  for  inter- 
communication. 

Africa  is  unlike  the  other  continents,  especially  in  the  uniform- 
ity of  its  topography  and  in  its  temperature.  It  is  a great  penin- 
sula, without  islands,  indentations,  or  harbors  on  its  coast.  This 
difference  is  especially  exemplified  by  the  Mediterranean  coasts 
of  Africa  and  Europe.  The  former  is  a long  continued  sand 
beach,  without  a break  and  with  only  one  or  two  good  liarbors, 
while  on  the  European  side  are  the  great  j)eninsulas  of  Sj)ain, 
Italy,  and  Greece,  everywhere  indented  with  island-studded 
seas  and  with  bays  and  harbors. 

Africa  has  a coastline  of  only  15,000  miles.  If  it  was  as  long 
as  that  of  Euroi)e,  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  continent,  it 
would  be  57,000  miles  long. 

The  relief  of  the  land,  instead  of  being  centered  in  long  and 
lofty  mountain  ranges,  lias  been  spread  over  the  (continent  with 
wonderful  efiuality,  forming  high  jilateaus,  witli  terraces  to  the 
ocean,  down  which  the  water  ruslies  in  rajiids  or  over  high  falls, 
which  render  the  great  rivers  impo.ssible  of  navigation.  Notwith- 


172 


AFRICA  SINCE  1888 


standing  this  lack  of  long  mountain  ranges,  its  average  altitude — 
about  2,000  feet — is  higher  than  that  of  the  other  continents. 

The  country"  north  of  the  equator  presents  a great  similarity  to 
the  country  south  of  it,  though  the  features  on  the  north  are  on 
a much  larger  scale.  North  of  the  equator  is  the  greater  lake 
Chad,  south  of  it  the  smaller  lake  Ngami ; north  of  lake  Chad 
is  the  great  desert  of  Sahara  ; south  of  lake  Ngami  is  the  small 
desert  of  Kalahari.  North  of  Sahara,  on  the  Mediterranean,  and 
south  of  Kalahari,  on  the  Indian  ocean,  are  fertile  tracts  of 
limited  extent,  where  the  rainfall  is  abundant  and  vegetation 
flourishes. 

The  greater  part  of  the  territory  between  the  Mediterranean 
and  Sudan  and  between  the  Atlantic  and  the  Red  sea,  and  a 
considerable  portion  south  of  the  Zambesi,  comprising  nearly 
one-half  of  Africa,  is  practically  Sahara — that  is,  a waste  or  desert. 

The  Sahara  is  a plateau  of  diversified  structure,  with  hills  and 
numerous  dried-up  water-courses  ; regions  of  dunes  or  steppes, 
overgrown  with  alfa,  alternating  with  sandy  waste.  At  sunset 
the  temperature  falls  quickly,  causing  a difference  of  one  hun- 
dred degrees  between  day  and  night.  Scattered  through  the 
desert  are  about  four  hundred  oa.ses,  where  the  date  palm  flour- 
ishes. In  many  places  wells  have  been  dug,  and  great  caravans 
follow  the  line  of  these  oases  and  wells.  The  desert  of  Kalahari, 
in  South  Africa,  is  much  smaller,  has  a more  temi^erate  climate, 
resembles  our  arid  lands,  and,  like  the  latter  region,  is  to  a large 
extent  suitable  for  the  pasturing  of  cattle. 

Although  Africa  is  about  five  thousand  miles  long  and  four 
thousand  five  hundred  miles  wide  in  the  broadest  part,  stretch- 
ing over  seventy  degrees  of  latitude,  about  two-thirds  of  its  area 
lies  within  the  tropics,  with  a vertical  sun  twice  a year,  giving  it 
the  hottest  climate  in  the  world.  The  average  temperature  is 
eighty  degrees,  while  north  and  south  of  the  tropics  the  average 
temperature  is  only  ten  degrees  less.  In  the  tropics  the  climate 
is  so  enervating  and  unhealthy  for  Europeans  that  they  cannot 
live  there  more  than  two  or  three  years,  while  the  same  climate 
is  most  favorable  to  the  negro. 

The  Germans  occupied  the  Kamerun,  in  western  Africa,  near 
the  equator,  supposing  that  a great  mountain  rising  fourteen 
thousand  feet  directly  from  the  ocean  would  prove  an  excellent 
health  resort;  but  the  miasmatic  vapors  ascend  the  mountain 
slopes  and  render  it  an  unfit  habitation  for  the  European.  The 
rainfall  in  equatorial  Africa  is  most  abundant,  from  sevent\"  to 


AFRICA  SINCE  1S88 


1 1 3 

one  hundred  inclies  a }’ear,  causing  a hot,  moist  atmosphere  and 
a luxuriant  vegetation.  In  this  region  the  population  is  densest, 
from  the  abundance  of  fruits  and  the  ease  with  which  life  is  sup- 
ported. There  is  also  a heavy  rainfall  in  the  mountains  of  Abys- 
sinia, on  the  northwest  coast  of  the  ^Mediterranean  and  on  the 
southern  and  southeastern  coasts,  the  rainfall  diminishing  toward 
the  central  and  western  ^^arts  of  South  Africa.  As  the  rainfall 
diminishes,  the  native  jDopulation  decreases.  All  the  other  con- 
tinents have  great  rivers,  forming  waterways  to  and  from  the 
interior.  Africa  has  but  one  such  river — the  Niger.  The  Nile 
and  Kongo  are,  however,  among  the  most  remarkable  rivers  in 
the  world  ; the  Nile,  for  its  history  and  inundations;  the  Kongo, 
for  the  great  number  of  its  branches,  navigable  for  small  vessels 
for  several  thousand  miles.  On  this  river  and  its  branches  there 
are  from  forty  to  fifty  stern-wheel  steamers  and  about  100  sta- 
tions, Avith  from  600  to  SOO  white  men  in  charge. 

The  Avhole  trade  of  Africa,  excepting  that  of  Cape  Colony  and 
the  Mediterranean,  is  monopolized  by  great  companies,  and 
where  these  do  not  exist,  by  smaller  traders.  This  trade  is  most 
profitable  to  Europeans,  consisting  largely  in  the  exchange  of 
cheap  cotton  goods,  beads,  copper  wire,  in  limited  quantities, 
and  of  rum,  brandy,  old  arms,  and  ammunition,  in  large  quanti- 
ties, for  ivory,  india-ruV>ber,  and  other  products. 

The  total  amount  of  the  annual  exports  and  imports  of  Africa 
other  than  from  the  Mediterranean  and  exclusive  of  gold,  silver, 
and  diamonds  is,  however,  scarcely  equal  to  the  annual  foreign 
trade  of  one  of  the  large  ports  of  the  United  States. 

From  this  rCsume  it  appears  that  Africa  produces  abundantly 
in  the  equatorial  provinces,  where  the  white  man  cannot  live; 
that  there  are  not  any  good  waterways  from  the  interior  to  the 
coast  and  fcAv  good  harbors  when  it  is  reached  ; that  the  only 
articles  obtained  from  the  natives  are  elei)hants’  tusks  and  the 
fruits  that  grow  spontaneously;  that  the  only  way  of  moving 
products  to  and  from  the  sea  is  by  caravans,  a slow  and  ex- 
pensive method,  precluding  any  extensive  commerce.  From  this 
it  follows  that  the  value  of  eipiatorial  Africa  is  and  must  be  for 
a long  time  very  small  It  is  possible  to  build  railroads  into 
the  interior  of  efpiatorial  .Vfrica,  for  one  or  two  are  now  in  opera- 
tion in  Portuguese  West  Africa,  one  is  in  j)rocess  of  construction 
around  the  falls  of  the  Kongo,  and  surveA's  are  being  made  in 
eastern  Africa,  both  by  Englaml  and  by  (lermany,  and  in  north- 
Avestern  Africa  by  France;  but  it  is  doubtful  if  there  is  now  suf- 


12 


174 


AFEICA  SIXCE  1SS8 


ficient  business  to  enable  these  roads  to  pay  operating  expenses, 
nor  can  the  trade  be  materially  increased  until  the  natives  ac- 
(piire  the  habits  and  wants  of  civilized  life  and  are  willing  to 
labor  and  raise  the  products  that  will  grow  in  the  tropics  and 
exchange  them  for  the  goods  and  wares  of  Europe  and  America. 
This  change  is  slowly  taking  jdace.  The  mercantile  agencies 
must  and  do  employ  native  traders  and  native  labor.  All  the 
work  in  the  tropics  is  performed  by  Africans ; men  whose  fathers 
never  saw  or  heard  of  white  men  are  building  railroads  and  tele- 
graphs and  carrying  great  loads  from  the  interior  to  the  coast ; 
some  are  in  suj)erior  positions,  in  charge  of  stores  and  telegraph- 
offices  or  steamboats ; some  receive  regular  wages ; others  are 
paid  in  clothing  or  spirits. 

The  European  can  })robably  live  in  the  high  plateaus  of  Abys- 
sinia, in  the  Lake  region,  and  in  southern  Africa,  where,  from 
the  elevation,  he  would  have  a Euro])ean  or  temperate  climate. 
Southeastern  and  central  South  Africa  have  a temperate  climate, 
are  generally  well  watered,  and  the  land  is  capable  of  cultiva- 
tion b}’  irrigation.  In  this  region  the  mineral  wealth  is  large, 
and  it  is  connected  with  the  Indian  ocean  and  South  Atlantic  by 
railroads  now  in  operation.  There  seems  to  be  no  physical  cause 
to  ]irevent  these  regions  from  becoming  the  homes  of  numbers 
of  Euro{)eans  beside  the  present  occupants. 

In  America  the  Indians  or  natives  have  invariably  given  ]dace 
to  the  white  man  and  have  been  generally  exterminated.  Will 
tlie  negroes  or  natives  of  Africa  retire  before  the  European  ? Let 
us  consider  South  Africa  tlie  ])ortion  of  the  continent  most  favor- 
able to  tbe  white  man.  The  slave  trade  and  the  constant  wars 
between  the  natives  have  been  stopped  ; the  Kaffirs  have  ex- 
clianged  the  brutal  rule  of  the  savage  for  the  beneficent  govern- 
ment of  the  Euro]>ean,  and  have  l)ecome  freemen,  endowed  with 
an  absolute  title  to  their  homes  and  to  any  ipro}ierty  they  may 
acquire.  They  cultivate  the  fields  of  the  Boer ; they  work  in 
the  diamond  and  gold  mines;  the}’ own  large  herds  of  cattle, 
and,  compelled  to  give  up  their  nomad  life,  the}’  have  com- 
menced tilling  the  ground  for  themselves. 

Instead  of  white  day  laborers,  as  in  Europe  and  America,  the 
English  in  South  Africa  employ  the  Kaffir.  As  a result  the  native 
population  is  increasing  with  accelerated  rapidity.  It  is  already 
many  times  more  numerous  than  the  European  and  the  disparity 
is  constantly  and  rapidly  increasing.  The  Kaffir  lives  more 
cheaply  and  works  for  less  wages  than  the  white  man.  The  only 


GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS  175 


Europeans  required,  or  for  whom  there  is  room  or  occupation, 
are  the  OAvner  and  the  OA’erseer,  the  mechanic  and  tlie  engineer. 
In  another  generation  the  Kaffir  Avill  fill  most  of  these  places, 
and  there  Avill  l)e  no  Avork  or  ])Osition  in  the  interior  for  the 
Englishman.  The  capitalist,  the  manufacturer,  the  merchant, 
and  the  trader  will  liA’e  in  the  cities. 

First  the  Hottentots  AAxre  expelled  by  the  Bantus ; then  the 
Bantus  AA'ere  drh'en  into  the  interior  by  the  Boers  ; the  Boer  in 
his  turn  giA^es  AA'ay  to  the  Englishman  onl}"  to  be  ejected  by  the 
Kaffir  AA'hen  he  has  learned  to  AAmrk. 

What  is  true  of  the  Kaffir  holds  good  to  a less  extent  of  the 
Bantus  and  negro  tribes  in  Equatorial  Africa.  The  Arab  slaA'e 
dealer  has  been  shorn  of  his  poAA^er ; the  slaA^e  trade  has  been 
generally  stopped,  and  with  that  the  prime  cause  of  the  interne- 
cine wars.  WhereA’er  the  European  rule  is  established  and  peace 
assured,  improA'ement  soon  appears  in  the  habits  and  character 
of  the  people,  AAuth  a A’ery  rapid  increase  of  the  population. 

The  Arab,  Bantu,  and  negro  must  occupy  the  equatorial  re- 
gions of  Africa,  because  the  white  man  cannot  liA^e  there,  and  they 
will  then,  I belieA-e,  driA’e  out  the  Europeans  from  the  remainder 
of  the  continent  and  we  shall  see  a race  A’astly  superior  to  any 
Africans  now  there  and  in  some  respects  suiierior  to  the  white 
man. 


FUNDAMENTAL  GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE 
THREE  AMERICAS 

By  Robert  T.  Hill, 

United  Stntea  Geological  Snrveg 

The  earl\'  geographers  taught  that  the  two  American  conti- 
nents are  i»ractically  dominated  l)y  a continuous  cordilleran 
system,  running  like  a liackbone  through  South  America,  Central 
America,  and  North  America,  connecting  the  Avhole  AA'estern 
l)order  of  the  hemisphere  into  one  great  mountain  system. 
Modern  exi)loration  shoAVs  that  this  teaching  must  be  modified. 

The  Andean  cordilleran  belt  dominating  the  AA’estern  coast 
of  South  America  trifurcates  after  crossing  the  equator,  l)euds 
slightly  eastAvard,  and  abruptly  terminates  in  northern  Colom- 
l>ia.  Oidy  one  doubtful  s[»ur  of  the  Andes  touches  the  coast  of 
the  .Vmerican  .Mediterranean,  and  this  is  the  Sierra  del  Marta, 


176  GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS 


lying  between  the  gulf  of  Maracaibo  and  Rio  ^lagdalena.  This 
northern  end  of  the  Andes  lies  entirely  west  of  the  Isthmian 
region  and  is  separated  from  it  by  Rio  Atrato.  Minute  study 
shows  that  the  Andean  system  has  no  genetic  connection  with 
the  mountains  of  the  northern  coast  of  South  America,  much 
less  with  the  mountains  of  Central  America  or  the  great  Rocky 
Mountain  region  of  Mexico  and  the  United  States;  in  fact,  the 
deeply  eroded  valley  of  this  stream  nearly  severs  the  Isthmian 
region  and  the  Pacific  coast  of  the  Republic  of  Colombia  from 
the  South  American  continent. 

The  studies  of  many  geographers,  especially  those  recently 
conducted  by  Felix  and  Lenk,  have  shown  that  the  main  cor- 
dilleran  system  of  Mexico,  which  is  the  southern  continuation 
of  the  R(^cky  Mountain  region  of  the  United  States,  abruptly 
terminates  with  the  great  scarp  or  “abfall”  of  the  so-called 
plateau  a little  south  of  the  capital  of  the  Republic,  and  that 
these  mountains  have  no  orographic  features  in  common  with 
those  of  the  Central  American  region  lying  further  southward. 
The  axes  of  the  two  great  North  American  and  South  American 
cordilleras,  the  Rocky  mountains  and  the  Andean  sy.stem,  if 
projected  from  their  termini  in  Colombia  and  southern  Mexico, 
respectively,  would  not  connect  through  Central  America,  but 
would  pa.ss  each  other  in  parallel  lines  many  hundred  miles 
apart.  The  projected  Andes  would  pass  through  Jamaica  and 
ea.stern  Cuba  and  continue  east  of  the  longitude  of  the  whole 
Appalachian  system  in  the  direction  of  Nova  Scotia ; the  south- 
ward continuation  of  the  North  American  cordilleras  would  cross 
the  equator  in  the  Pacific,  far  west  of  Central  America  and  the 
South  American  continent. 

Between  the  widely  separated  termini  of  the  main  North 
American  and  South  American  cordilleras  as  above  defined,  and 
extending  directly  across  their  trend  at  right  angles  to  them,  lies 
another  great  orogenic  system  of  folds,  to  which  the  term  An- 
tillean has  been  applied.  Collectively  they  constitute  a great 
orogenic  system  which  has  been  of  the  utmost  importance  in 
giving  to  the  Caribbean  region  its  predominant  outline.s — a 
system  composed  of  corrugations  having  an  east-west  trend, 
which  has  never  been  appreciated  by  the  geologist  or  geog- 
rapher owing  to  the  overwhelming  proportions  of  the  adjacent 
mountains  built  up  by  volcanic  ejecta.  They  extend  along  the 
Venezuelan  and  Colombian  coast  of  South  America,  north  of  the 
Orinoco,  the  isthmus  of  Panama,  Costa  Rica,  and  the  eastern 


GEOGRArmC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS  177 


SURROUNDING  LANDS. 


178  GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS 


parts  of  Nicaragua,  Guatemala,  Honduras,  Yucatan,  Chiapas, 
and  southern  Oaxaca,  and  through  the  Great  Antilles.  These 
mountains  are  made  up  of  granites,  eruptives,  and  folded  sedi- 
mentary rocks  of  Paleozoic,  Mesozoic,  and  Cenozoic  age  in 
Guatemala  and  southern  Mexico ; of  Mesozoic  and  Cenozoic 
age  in  the  Antilles,  Costa  Rica,  Venezuela,  and  Colombia;  and 
of  Cenozoic  age  in  Panama. 

The  two  elongated  submarine  ridges  Ghe  so-called  Mistero.sa 
and  Rosalind  banks)  stretching  across  the  Caribbean  from  the 
Antilles  to  the  Central  American  coast,  between  the  Sierra  Mae-- 
tro  of  Cuba  and  the  gulf  of  Honduras,  and  from  Jamaica  to  cape 
Gracios  a Dios  respectively,  separated  by  the  sulimarine  valley, 
18,000  feet  in  depth,  known  as  “ Bartlett  Deep,”  have  a suggestive 
and  remarkable  resemblance  to  these  east-west  corrugations  of 
the  land ; indeed  Seebach  long  since  suggested  that  these  ridges 
directly  connected  the  mountains  of  the  Antilles  with  those  of 
Guatemala  and  Honduras. 

Thus  the  Caribbean  sea  is  almost  entirely  surrounded  by  the 
east-west  trending  mountains  and  submarine  ridges  of  the  Antil- 
lean type;  the  Windward  islands,  marking  the  eastern  inlet  of 
the  sea,  are  largely  volcanic  necks. 

A distinct  class  of  mountains,  independent  of  great  lines  of 
folding  of  the  earth-crust,  are  the  volcanoes.  These  have  grown 
by  e.xtrusion  and  accumulation;  .sometimes  they  are  parasitic 
on  the  folded  mother-sy.stems,  sometimes  independent  of  them. 
They  belong  to  the  great  area  of  igneous  activity  which,  since  at 
least  as  earl\'  as  the  beginning  of  Tertiary  time,  has  marked  the 
whole  we.stern  half  of  the  North  American  continent,  the  Carib- 
bean, and  the  northern  and  we.stern  sides  of  the  Andean  region. 
Although  they  blend,  the  volcanic  ejecta  of  this  great  belt  may  be 
classified  for  convenience  in  two  distinct  age  categories,  which 
may  he  called  the  quiescent  and  the  active  volcanic  groups. 

The  active  volcanic  groups  occur  in  four  widely  separated 
regions;  1.  The  Andean  group  of  volcanoes  of  the  equatorial 
region  of  western  South  America,  rising  above  the  corrugated 
folds  of  the  northern  termination  of  the  predominant  South 
American  cordilleras.  2.  The  chain  of  some  twenty-five  great 
cinder  cones  which  stretch  east  and  west  across  the  southern 
end  of  the  Mexican  plateau,  protruding  parasite-like  upon  the 
terminus  of  the  North  American  cordilleras.  3.  The  Central 
American  group,  with  its  thirty-one  active  craters,  growing  diago- 
nally across  the  western  ends  of  the  east-west  folds  of  the  Antil- 


GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS  179 


lean  corrugations,  which  fringes  the  Pacific  side  of  Guatemala, 
San  Salvador,  and  Costa  Rica ; this  is  separated  from  the  Mexi- 
can group  on  the  north  by  a large  non-volcanic  area  (the  isthmus 
of  Tehuantepec),  and  from  the  Andean  volcanoes  on  the  south 
by  an  area  (the  isthmus  of  Panama)  in  which  no  living  volcanoes 
are  found.  4.  The  chain  of  volcanoes  of  the  Windward  islands, 
marking  the  eastern  gate  of  the  Caribbean  sea  and  standing  in  a 
line  directly  across  the  eastern  termini  of  the  Antillean  mountains 
of  east-west  trend, parallel  to  theCentral  American  group  similarly 
situated  at  the  western  termini  of  these  mountains.  In  recent 
times  all  these  giants  of  fire  have  built  up  vast  piles  of  lava 
and  cinder  into  lofty  summits,  which  overwhelm  in  topographic 
grandeur  the  lesser  but  more  significant  orographic  features  of 
the  region. 

The  quiescent  volcanic  regions,  where  activity  was  dominant 
chiefly  in  Tertiary  time,  but  ceased  long  ago,  are  many.  The 
isthmus  of  Panama,  the  Pacific  coast  of  South  America  west  of 
the  Atrato,  the  northern  coast  of  South  America,  and  the  old 
volcanic  regions  of  northern  Mexico  and  the  United  States  are 
among  these.  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  tremendous 
outbursts  of  igneous  material  in  Tertiary  time,  which  domi- 
nated western  Xorth  America,  extended  in  a great  belt  around 
the  southern  end  of  the  North  American  cordilleras,  crossing 
the  Caribbean  area  to  the  Atlantic  between  the  two  continents. 

The  North  American  cordilleran  region  lying  north  of  the 
isthmus  of  Tehuantepec  is  one  of  north-south  folded  sediment- 
aries,  plus  accumulations  of  volcanic  intrusions  and  ejecta  (chiefiy 
Tertiary),  and  dominates  a continental  area. 

The  Andean  region  of  the  South  American  continent  is  one  of 
north-south  folded  sedimentaries,  plus  accumulations  of  Tertiary 
volcanic  intrusions  and  ejecta,  and  dominates  a continental  area. 

The  Caril)l)ean  region,  including  Central  America,  the  Antilles 
and  the  Windward  islands,  and  most  of  the  Venezuelan  and 
Colombian  coast  of  South  America,  is  one  of  east-west  folded 
sedimentaries,  plus  accumulations  of  volcanic  intrusions  and 
ejecta,  but,  instead  of  dominating  a continental  region,  pradicalhj 
constitutes  a mouittniaous  perimeter  surroniulluff  the  depressed  basin 
of  the  Oirlhhean.  These  mountains  were  mostly  made  about  the 
close  of  Tertiary  time,  and  hence  are  newer  than  the  chief  con- 
tinental systems. 

Upon  this  arrangement  of  the  three  systems  of  mountain  folds 
are  chiefly  dei^endent  the  great  physical  ditlenaices  l)ctween 


180  GEOGRAPHIC  RELATION  OF  THE  THREE  AMERICAS 


the  lands  bordering  the  gulf  of  Mexico  and  Caribbean  sea ; the 
former  in  its  geognostic  aspects  and  relations  is  North  American, 
while  the  latter  is  distinctly  Central  American. 

Tlie  gulf  of  Mexico,  with  the  single  exception  of  its  extreme 
southwestern  indentation  of  the  coast  of  Mexico,  is  surrounded 
l)v  gently  tilted  plains,  composed  of  great  sheets  of  sul)horizontal 
sediment,  largely  dej)osited  by  its  own  waters  when  the}'  occu- 
})ied  a larger  area  tlian  at  present. 

The  Central  American  region  as  above  outlined — i.  e.,  that 
l)ortion  of  tlie  American  hemisphere  extending  from  the  south- 
ern termination  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  region  to  the  northern 
termination  of  the  South  American  Andes,  including  the  south- 
ern border  of  Mexico,  the  Republics  of  Central  America,  and  the 
isthmus  of  Panama  proper — constitutes  the  western  perimeter 
of  the  circle  of  mountains  inclosing  the  Caribbean.  As  a whole 
it  is  called  by  some  writers  the  American  Isthmian  region,*  and 
can  be  genetically  separated  into  two  conspicuous  regions : 
1.  The  recent  volcanic  plateau  lying  nearer  the  Pacific  coast 
from  its  commencement  in  Guatemala  to  its  eastern  termination 
in  Costa  Rica,  which  is  composed  of  accumulated  material  ex- 
truded across  the  western  termini  of  the  Antillean  trends.  2.  The 
lower  but  nevertheless  mountainous  iiortions  of  the  Caribbean 
side,  composed  of  folded  mountain-axes  extending  east-west  in 
conformable  direction  with  the  Antillean  uplifts,  accompanied 
by  old  eruptive  extrusions  of  past  geologic  time.  The  most 
cons])icuous  eminences  are  the  grand  volcanic  peaks  of  Guate- 
mala, San  Salvador,  and  Costa  Rica.  These  rise  to  an  average 
height  of  10,000  feet,  in  irregular  masses  standing  nearer  the 
Pacific  coast  than  the  Atlantic  until  reaching  the  borders  of 
C’osta  Rica,  Avhen  they  sweep  diagonally  toward  the  Caribbean 
side,  again  assuming  in  the  southern  j)ortion  of  that  republic  a 
central  continental  position.  These  great  eminences  are  built 
up  of  accumulations  of  volcanic  debris,  which  have  buried  and 
largely  concealed  a most  interesting  antecedent  geologic  structure 
that  must  be  interpreted  before  the  complete  history  of  the  re- 
gion can  be  written.  These  mountains,  being  largely  extrusions 
of  volcanic  material  instead  of  regular  folds  or  })lications  of 
stratified  rock,  ])roduce  irregularities  of  surface  which  defy  the 
ordinary  modes  of  classification. 

* The  conspicuous  features  of  this  greater  Isthmian  (Central  American)  region  are 
its  narrow,  elongated  outlines  relative  to  the  bro.idening  areas  of  the  adjacent  conti- 
nent and  the  completely  mountainous  character  of  its  entire  area,  which  is  void  of 
coastal  plains. 


THE  KANSAS  RIVER 


181 


The  western  termini  of  the  east-west  Antillean  axes  of  the 
Caribbean  half  of  Central  America,  which  are  buried  in  western 
Guatemala,  Honduras,  and  Costa  Rica  by  the  overlying  volcanic 
masses,  are  not  so  limited  on  the  Pacific  side,  but  continue  across 
Panama.  On  entering  this  state  from  Costa  Rica  signs  of  recent 
volcanic  activity  cease,  and  the  continuity  of  the  chain  of  high 
Central  American  summits  is  succeeded  by  the  still  more  broken 
and  apparently  inexplicable  lower-lying  Isthmian  topography. 

The  isthmus  of  Panama  can  now  be  accurately  defined  as  the 
stretch  of  land  l3ung  east  of  the  southern  end  of  the  Central 
American  region  of  active  volcanoes  (commonly  called  the  Costa 
Rican  volcanic  plateau)  and  extending  to  the  northern  termi- 
nation of  the  Andes.  Its  limit  on  the  east  is  Rio  Atrato,  which 
flows  northward  from  the  equator  along  the  valley  marking  the 
eastern  flank  of  the  Andes ; on  the  west  it  is  limited  b}'  the 
southern  boundary  of  the  republic  of  Costa  Rica,  extending 
from  Burica  Point  to  the  island  of  Veraguas  and  thence  between 
the  meridians  of  79°  15'  and  82°  for  a distance  of  180  miles. 
The  axial  trend  of  the  Isthmian  region  is  east  and  west,  or  in  a 
direction  contrary  to  the  north  and  south  continental  trends, 
and  is  conformable  with  the  Antillean  axes. 

The  Great  Antilles  lie  along  the  line  of  east-west  corrugations 
and  a]:>parently  represent  nodes  of  greater  elevation  whereby  the 
surfaces  of  these  islands  were  projected  above  the  waters  as 
islands,  which  have  persisted  without  continental  connection  or 
union  with  each  other  since  their  origin. 

[XoTE.— The  foregoing  article  is  published  by  permission  of  Professor  Agassiz,  under 
whose  auspices  the  writer  conducted  his  investigations  in  the  region  described.] 


THE  KANSAS  RIVER 

By  Arthur  P.  Davis 
United  Slnles  Geoloijiad  Survey 

The  Kansas  river  jtroper  is  formed  bv  the  junction  of  the 
Smok}'  Hill  and  Rcpultlican  forks,  at  Fort  Rile}',  in  Davis  county, 
Kansas,  about  140  miles  from  where  it  enijttics  into  the  Mis- 
souri. It  is  OIK!  of  the  liest  exani])les  of  ;i  western  stream  whose 
drainage  lies  entirely  in  a jdains  region,  with  no  mountain  tribu- 
taries. Its  basin  extends  from  eastern  C’olorado  to  the  Missouri 


182 


THE  KAXSAS  RIVER 


river,  a distance  of  485  miles,  with  an  extreme  width  of  nearly 
200  miles.  The  total  area  drained,  as  measured  from  the  latest 
drainage  maps  of  the  General  Land  Office,  is  61,440  square  miles, 
of  which  34,526  are  in  Kansas,  17,454  in  Nebraska,  and  9,459  in 
Colorado. 

The  altitude  of  the  basin  varies  from  750  feet  at  Kansas  City 
to  over  5,000  feet  in  Colorado,  the  average  being  about  2,500  feet. 
The  area  is  distributed  with  reference  to  elevation  as  follows; 

Under  1,000  feet 1,250  square  miles. 

Between  1,000  and  2,000  feet 20,200  “ “ 

“ 2,000  and  3,000  feet 11,300  “ 

“ .3,000  and  4,000  feet 12,560  “ 

“ 1,000  and  5,000  feet .5,020  “ 

Over  5,000  feet 1,510  “ 

Gauge  readings  have  been  carried  on  for  several  years  at  the 
mill  dam  at  Lawrence  by  the  mill  owner.  Sufficient  measure- 
ments have  not  yet  been  made  to  establish  a mean  annual  flow. 
Tlie  minimum  discharge  is  )>rohably  a little  over  500  second-feet. 
The  mean  annual  rainfall  of  this  basin  varies  with  approximate 
regularity  from  almutten  inches  at  its  western  extremity  to  nearly 
forty  inches  at  the  Missouri  river,  averaging  perhaps  twenty 
inches.  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  this  basin  reverses  the 
conditions  of  the  typical  western  stream  wdiich  rises  in  the  moun- 
tains, where  the  precipitation  is  great,  and  carries  its  abundant 
waters  into  the  arid  plains,  where  the  smaller  tributaries  can  be 
used  one  l)y  one,  as  the,y  leave  the  mountains,  to  irrigate  the  plain. 

Rising  as  they  do,  in  the  most  arid  portion  of  the  basin,  and 
draining  a sand}"  country  of  gentle  slope,  the  streams,  except  at 
the  rainiest  times,  are  almost  insignificant  in  size  until  they 
reach  the  region  where  the  precipitation  is  sufficient  for  the  re- 
quirements of  agriculture.  They  thus  attain  a considerable  vol- 
ume only  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  State,  where  irrigation  is  not 
imjierative,  and  where,  moreover,  nearly  all  the  water  is  concen- 
trated in  one  stream  so  large  and  with  so  gentle  a slope  that  its 
diversion  for  commercial  purposes  is  impracticable.  If  tbe  rain- 
tall  conditions  of  the  Kansas  basin  could  be  reversed,  with  a forty- 
iuch  preci]ntation  in  eastern  Colorado,  decreasing  to  one  of  ten 
inches  at  the  Missouri,  its  irrigation  possibilities  would  be  in- 
creased many  fold. 

Three  principal  rivers  flow  directly  into  the  Kansas  ; the  Blue, 
from  the  north ; the  Republican,  from  the  north\vest,  and  the 
Smoky  Hill,  from  the  west.  The  Blue  has  a drainage  of  9,490 


THE  KANSAS  RIVER 


183 


square  miles,  of  which  2,450  are  in  Kansas  and  7,040  in  Ne- 
braska. In  volume  of  water  the  Blue  river  is  by  far  the  most 
important  of  the  tributaries  of  the  Kansas.  The  discharge  of 
this  river  is  being  measured  by  the  Geological  Survey  at  Rocky- 
ford,  about  five  miles  above  its  mouth,  and  the  minimum  has 
been  found  to  be  about  300  cubic  feet  per  second. 

The  next  stream  in  order,  and  also  in  amount  of  water  deliv- 
ered, is  the  Republican,  draining  an  area  of  25,837  square  miles, 
and  showing  a minimum  flow,  as  observed  at  Junction  City,  of 
about  200  cubic  feet  per  second.  It  will  be  noticed  that  though 
draining  over  two  and  one-half  times  as  large  an  area  as  the  Blue, 
its  discharge  at  low  water  is  only  two-thirds  as  great  as  that  of 
the  latter  stream.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Blue  drains 
the  northern  and  eastern  parts  of  the  basin,  where  the  rainfall  is 
heaviest,  Avhile  the  Republican  rises  at  the  western  extremit}'  of 
the  drainage  area  and  flows  for  hundreds  of  miles  through  arid 
sand  hills  that  yield  very  little  run-off,  except  in  times  of  ex- 
cessive rainfall.  No  part  of  its  basin  receives  a precipitation 
equal  to  the  average  of  the  basin  of  the  Blue;  so,  although  the 
basins  adjoin  each  other  and  the  rivers  empty  within  twenty 
miles  of  each  other,  the  ratio  of  run-off  to  area  is  over  four  times 
as  great  for  the  Blue  as  for  the  Republican. 

The  Smoky  Hill  river  rises  in  eastern  Colorado  and  drains  an 
area  of  20,428  square  miles.  It  has  two  considerable  tributaries, 
the  Saline  and  the  Solomon,  draining  respectively  3,311  and 
6,882  .square  miles.  Gauging  stations  have  been  estal)lished  on 
all  three  of  tliese  streams.  The  station  at  Ellsworth,  on  tlie 
Smoky  Hill,  intercepts  the  drainage  of  7,980  square  miles,  of 
which  6.447  are  in  Kansas  and  1,533  in  Colorado.  A minimum 
discharge  of  only  10  cubic  feet  per  second  sometimes  occurs  at 
this  i)oint.  At  the  gauge  on  the  Saline  river  at  Beverly  the  area 
drained  is  2,730  square  miles,  and  a low-water  discharge  of  20 
second-feet  is  shown.  The  gauge  on  the  Solomon  is  at  Beloit. 
4'he  area  draining  ])ast  this  ))oint  is  5,539  sfpiare  miles,  and  the 
low-water  flow  is  140  cubic  feet  jier  second. 

There  are  many  water-power  develo))inents  in  the  Kansas 
basin,  the  most  numerous  and  important  occurring  on  the  Solo- 
mon and  Blue  rivers.  These  develo])ments  are,  however,  in  their 
infancy,  only  a small  ])roportlon  of  the  favorable  sites  being  im- 
jiroved.  The  fidlowing  summary  of  the  i)ower  in  use  in  this 
basin,  taken  from  the  reports  on  the  Whiter  Power  of  the  United 
States,  published  by  the  4’enth  Census,  vol.  xvii.  page  361,  ex- 


184 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


hibits  the  importance  of  this  river  and  its  tributaries  to  the  local 
industries  rapidly  being  developed  upon  the  Great  Plains: 


Stream. 

Tributary  to  what. 

State. 

Number  of  mills. 

Total  fall  used. 

Horse-power  of 
wheels. 

Kansas 

^lissouri 

Kansas 

9 

8 

317 

Delaware..  ... 

Kansas 

...  do 

7 

64 

377 

Big  Blue. . 

. . .do 

Kan.  and  Neb. 

16 

103 

1,022 

Little  Blue 

Big  Blue 

1:1 

1034 

637 

M ost  Fork  Blue. 

. . .do 

Nebraska 

8 

80 

340 

iS’ortli  Fork  Blue. 

. . . do 

. . . do 

4 

35 

242 

Smokv  Hill 

Kansas 

Kansas 

7 

594 

442 

Snlomon 

Smokv  Ilill 

. , .do 

11 

984 

North  Fork  Solo- 

Solomon 

. . .do 

moil. 

8 

104 

298 

South  Fork  Solo- 

. . .do 

, . .do 

moil. 

2 

17 

114 

Saline 

Smokv  Hill 

. . . do 

6 

72 

199 

Ki’publican 

Kansas 

Kan.  and  Neb. 

7 

43 

Prairie  Dog 

Republican 

. . . do 

6 

71 

152 

Sundry  small 

Kansas  and  tribu- 

...do 

41 

4864 

1,408 

streams. 

taries. 

Total,  Kansas  river  and  all  tributaries 

145 

1,345 

6,561 

GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 

I)E  LAPPAREXt’s  LE90XS  DE  GEOGRAPHIE  PHYSIQUE 

Lcrniis  de  Geographie  physique.  By  A.  de  Lapparent.  Pp.  590,  with  many 
illustrations,  maps,  and  diagrams.  Paris  : Masson  et  Cie.  1896. 

IM.  A.  de  Lapparent,  ju-ofessor  in  tlie  Ecole  libre  de  hcmtes  etudes  in  Paris 
and  lately  jnesident  of  the  French  Geographical  Society,  lays  us  under 
many  oldigations  by  the  iireparation  of  this  valuable  work.  An  accom- 
jilished  field  geologist,  as  evinced,  for  example,  in  his  monograph  on  the 
peculiar  deformation  in  the  Paris  basin  known  as  the  Pays  de  Braj’ ; 
author  of  a compendious  treatise  on  geology,  the  leading  work  of  its  kind 
in  the  French  language ; a presiding  otficer  as  notable  for  his  courteous 
tact  as  for  his  competence  in  his  subject,  he  now  discloses  a close  acrpiaint- 
ance  with  a line  of  study  that  as  yet  is  hardly  acclimated  in  Europe, 
namely,  the  American  science  of  geomorphology,  whose  principles  and 
name  he  adopts  together.  Although  his  references  to  American  sources 
overweight  the  relative  importance  of  contributions  from  certain  quarters, 
he  has  clearly  seized  the  essentials  of  the  rational  as  against  the  empirical 
method  of  geographical  description.  The  initial  forms  iiroduced  by 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


185 


uplift,  deformation,  or  other  genetic  processes,  the  succeeding  work  of  the 
agencies  of  erosion,  the  control  of  dissection  by  the  effective  baselevel, 
the  gradual  and  sj'^stematic  progress  in  dissection  as  determined  by  the 
advance  in  time  through  the  geographical  cycle,  and  the  termination  of 
the  normal  uninterrupted  cycle,  of  erosion  in  a plain  or  peneplain  of  sub- 
aerial denudation,  all  these  and  many  other  essential  features  of  the 
American  treatment  are  succinctly  presented.  Numerous  illusti’ative  ex- 
amples, largely  taken  from  European  sources,  are  presented  ; these  being 
of  particular  value  to  our  students  of  the  subject,  who  are  naturally  more 
familiar  with  American  occurrences.  Following  the  statement  of  general 
and  special  principles,  there  comes  an  account  of  Europe  in  particular  and 
of  the  world  in  less  detail,  which  is,  I believe,  the  first  serious  attempt  to 
treat  areal  geography  in  this  fashion.  Local  geomorphological  studies 
have  been  attempted  elsewhere,  but  no  one  has  hitheido  undertaken  to 
discuss  the  physical  geography  of  the  world  on  these  new  lines.  It  goes 
without  saying  that  the  treatment  must  be  very  unequal,  for  the  physiog- 
raphy of  many  parts  of  the  world  is  now  as  little  known  as  the  fauna  and 
flora  of  the  remoter  regions  were  known  a century  ago. 

It  is  manifest  from  an  examination  of  this  book,  as  well  as  from  the 
study  of  various  other  sources,  that  the  morphology  of  mountains  is  in  a 
much  less  advanced  state  than  that  of  simpler  structures.  Students  of 
the  subject  will  therefore  do  well  to  give  particular  attention  to  remedy- 
ing this  deficiency.  At  present  we  read  frequently  about  the  height  and 
length  of  ranges,  about  the  rocks  of  which  they  are  composed,  and  about 
the  influence  of  mountains  on  climate,  both  local  and  adjacent,  as  well 
as  about  their  control  of  the  character  and  distribution  of  plants  and 
animals,  but  it  is  very  seldom  that  any  critical  or  detailed  morphological 
account  is  given  of  the  mountains  themselves.  Their  forms  are  so  various, 
so  ungeometrical,  that  they  have  not  yet  been  reduced  to  system  and 
embodied  in  a satisfactory  terminology,  indicative  of  structure  on  the  one 
hand  and  of  stage  of  destructional  development  on  the  other.  Thus  de 
Lapparent’s  account  of  the  concentric  escarpments  of  the  Paris  basin  is 
more  systematically  complete  than  his  description  of  the  Pyrenees ; a 
clearer  idea  is  given  of  the  topography  characterizing  the  simplified  forms 
of  the  old  mountains  of  the  middle  Rhine  than  of  the  complicated  forms 
of  the  still  vigorous  Alps.  This  is  not  to  be  avoided  in  the  present  stage 
of  the  science,  but  nothing  will  aid  more  in  carrying  us  past  this  stage 
than  the  preparation  of  sound  general  treatises  like  the  one  l)efore  us. 
Its  periLsal  must  turn  many  students  toward  further  investigation,  and 
new  investigators  are  greatly  needed. 

In  the  matter  of  citations,  the  author  has  been  sparing,  but  this  is  to 
be  the  less  regretted  on  account  of  the  exhaustive  bibliographic  treatment 
of  geomorphology  in  I’enck’s  recent  MorphoUxjie  der  Erdoherjldchc  vols., 
Stuttgart,  18!)4).  The  latter  book  i>resents  an  exceptionally  full  account 
of  the  historical  development  of  physical  geography,  while  the  former 
pre.sents  a concise  acciumt  of  its  present  advanced  condition,  and  thus 
the  two  works  comi)lement  each  other  very  satisfactorily. 

Whether  in  [)reparation  for  a tri|>  abroad  or  for  use  in  study  and  teach- 
ing at  home,  de  Lapjiarent’s  Lxcom  must  prove  very  acceptable  to  Ameri- 
can geographers.  W.  M.  Davis. 


18G 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


ANNUAL  REPOKT  OK  THE  SUPERINTENDENT  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 
COAST  AND  GEODETIC  SURVEY 

This  report  is  still  in  the  hands  of  the  Public  Printer,  but  bj'  the 
courtesy  of  Gen.  W.  W.  Duffield,  Sui)erintendent  of  the  Survey,  The 
National  Geogiiaimiic  ^Magazine  is  permitted  to  present  its  readers  with 
the  following  summary  of  its  contents  : 

Tlie  report  covers  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1895.  It  gives  the 
progress  of  the  work  in  the  field  and  office  with  the  customary  detail, 
and  the  necessary  references  to  several  boundary  surveys  and  other 
special  surveys  of  precision  of  the  class  usually  assigned  to  this  bureau. 

Upwards  of  seventy-five  parties  were  actively  engaged  in  the  various 
branches  of  the  field  operations.  Work  was  carried  on  within  the  limits 
or  on  the  coasts  of  sixteen  states  and  territories  along  the  seaboard  and 
in  nine  states  and  territories  in  the  interior.  It  included  reconnaissance, 
base-line  measures,  triangulation,  topography,  hydrography,  physical 
hydrography ; time,  latitude,  longitude,  and  azimuth  determinations ; 
boundary-line  surveys,  geodetic  leveling;  magnetic  declination,  dip  and 
intensity  observations ; laying  out  meridian  lines,  gravity  determina- 
tions ; tidal  and  current  observations ; oyster-bed  surveys,  etc. 

Among  the  surveys  of  special  importance  are  the  completion  of  the 
topographic  and  hydrographic  resurvey  of  Boston  harbor  and  vicinity  ; 
the  beginning  of  the  resurvey  of  Buzzards  bay  ; the  continuation  of  the 
telegraphic  longitude  determinations  in  the  southwest ; the  progress  on 
the  traiLSContinental  triangulation  in  Colorado  and  the  oblique  arc  in 
Alal)ama;  points  furnished  in  aid  of  state  surveys  in  Tennessee,  Ken- 
tucky, New  Jersey  and  Minnesota;  the  completion  of  the  I’econnaissance 
of  the  Kio  Grande  from  its  mouth  to  El  Paso;  the  completion  of  the  re- 
survey of  Pensacola  bay  and  its  tributaries  ; the  surveys  for  the  location 
of  the  boundary  line  Iietween  southeastern  Alaska  and  British  Columbia  ; 
the  survey  of  the  California  oblique  boundary  line  and  the  topographic 
and  hydrographic  resurvey  of  San  Francisco  bay  and  harbor. 

Tlie  line  of  preci.se  spirit-levels  from  tidewater  was  continued  to  Kansas 
City,  and  the  usual  progress  was  made  in  surveying  those  portions  of  the 
coasts  not  yet  fully  charted,  including  the  channels  of  Washington  sound, 
the  strait  of  Fuca,  and  the  hydrographic  development  of  the  intricate 
channels  of  the  .Alexander  archipelago  in  southeast  Alaska. 

The  report  records  the  death  of  Lieut.  F.  H.  Crosby  and  four  men  en- 
gaged in  the  prosecution  of  the  field  work,  who  were  drowned  while 
attempting  to  land  through  the  surf  on  the  coast  of  Washington.  This 
is  commented  upon  as  the  most  serious  casualty  that  has  hapiiened  to  any 
of  the  field  parties  of  the  Survey  since  the  loss  of  the  Walker  in  185G. 

In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  law,  one  of  the  assistants  has  con- 
tinued to  serve  as  a member  of  the  Mississippi  River  Commission,  and 
another,  by  appointment  of  the  President,  is  a member  of  the  Interna- 
tional Boundary  Commission,  organized  for  the  location  of  that  part  of  the 
United  States  and  IMexican  boundary  line  extending  from  El  Paso  to  the 
Pacific.  At  the  request  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  two  assistants  were 
temporarily  detailed,  one  for  special  triangulation  in  connection  with 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


187 


marking  the  speed  trial  course  in  Long  Island  sound,  and  the  other  for  a 
survey  on  a large  scale  of  the  vicinity  of  the  dry  dock  at  Port  Orchard, 
Puget  sound.  Assistants  were  detailed  during  the  j^ear  at  the  i-equest  of 
the  Governor  of  Virginia  for  surveys  of  the  Virginia  oyster  beds,  and  a 
special  survey  of  the  Fox  islands,  Chesapeake  bay,  for  the  settlement  of 
some  questions  of  riparian  rights,  and  at  the  request  of  the  Commissioner 
of  Fish  and  Fisheries  to  make  further  examination  of  the  oyster  beds  in 
Mobile  bay  and  vicinity.  The  detail  of  an  assistant  for  the  Massachusetts 
State  town  boundary  survey  also  continued  during  the  greater  part  of  the 
year.  The  surve}'S  for  the  location  of  the  boundary  between  Alaska  and 
British  Columbia,  that  have  been  conducted  by  the  Superintendent  for 
several  years  past  in  his  capacity  as  commissioner  on  the  part  of  the 
United  States,  were  continued  during  the  season  of  available  working 
weather,  and  the  parties  organized  in  the  spring  of  1895  completed  all  the 
work  necessary  for  the  compilation  of  the  maps  required.  Under  the 
head  of  special  surveys,  mention  is  also  made  of  the  act  of  Congress  of 
August  1,  1894,  requiring  the  Superintendent  to  lay  out  a circle  around 
the  new  Naval  Observatory  for  the  deflection  of  the  street  extensions  of 
the  city ; the  work  was  duly  completed  and  the  results  with  maps  show- 
ing location  delivered  to  the  Navy  Department. 

The  report  of  operations  in  the  otflce  is  given  in  great  detail.  The  pub- 
lications of  the  Survej’’  relate  essentially  to  the  navigation  of  the  coasts 
of  the  United  States;  but  in  the  preparation  of  the  tide  tables  for  the 
new  year  a commendable  departure  seems  to  have  been  made  by  includ- 
ing ]>redictions  for  the  principal  ports  of  the  w'orld.  Seventy-five  new 
charts  were  issued  and  one  hundred  and  twenty-eight  charts  were  revised 
and  reissued.  The  new  chart  publications  complete  the  series  of  the 
Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts  on  the  uniform  scale  of  1 : 400,000,  designed 
especially  for  the  use  of  navigators,  and  the  series  on  the  coast  of  INIaine 
on  the  large  scale  of  1 : 40,000,  designed  for  the  safe  navigation  of  the  in- 
tricate jjassages  of  that  broken  and  rock-bound  coast.  The  distribution  of 
charts  during  the  year  is  reported  at  51,450  copies,  more  than  half  the 
number  having  been  sold  by  the  agents  in  the  princijial  maritime  cities. 
There  were  also  distributed  114,000  copies  of  tbe  monthly  notices  to  mai  i- 
ners,  describing  the  important  hydrographic  develoi)inents  and  changes 
in  aids  to  navigation  on  tlie  coasts  of  the  United  States. 

The  “ Bureau  of  Standard  Weiglits  ami  ISIeasures,”  whicii  is  also  under 
the  direction  of  the  Superintendent  (jf  the  Survey,  reports  that  duplicate 
setsof.standanls  liad  l)een  furnished  the  states  of  North  and  South  Dakota, 
besides  tlie  customary  routine  work.  Reference  is  also  made  to  the  new 
Kilo  1)alance  of  precision  recently  obtaiiu'd  by  the  Burcuui.  It  is  a dui)li- 
cate  of  the  balance  of  the  International  Bureau  and  is  tlie  second  brought 
to  this  country.  The  otlier  is  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  was 
used  Ijy  I’rofe.ssor  Morley  in  tlie  determination  of  atomic  weights.  The 
special  features  of  these  balances  are  auxiliary  devices  which  enable  the 
observer  to  note  the  oscillations  of  the  beam  from  a distance  and  to  inter- 
change the  weights  uiion  the  scale- pans  without  approaching  the  balance. 
The  probable  error  of  a single  weighing  with  a load  of  one  kilogramme  is 
only  ± 0“*.()2:i(). 


188 


MISCELLANEA 


In  presenting  his  estimates  for  the  next  year  the  Superintendent  urges 
a moderate  increase  in  the  api^ropriation  for  field  work  as  necessary  to 
the  rapid  and  economical  prosecution  of  the  surveys  urgently  demanded 
in  the  interests  of  commerce  along  our  coasts,  and  for  the  advancement 
of  other  imi)Ortant  field  operations  of  the  survey,  which,  he  states,  are 
found  to  be  impracticable  with  the  amount  appropriated  for  the  current 
year.  The  estimates  contemplate  resurveys  of  several  important  harbors 
on  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts ; also  the  commencement  of  a survey 
of  the  Aleutian  islands  and  an  examination  of  the  mouths  of  the  Yukon 
river  in  Alaska  in  addition  to  the  work  in  progress. 

Besides  the  publications  referring  to  nautical  matters,  the  survey  issues 
bulletins  at  irregular  intervals  intended  to  impart  advance  information 
on  new  discoveries  or  other  matter  relating  to  the  survey  ; and  appendices 
to  the  report  of  the  Superintendent  giving  scientific  results  and  other  de- 
velopments incidental  to  the  progress  of  the  work.  Four  bulletins  were 
issued  during  the  year  and  the  report  has  appendices  on  the  following 
subjects : The  Secular  Variation  in  Direction  and  Intensity  of  the  Earth’s 
Magnetic  Force  in  the  United  States  and  Some  Adjacent  Countries  ; Ob- 
servations of  the  Transit  of  Mercury  at  Washington  in  1894 ; Results  of 
Latitude  and  Longitude  Determinations  in  Alaska ; Physical  Hydrog- 
raphy, Nantucket,  Mass. ; Notes  on  the  Specific  Gravity  of  the  Waters  of 
the  Gulf  of  ^lexico  and  the  Gulf  Stream  ; A Graphic  Method  of  Reducing 
Stars  from  ^lean  to  Apparent  Places  ; A Description  of  Improved  Leveling 
Rods  and  a Report  on  the  New  Kilo  Balance  of  Precision. 

Herbert  G.  Ogdex. 


MISCELLANEA 

In  Santo  Domingo  important  governmental  concessions  have  been 
granted  to  an  American  corporation.  From  Puerto  Plata,  a seaport  of 
18,000  inhabitants,  at  which  from  12  to  15  steamers  enter  monthly,  a rail- 
road is  being  constructed  to  Santiago  and  Mora. 

American  capitalists  have  purchased  the  entire  street-railway  system 
of  the  city  of  ^Mexico,  comprising  100  miles  of  broad  gauge  and  60  miles 
of  narrow  gauge,  over  which  seventeen  and  one-half  millions  of  passen- 
gers were  carried  in  1895.  Electric  traction  and  other  improvements  are 
contemplated. 

Two  summer  courses  in  physiography  will  be  given  by  Professor  W.  ^I. 
Davis  at  Harvard  University,  beginning  July  3 and  lasting  six  weeks. 
The  chief  object  of  the  elementary  course  is  to  promote  the  change  in  the 
method  of  teaching  geography  so  generally  advocated  in  recent  j’ears, 
and  the  lectures  will  be  supplemented  by  laboratory  work  and  excursions. 
The  advanced  course  will  be  specially  adai)ted  to  the  needs  of  those 
already  well  grounded  in  the  elements  of  physiograpln\  The  admirable 
library  and  laboratory  resources  of  the  university  will  be  available  for  the 
use  of  students,  and  as  the  fee  for  either  course  is  only  §20,  there  should 
be  a large  attendance. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


GRAND  CANON 


OF  THE  YELLOWSTONE 


NORTHERN  PACIFIC 


Send  SIX  CENTS  for  our  New  TOURIST  BOOK 


CHAS.  S.  FEE,  Qen.  Pass.  AKent, 

St.  Paul,  Minn 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


m 

2^ 


4^ 


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4^ 


# 


A JAUNT  INTO  MEXICO. 

Twenty  }'ears  ago  Mexico  was  practically  a closed  countr\'  to 
the  tourist  from  the  United  States.  Then  , the  facilities  for 
transportation  were  such  that  the  journey  into  the  quaint  land 
lying  to  the  South  of  us  implied  weeks  of  arduous  travel,  which 
only  those  inured  to  hardships  could  stand.  Now,  the  tourist 
gets  into  his  Pullman  Sleeper  at  New  Orleans  and  the  Southern 
Pacific  quickly  lands  him  in  “the  land  of  the  afternoon.”  The 
way  leads  through  the  beautiful  bayou  region  of  Louisiana, 
then  amid  the  vast  pine  forests  that  fringe  the  eastern  edge  of 
the  Lone  Star  State,  past  Houston,  the  great  cotton  mart,  and 
San  Antonio,  the  beautiful  city  of  the  Alamo  and  the  Missions. 
At  Spofford  the  Mexico  sleej^er  swings  off  from  the  main  line 
and  in  a little  while  one  crosses  the  Rio  Grande  at  Eagle  Pass, 
and  finds  one’s  self  upon  the  soil  of  the  sister  Republic.  From 
here  to  Torreon  the  way  leads  over  the  Mexican  International, 
and  then  straight  down  the  Mexican  Central,  past  many  quaint 
and  Medieval  towns,  through  fertile  valleys,  where  men  are 
plowing  with  slow-moving  oxen,  over  mountain  pas.ses,  where 
the  hill  tops  flatten  into  grotesque  shapes — to  the  City  of 
Mexico.  Every  mile  of  the  way  is  fraught  with  novel  interest. 
At  each  stop  the  train  makes,  quaint  groups  gathered  at  the 
station  claim  attention.  Their  dress  is  picture.sque,  their  speech 
is  vigorous  but  musical.  They  importune  one  with  all  sorts  of 
confections  and  trinkets  for  sale.  The  domed  cities  and  towns 
which  line  the  way  or  are  visible  in  the  distance,  have  the  at- 
mosphere of  villages  in  Palestine.  One  may  make  a visit 
limited  by  days,  or  wander  for  weeks  and  not  be  satiated.  The 
interest  of  the  city  itself  is  inexhaustible,  while  Zacatecas,  the 
great  mining  center  perched  high  among  the  mountains  ; Guada- 
lajara, the  Boston  of  the  country  ; San  Luis  Potosi,  with  its 
architecture  and  its  art,  or  Vera  Cruz  or  Tampico,  lying  amid 
coffee  and  banana  plantations  upon  the  seacoast,  are  but  a few 
of  the  hundreds  of  places  that  attract  and  charm.  You  will 
never  regret  a journey  into  Mexico,  which  can  be  made  so 
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The  National  Geographic  Magazine, 

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miinbers  among  its  contributors  the  following  well-known  writers  on  the  different 

branches  of  geographic  science: 


Mr.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

Dr.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsouiau  Institution. 

Mr.  Marcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  vS.  N. 

Dr.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Theol.  Seminary. 

Hon.  Jefferson  B.  Browne,  Collector  of  Cus- 
toms at  Key  West. 

Dr.  E.  L.  Corthell,  C.  E.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Elliott  Coues. 

Hon.  William  E.  Curtis,  ex-Director  of  the 
Bureau  of  the  American  Republics. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  Assistant  Secre- 
tary of  Agriculture. 

Dr.  Win.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Dr.  George  Davidson,  President  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

Mr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Wm.  M.  Davi.s,  Profes.sor  of  Physical  Geog- 
rapln-  in  Harvard  University. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Statistics  and  Technology,  U.  S.  Geol.  Sur. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Hon.  John  W.  I'oster,  ex-Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Chief  Geographer,  U.  S. 
Geological  Survey  and  iith  Census. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

3en.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  .Society. 

Dr  Mark  W.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  Everett  Hayden,  U.  S.  N.,  Secretary  of 
the  National  Geographic  Society. 

Mr.  Robert  T.  Hill,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Wm.  II.  Holnie.s.  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  .■An- 
thropology', Field  Coluni.  Museum,  Chicago. 

Dr.  Emil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson,  U.  S.  Commissioner  of 
Education  for  .Alaska. 


Mr.  Willard  D.  Johmson,  U.  S.  Geol.  Survey. 

Mr.  Mark  B.  Kerr,  C.  E. 

Mr.  George  Kennan. 

Prof.  William  Uibbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J, 

Prof.  E.  McClure,  University  of  Oregon. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Eth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  E.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Admiral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Ma.ss. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Ornithologist  and  Mam- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Hon.  John  H.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  S. 

Prof.  W.  L-  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

Mr.  Frederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hy'drographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Lieut.  Robert  E-  Peary,  U.  S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Peary. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  vS. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Professor  of  Astron- 
omy in  Harvard  University. 

Major  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent  of  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  Pre.sident  of  the  U.  S. 
Civil  Service  Commission. 

Mr.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Professor  of  Geology  in 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

Dr.  N.  S.  Shaler,  Professor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sigsbee,  Hydrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy  Dept. 

Miss  Eliza  Ruhamah  Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L-  Tanner,  U.  S.  N. 

Mr.  F'rank  Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U S. 
Geological  .Survey. 

Mrs.  Fannie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS  OF  RECENT  NUMBERS. 

JANUARY. — Russia  in  Europe,  with  map,  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard;  The  Arctic  Cruise 
of  the  U.  S.  Revenue  Cutter  “Bear,”  with  illiustrations.  Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson;  The 
Scojie  and  Value  of  Arctic  Phxploration,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A. 

FEBRUARY. — Venezuela:  Her  Government,  People,  and  Boundary,  with  map  and  illustra- 
tions, William  E.  Curtis;  The  Panama  Canal  Route,  with  illu.slrations.  Prof.  Robert!'. 
Hill;  The  Tehuantepec  Ship  Railway,  with  maps,  1C.  L.  Corthell,  C.  1C.,  LL.  D.  ; The 
Present  State  of  the  Nicaragua  Canal,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely  ; iCxplorations  by  the  Bureau 
of  .American  ICthnology,  W J McGee.  Also  map  of  the  Orinoco  valley^  sho7vini>  territory 
drained  by  that  walenn'ay  and  its  beariny^  on  the  I 'eneznelan  Itoundary  Question. 

MARCH. — The  So-Calle<l  “Jeannette  Relics,”  Prof.  Wm.  H.  Dali  ; Nansen’s  Polar  ICxjiedi- 
tion,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely;  Tiie  Submarine  Cables  of  the  World,  Gustave  Herrle  ; The 
Survey  and  Subdivision  of  Indian  Territory,  with  map  and  illustration,  Henry  Gannett ; 
“ I'ree  Burghs”  in  the  Unileil  States,  James  H.  Blodgett,  rllso  chart,  /g  .v  jo  inches, 
showing  Submarine  Telegraph  Cables  of  the  World  and  Principal  Land  Lines.  P'ull- 
pas^e  portraits  of  I)r.  Nansen  and  Prof.  IPm.  II.  Dull. 

APRIL. — Seriland,  with  map  ainl  illustration,  W J McGee  and  Willard  1).  Johnson  ; The 
01vmj)ic  Country,  with  maj),  the  lale  S.  C.  Gilman  ; The  Discovery  of  Glacier  Bay, 
Ala.ska,  Eliza  Ridiamah  Scidim)re  ; Hydrography  in  the  United  States,  loederick  H. 
Newell  ; Recent  Triangnlation  in  the  Ca.scades,  ,S.  ,S.  Gannett ; The  Altitude  of  Mt. 
Ailams,  W.'Lshington,  ICdgar  .McClure. 

may.- -Africa  .since  iSH8,  with  sjiecial  reference  to  .South  Africa  and  .Al)yssinia,  with  map, 

■ Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hnbbanl  ; I'nndamental  Geogr.ijihic  Relation  of  the  !'hree  .Americas, 
with  map.  Prof.  Robert!'.  Hill  ; The  Kansas  River,  .Arthur  P.  Davis,  .llso  portrait  of 
lion.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the  National  Geographic  Society. 

25  Cents  per  Number  or  $2.50  per  Year. 




THE  JUNE  NUMBER 


OF 


will  contain  among  other  important  articles 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE, 

i 

AND 

THE  MOSELLE, 

By  professor  WILLIAM  M.  DAVIS, 

Of  Harvard  University  ; 

AND 

ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL 
TO  KEY  WEST, 

By  JEFFERSON  B.  BROWNE, 

Collector  of  Customs  of  the  Port  of  Key  West; 


ALSO  A PORTRAIT  OF 


GENERAL  A.  W.  GREELY,  U.  S.  A. 


JUDD  & DETWEILER,  PRINTERS,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


VII 


JUNE,  1896 


The 


75 


No.  6 


?73 


Honorary  Editor;  JOHN  BtYDE 

' ! ■ ' j 

Honorary  Associate  Editors  / 

J MoOEir-^ HliTzW-iWHAMf  AH  SCIDiMORE 


A.  W.  GREEliY 


CONTENTS 

FRONTISPIECE:  PORTRAIT  OF  OENERAl.  A.  W ^REBLY,  S.  A.. 

Chief  ISl^aal  Officer. 

THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE.  AND  THE  MOSELLE.  WILLIAM  M.  DAVIS.,  189 
With  maps. 

ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST.- 


/ 

/ 


JEFFERSON  B.  BROWNE.  203 
A GEOGRAPHICAL  DESCRIPTION  OP  THE  BRITISH  ISLANDS.  208 

THE  MEXICAN  CENSUS  211 

Geographic  Literature,  p.  212;  Proceedings  of  The  National  Geographic  Society, 
p.  214;  Geographic  Notes,  p.  217;  MiscOUanea,  p.  220. 


rnuT'^ifKD  inMiih:  n.\ti()N.\i.  (jko<iu.\imiio 

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THE 


National  Geograp'hic  Society 

ORGANIZED,  JANUARY,  1S8S 


Presidknt 

GARDINER  G.  IIUBPnRD 


MARCUS  BAKER 
WILLIAIM  II.  DALE 
G.  K.  (ULBERT 

Tkeasukeh  ■ 

CHARLES  .T.  BELL 

Riccokding  Secretary  Corresponding  Secretary 

EVERETT  HAYDEN  ' HENRY  GANNETT 


\ ICE- Presidents 


A.  W.  (HIEELY 
C.  HART  MERRIAM 
HERDERT  G.  OGDEN 


iVlANAGERS 

II.  F.  BLOUNT 
C.  W.  DABNEY,  Jr. 

DAVID  T.  DAY 
JOHN  HYDE 


W J McGEE 
F.  II . NEWELL 
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J.  B.  WIGHT 


Ml 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


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Add ress  : E V ER E F F HAYDEN,  Seci'etary, 

I 5 I 7 H S r R EE  l',  W A S H I N GTO  X . 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XX 


GEN.  A.  W.  GREELY,  U.  S.  ARMY 

( Gold  Medallist  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  and  of 
the  Societe  de  Geographie  de  Paris) 


{By  the  courtesy  of  Roberts  Brothers,  Publishers) 


THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine 

VoL.  VII  JUNE,  1896  No.  6 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 

B}’-  MTlliam  M.  Davis 
Professor  of  Physical  Geography  in  Harvard  University 

The  three  rivers. — The  narrow  basin  of  the  INIeuse  lies  between 
the  widespreading  branches  of  the  Seine  on  the  west  and  of  the 
Moselle  on  the  east.  The  slender  trunk  stream  of  the  Meuse, 
with  hardly  a 
tributary  on 
either  side,  is 
like  one  of 
t Ii  o s e tall, 
close-trimmed 
po})lars  that 
the  traveler 
often  sees 
along  the  na- 
tional roads  of 
France,  and 
the  compari- 
son is  not  alto- 
gether inapt, 
for  there  is 
good  reason  to 

think  that  the  Figuke  r.— The. \ra1>iciimn1>er.s  on  this  figure  show  the  cUflerent 
M e U S e h a S 'orations  of  the  otlier  figures  used  in  this  article.  Tlie  Roman 
,,  , numbers  show  the  location  of  the  page  plates, 

really  been 

trimmetl  of  certain  branches  which  have  been  diverted  to  the 
basins  ot  its  larger  neighbors.  Its  basin  is,  indeed,  like  the 

1.3 


190 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


dwindling  territory  of  a petty  prince  between  the  encroaching 
kingdoms  of  powerful  rulers  on  either  side.  The  evidence  of  this 
will  appear  when  we  examine  the  characteristics  of  the  three  rivers. 

TJie  vigorov,s  meanders  of  the  Seine. — The  Seine,  after  gathering 
in  its  upper  branches  both  above  and  below  Paris,  pursues  a 
strongly  meandering  course  to  the  sea.  Its  lower  valley  is  sunk 
with  rather  steep  sides  in  a comparatively  even  upland,  which 
itself  is  a surface  of  denudation.  Although  without  complete 
])roof  on  this  point,  I am  led  to  suppose  that  this  gently  rolling 
upland  is  an  uplifted  peneplain — that  is,  a denuded  region  that 
was  once  reduced  to  a surface  of  moderate  relief  close  to  its  con- 
trolling Ijaselevel,  and  then  raised  Ijy  some  gentle  process  of 
elevation  to  its  present  altitude.  During  the  development  of  the 
})eneplain  the  Seine,  the  master  river  of  the  region,  must  have 
attained  an  extremely  faint  grade,  and  at  the  same  time  have 
taken  on  tlie  halnt  of  swinging  from  side  to  side  in  comparatively 
regular  curves  or  meanders  such  as  are  characteristic  of  rivers 
with  gentle  sloi)e.  With  the  uplift  of  the  region  the  meandering 
river  would  proceed  to  incise  its  channel  beneath  the  uplifted 
surface,  and  thus  Ram.say  accounted  for  its  peculiar  intrenched 
meanders  many  years  ago.  They  seem  to  be  features  of  old  age 
retained  in  youth  of  the  present  cycle  of  denudation  as  an  in- 
heritance from  an  advanced  stage  of  a preceding  cycle. 

In  the  second  C3^cle  of  denudation,  now  in  progress,  the  belt 
of  country  inclosed  by  lines  tangent  to  the  outer  meander  curves 
of  the  Seine  seems  to  have  broadened  to  greater  Avidth  than  it 
possessed  before  the  uplift  of  the  region  occurred.  The  evidence 
of  this  is  seen  in  the  long  sloping  descent  of  each  tongue  of  land 
which  enters  one  of  the  river  curves  and  from  which  the  river 
seems  to  have  receded,  while  the  outer  side  of  the  swinging  cur- 
rent undercuts  a bluff  of  steep  descent  from  the  upland,  as  if 
the  river  were  pressing  against  it.  If  the  meandering  river  had 
cut  down  its  channel  vertically  the  slopes  on  the  two  sides  of  its 
present  course  should  be  symmetrical.*  The  reason  for  the  in- 
creased breadth  of  the  meander  belt  appears  to  be  in  the  increased 
velocity  given  to  the  river  in  consequence  of  the  uplift  of  the 
region.  Many  similar  cases  might  be  mentioned,  but  none  show 
more  clearh’  than  the  Seine  the  special  features  of  an  invigorated 
river.  The  great  curves  around  which  it  savings  fit  in  nearly  all 
cases  close  to  the  bluff  on  their  outer  side.  It  is  an  able-bodied 
river,  a river  of  a robust  habit  of  life. 


*See  note  Vjy  A.  Winslow  in  Science,  1893. 


\M/iraiS\ 
I iirl^ 


leMesiifl.' 


( 'onihoTct’^ 

'<1^  t Tftmi^e^ 


CauUidui^ 

tiuAf^ruI '' 


.J-  JKaiuiy^, 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXI 


VALLEY  OF  THE  SEINE,  NEAR  DUCLAIR 
Sheet  ;'/,  Ma-p  of  France,  / . So.ooo 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


191 


The  case  of  the  Ste.  Auslreberte. — Not  far  below  the  city  of  Rouen 
and  precisely  at  the  small  town  of  Duclair,  on  the  north  hank 
of  the  Seine,  there  is  an  interesting  little  occurrence  strongly 
confirmatory  of  the  invigorated  habit  of  the  swinging  river. 
Duclair  is  situated  on  the  outer  side  of  a large  north-turninsr 
meander.  Into  this  north-turning  meander  descends  a Ions: 
sloping  spur  from  the  upland  south  of  the  river ; east  and  west 
of  Duclair  similar  long  sloping  spurs  descend  from  the  northern 
upland  into  the  adjacent  south-turning  meanders.  On  looking 
closely  at  the  map  of  the  country  or,  still  better,  on  looking  over 
the  region  itself  from  the  top  of  the  bluff  at  the  back  of  the  town, 
it  is  seen  that  the  western  of  the  two  northern  spurs  is  obliquely 
cut  across  b_y  a narrow,  diy,  flat-hottomed  valley,  Avhich  is  just 
in  continuation  of  the  course  of  a little  stream  known  as  the  Ste. 
Austreberte,  coming  from  the  northeast  and  mouthing  in  the 
Seine  at  Duclair.  The  dry  valley  was  evidentl}’  at  one  time  fol- 
lowed by  the  lower  course  of  this  stream,  and  it  is  still  followed 
by  tbe  highway  and  the  railway,  for  which  it  serves  for  a “ short- 
cut” on  their  way  down  the  Seine.  (See  Plate  XXI.) 

The  question  then  arises.  Why  has  the  stream  deserted  so  well 
])repared  a path  ? The  answer  is  not  far  to  seek.  The  change 
evidently  occurred  because  the  Duclair  meander  of  the  Seine 
pushed  its  inclosing  bluff  further  and  further  north  until  the 
river  cut  through  the  ridge  that  separated  it  from  the  Ste.  Aus- 
treberte and  thus  tempted  that  stream  to  desert  its  lower  course. 
This  little  fact,  taken  in  connection  with  the  sloj^es  of  the  dove- 
tailing spurs,  fully  justifies  the  opinion  that  the  Seine  is  a most 
vigorous  river,  not  only  competent  to  swing  around  the  curves 
of  its  former  meanders,  but  demanding  an  increased  radius  for 
every  curve,  and  thus  widening  its  meander  belt.  Here  and 
there,  it  is  true,  the  swinging  course  of  the  river  departs  some- 
what irregularly  from  the  round  curves  of  its  valley,  as  if  the 
river  had  shrunk  somewhat  awa}’’  from  the  strong  curves  which 
it  once  followed.  This  may  ])erhaps  l)e  ex[)lained  as  the  result 
of  the  diminishing  velocity  of  the  river,  now  that  it  has  cut  its 
new  valley  deep  l^elow  the  adjacent  upland  and  close  to  tbe  con- 
trolling baselevel,  but  the  irregularities  are  exce[)tional  and 
they  need  not  be  further  considered.  As  a whole,  the  river  may 
be  regarded  as  an  able-bodied  stream  turning  vigorously  from 
curve  to  curve  on  its  way  to  the  sea.* 

♦An  iicoiclent  of  the  Ste.  Aiifitrel)erto  tyjie  is  found  in  the  valley  of  the  Marne  a short 
distance  helow  .Meaux,  where  the  Grand  Morin  now  joins  tlio  Marne  at  Isles-les-Villo- 
noy,  ahandoniiif^a  former  lower  course  which  I6d  it  to  I’rccy. 


192 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


The  robust  habit  of  the  Moselle. — Let  us  next  glance  at  the  lower 
course  of  the  Moselle.  Passing  below  its  upper  branching  course 
and  following  it  below  Treves  through  the  highlands  to  the  Rliine, 
we  find  here  again  a most  serpentine  valley  incised  beneath  the 
general  upland  of  the  region.  Ascending  from  the  valley  bot- 
tom, which  the  traveler  ordinarily  follows,  to  the  level  of  the 
inclosing  upland,  it  is  even  more  manifest  here  than  in  north- 
western France  that  we  have  to  do  with  an  uplifted  and  well- 
dissected  peneplain.  The  surrounding  region  is  one  in  which 
the  rocks  are  greatly  deformed,  possessing  all  the  characteristics 
of  mountain  structure,  but  few  of  the  characteristics  of  mountain 
height.  Indeed,  the  upland  between  Treves  and  the  Rhine  is 
one  of  the  best  examples  of  an  uplifted  peneplain  that  I have 
seen.  The  gently  rolling  surface  shows  little  regard  for  the  great 
diversity  in  the  attitude  of  its  rocks.  Here  and  there  it  is  still 
surmounted  by  low,  linear  eminences,  such  as  the  Idarwald  and 
the  Soonwald,  following  the  strike  of  resistant  quartzites.  These 
I would  call  “ monadnocks,”  taking  the  name  from  a t3q:>ical 
residual  mountain  which  surmounts  the  uplifted  peneplain  of 
New  England  in  southwestern  New  Hampshire. 

But  how  has  the  Moselle  come  to  follow  a meandering  valley 
deejfiy  incised  in  the  ])eneplain?  It  is  manifest,  from  what  is 
now  known  concerning  the  geological  development  of  land  sur- 
faces, that  during  the  later  stages  of  the  denudation  of  the  middle 
Rhine  higlilands  the  streams  of  the  region  must  have  flowed 
idl}''  along  meandering  courses  with  gentle  sloi)e  in  channels 
little  below  the  surrounding  surface ; hut  at  present  the  streams, 
and  especially  the  master  rivers  of  the  region,  have  deeply  in- 
cised courses  inclosed  by  steep-sided  valle3^s.  Clearly,  then,  the 
region  has  been  uplifted  since  the  denudation  of  the  peneplain 
and  is  now  well  entered  in  a second  cycle  of  denudation.  The 
meanders  developed  in  the  later  stages  of  the  previous  cycle  of 
denudation  are  inherited  in  the  earl3^  stage  of  the  present  C3^1e. 

It  is  worth  noting,  however,  that  there  seems  to  have  been  a 
pause  during  the  general  elevation  of  the  region,  for  the  valley 
of  the  INIoselle  ma3"  be  described  as  a narrow,  meandering  trench 
cut  in  a wide-open,  flat-bottomed  trough,  the  trough  being  sunk 
well  beneath  the  general  surface  of  the  adjacent  upland.  The 
same  sequence  of  forms  may  be  clearly  recognized  in  the  valle3'' 
of  the  Rhine,  particularl3’^  in  the  neighborhood  of  Bacharach, 
where  the  old  river  alluvium  still  lies  on  the  floor  of  the  uplifted 
trough,  although  the  existing  river  trench  is  sunk  several  him- 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXII 


Gof5^7^ 

i\\r 


HOH«ii  petERs 


VALLEY  OF  THE  MOSELLE,  NEAR  BERNCASTEL 
SlueC  Map  of  the  German  Empire,  i : foo.ooo 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


193 


dred  feet  beneath  it.  It  must  therefore  be  concluded  from  the 
relation  of  the  upland,  the  trough,  and  the  trench  that  the  uplift 
of  the  region  to  its  present  height  was  accomplished  in  two 
movements,  and  that  a longer  interval  of  comparative  rest  fol- 
lowed tlie  first  movement  than  has  yet  elapsed  since  the  second  ; 
but  it  must  also  be  understood  that  the  time  that  has  elapsed 
from  the  first  of  these  movements  to  the  present  day  is  very 
short  compared  to  the  long  cycle  of  denudation  during  which 
the  ancient  mountains  of  the  region  were  worn  down  to  the  gen- 
eral surface  of  the  peneplain. 

The  meanders  which  the  Moselle  now  follows  in  its  serpentine 
trench  are  therefore  to  be  regarded  as  the  inheritance  of  a me- 
andering habit  that  it  acquired  on  the  floor  of  the  trough  ; but 
here,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Seine,  the  present  width  of  the  meander 
belt  is  somewhat  greater  than  the  width  of  the  former  belt,  judg- 
ing from  the  difference  in  the  slopes  of  the  interior  spurs  and 
the  steep  bluffs  opposite  them  on  the  outer  side  of  the  river 
curves.  The  Moselle,  like  the  Seine,  swings  around  its  curves 
with  a robust,  full-bodied  action,  nowhere  hesitating  to  make  the 
circuit  with  strong  pressure  on  its  outside  bank. 

The  tivo  cut-offs  above  Berncastel. — At  several  points  the  spurs 
from  the  upland  have  very  narrow  necks  through  which  the 
valley  railway  passes  in  “ short-cut”  tunnels.  Although  I have 
not  found  any  example  of  the  diversion  of  a side  stream  by  the 
lateral  growth  of  the  river  meanders,  yet  such  a change  is  im- 
minent just  above  Piinderich,  where  the  ridge  between  the  Moselle 
and  the  Alfbach  is  reduced  to  a very  narrow  measure.  But  it 
does  appear  that  just  above  Berncastel  the  INIoselle  has  played 
U[)on  itself  the  same  trick  that  the  Seine  has  played  upon  the 
Ste.  Austreberte.  The  Moselle  at  this  point  has  an  excei>tion- 
ally  straight  course,  but  to  the  right  and  left  of  it  rise  two  isolated 
hills,  inclosed  by  troughs  of  horseshoe  shape  whose  outer  slopes 
rise  to  the  general  uplands.  From  the  study  of  the  maps  at 
home  I had  come  to  the  opinion  that  these  troughs  represented 
former  meanders  of  the  river,  now  abandoned  in  favor  of  the 
more  direct  intermediate  course,  and  an  insi>ection  of  the  district 
on  the  ground  has  confirmed  this  belief.  1 presume  the  fact  is 
well  known  to  students  of  river  habits  abroad.*  (See  Plate 
XXII.) 

Nothing  can  be  more  satisfactory  than  the  agreement  shown 
between  the  features  of  these  abandoned  meanders  and  of  the 

♦Soe,  for  e.xnmple,  II.  Orobo,  Ueber  'rbiilbilduiiK  mif  der  linken  Klielnuolte,  Jubrb. 
k.  itroiiHH.  gool.  LiindoHiitiKt.,  188.'i,  187. 


194 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


meanders  still  occupied  Ijy  the  river  farther  down  the  trench. 
The  radius  of  curvature  is  essentially  the  same  in  the  several 
cases.  The  slopes  on  the  outsides  of  the  troughs  have  the  char- 
acteristic, hlufi-like  descent  from  the  upland.  The  isolated  hills 
are  the  ends  of  interlocking  spurs,  now  dissevered  from  the  up- 
lands hy  the  cross-cut  of  the  river ; the  ends  of  these  hills  that 
project  into  the  horseshoe  troughs  have  the  comparative!}"  gentle 
descent  of  the  spurs  that  are  elsewhere  found  projecting  into  the 
actual  meanders.  Not  only  so ; the  eastern  branch  of  the  south- 
ern horseshoe  is  just  opposite  and  in  line  with  the  western  branch 
of  the  northern  horseshoe.  There  can  he  no  doubt  that  the  vigor- 
ous Moselle  has  here  so  earnestly  swung  against  its  outer  bank 
that  it  has  actually  shortened  its  own  course  by  cutting  through 
the  narrow  necks  of  the  intervening  spurs.  Perhaps  I am  giving 
too  much  emphasis  to  this  occurrence.  It  is  not  a great  rarity, 
for  similarly  abandoned  river  meanders  are  not  infrequent  in 
other  })lateaus.  They  are  known  in  the  plateau  of  Wiirtemberg, 
where  it  is  trenched  by  the  Neckar  at  Lauffen  and  just  above, 
and  in  the  plateau  of  western  Pennsylvania,  trenched  by  the  Ohio 
and  its  branches.  It  is  not,  however,  the  mere  occurrence  of 
these  cut-off  meanders,  but  rather  the  lesson  that  they  teach,  that 
deserves  emphasis.  They  all  indicate  strong  river  action.  The 
Moselle  must  therefore  be  regarded  as  an  able-bodied,  vigorous 
river,  like  the  Seine. 

Tlte  staggering  Mease. — Let  us  now  look  at  the  INIeuse.  From 
some  distance  above  Commercy,  down  stream  as  far  as  Verdun 
and  beyond,  this  river,  like  the  others,  follows  a well-defined 
meandering  valley,  incised  beneath  uplands  on  either  side.  As 
before,  the  slope  of  the  bluffs  on  the  outer  side  of  the  valley 
curves  is  comparatively  steep,  while  the  slope  of  the  spurs  on  the 
inner  side  of  the  curves  is  relatively  gentle.  Just  above  Com- 
mercy, near  Sarcy-sur-Meuse,  one  of  the  spurs  is  almost  cut 
through  and  is  now  connected  with  its  upland  l>y  a very  narrow 
and  low  neck,  which  alone  separates  the  Hood-plain  of  the  curv- 
ing valley  on  either  side.  The  railway  and  canal  both  save  dis- 
tance by  cutting  across  the  low  neck.  At  Dun-sur-Meuse  the 
neck  of  a former  spur  is  entirely  cut  through.  It  now  stands  as 
an  isolated  hill  surrounded  on  all  sides  hy  the  flat  valley  floor.* 

*The  Etat-major  map,  1 : 80,000,  suggests  three  other  abandoned  meanders  : one  east 
of  Lin3'-devant-Dun ; another  northeast  of  Letanne;  the  third  southwest  of  Mouzon. 
The  cutting  of  some  of  these  meanders  may  have  occurred  early  in  the  history  of  the 
valley.  At  Koeur-la  petite,  below  Commercy,  the  map  shows  the  railway  and  canal  run- 
ning through  a depression  in  the  neck  of  a spur  that  extends  toward  Han-sur-Meuse, 
and  I suppose  that  the  Ste.  Austreberte  case  is  here  paralleled. 


NAT  GEOG.  MAG 


VOL.  VII 


1896 


PL.  XXIII 


VALLEY  OF  THE  MEUSE,  NEAR  ST.  MIHIEL 


Sheet  «/  France,  i 


80,000 


i 


I 


I 

i 

> 

I- 


LlOIl-<ipiPs  iqj 


ik^ 


<;V 


!=6^S- 


VALLE.Y  OF  THE  MEUSE,  NEAR  DUN-SUR-MEUSE 
Shet'l  J5,  .Vap  of  France,  j : 80,000 


NAT.  GEOG.  mag. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXIV 


Wk:''^^i£F 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


195 


It  is  manifest,  then,  that  this  valley  was  excavated  by  a river 
hardly  less  vigorous  than  those  that  cut  the  valleys  of  the  Seine 
and  the  Moselle,  but  the  vigorous  river  that  was  once  here  is 
now  nowhere  to  be  found.  The  floor  of  the  valley  is  at  present 
occupied  for  the  most  part  by  broad,  green  meadows,  instead 
of  by  a free-swinging  current  of  water,  and  the  only  stream  to  be 
found  is  the  little  Meuse,  wandering  here  and  there  on  the  broad 
meadows  and  staggering  with  most  uncertain  step  around  the 
valley  curves.  It  wriggles  from  place  to  place,  now  touching 
this  side  of  the  valley,  now  that,  swinging  indifferently  against 
the  steep  bluffs  and  gentle  slopes  of  the  spurs,  sometimes  even 
running  for  a short  distance  up  the  valley  in  its  irregular  j)ath. 
Is  it  not  then  clear  that  since  the  time  when  this  winding  valley 
was  made  there  has  been  a great  diminution  in  the  volume  of 
water  that  follows  it ? No  other  conclusion  seems  admissible; 
and  hence  a reason  for  the  loss  of  volume  must  be  sought.  (See 
Plates  XXIII  and  XXIV.) 

The  loss  of  volume  cannot  be  ascribed  to  any  climatic  change, 
for  that  should  have  affected  the  Seine  and  Moselle  as  well. 
May  it  then  be  ascribed  to  a change  of  the  area  drained,  Avhereby 
the  Seine  and  the  Moselle  gained  the  drainage  area  which  the 
Meuse  lost?  If  this  were  so,  the  Meuse  would  have  become 
smaller  and  smaller,  while  the  Seine  and  Moselle  grew  larger 
and  larger.  The  dwindling  Meuse  would  have  lost  the  power  of 
swinging  boldly  around  its  valley  curves ; it  would  have  fallen 
into  the  present  timid  habit  of  staggering,  after  the  fashion  of 
other  small  streams,  but  at  the  same  time  the  Seine  and  the 
Moselle  would  have  been  confirmed  in  their  vigorous  habit  of 
swinging  freely  around  the  curves  of  their  valle}^s.  Is  it  pos- 
sible, then,  that  the  side  branches  of  the  Meuse  have  really  been 
trimmed  from  the  trunk  river,  and  that  the  trimmed  l)ranches 
have  been  engrafted  into  the  s}^stems  of  the  Seine  and  the  Moselle  ? 

The  migration  of  river  divides. — The  question  thus  raised  leads 
to  a consideration  of  the  general  problem  of  the  shifting  or  migra- 
tion of  river  divides,  a subject  that  is  of  particular  interest  to  the 
student  of  ])li3^sical  geogra[)hy.  At  first  sight  one  would  be  in- 
clined to  think  that  the  crest-line  of  a divide  l)etween  adjacent 
river  basins  would  merely  waste  lower  and  lower  as  it  weathered 
away,  without  shifting  laterally,  and  therefore  without  causing 
any  change  in  the  area  of  the  adjacent  drainage  basins.  It  is 
probable,  however,  that  this  sini[)le  process  is  of  very  rare  occur- 
rence in  nature.  It  is  much  more  likely  that  the  line  of  the 


196 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


divide  will  move  more  or  less  to  one  side  or  the  other  as  it 
weathers  away,  on  account  of  the  unequal  rate  of  wasting  of  its 
two  slopes.  The  possible  causes  of  unequal  wasting  are  various- 
The  declivity  of  the  two  slopes  may  differ, .in  which  case  the 
steep  slope  wastes  faster  than  the  other  and  the  divide  is  veiy 
slowly  pushed  toward  the  flatter  slope.  The  rocks  underlying 
the  two  slo]3es  ma}^  be  of  different  resistance ; then  the  weaker 
one  will,  as  a rule,  waste  away  the  faster,  and  the  divide  will 
gradually  migrate  toward  the  more  resistant  rocks.  Again,  the 
agencies  of  erosion  may  be  of  different  activities  on  the  two 
slopes;  one  slope  may  have  a greater  rainfall  than  the  other,  or 
may  suffer  a greater  number  of  alterations  from  freezing  to  melt- 
ing. Although  the  last  is  generall}’’  a subordinate  cause,  it  prob- 
ably contributes  in  a small  way  to  the  solution  of  the  problem 
as  a whole. 

The  shifting  of  the  divide  as  thus  explained  is  generally  accom- 
] dished  by  a slow  migration.  In  some  cases,  however,  when  the 
divide  is  pushed  to  the  very  side  of  a stream  whose  basin  it 
inclosed,  then  a little  further  change  diverts  all  the  upper  drain- 
age of  this  stream  into  the  encroaching  basin,  and  with  this 
change  the  divide  makes  a sudden  leap  around  the  upi)er  waters 
of  the  diverted  river,  after  which  the  slow  migration  may  be 
resumed.  The  movement  of  a divide  may  therefore  be  described 
as  alternately  creeping  and  leaping. 

Whether  this  process  is  of  very  general  importance  or  not  can 
hardly  be  decided  at  the  present  time;  but  there  are  certain 
regions  in  which  its  application  is  most  illuminating  to  the 
studies  of  the  physical  geographer.  Philippson  has  brought  the 
subject  to  general  attention  in  his  Studien  ilber  Wasserscheiden, 
where  a full  account  of  what  others  have  done  up  to  1<S85  may 
be  found.  Oldham  has  told  how  certain  headwaters  of  the  In- 
dian rivers  are  pushing  their  divides  through  the  innermost  of 
the  Himalayan  ranges,  and  thus  acquiring  drainage  area  that 
formerly  Ijelonged  to  the  interior  streams  of  the  elevated  Thi- 
betan plateau.  This  example  is  one  of  the  best  in  which  the 
process  depends  chiefly  on  the  unequal  declivity  of  the  slopes 
on  the  two  sides  of  the  divide.  Heim  has  described  the  depre- 
dations of  the  Maira  in  beheading  the  upper  course  of  the  Inn, 
thus  accounting  in  a most  beautiful  manner  for  the  little  lakes 
at  the  head  of  the  Engadine  valley,  wdiere  this  contest  is  going 
on.  The  special  map  of  the  Ober-Engadine,  published  in  1889, 
on  a scale  of  1 : 50,000,  by  the  Swiss  topographical  bureau,  gives 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


197 


fine  illustration  of  the  significant  features  of  river  interaction  in 
this  region. 

A remarkable  case  of  river  diversion  occurs  in  the  shift  of  the 
course  of  the  Vistula  from  its  former  path  down  the  valle}"  now 
occupied  by  the  Netze  to  a more  northward  course,  by  which  it 
flows  directly  to  the  Baltic  sea,  the  point  of  change  being  at  the 
town  of  Bromberg.  This  is  well  illustrated  on  the  Prussian  topo- 
graphical maps,  and  has  been  described  in  a general  way  by 
various  writers  on  the  geograph}^  of  North  Germany.  Whether 
it  was  caused  by  the  spontaneous  interaction  of  streams  com- 
peting for  drainage  area  or  not,  I shall  not  at  this  distance  ven- 
ture to  say,  but  shall  hope  to  find  a full  explanation  of  the 
change  in  a forthcoming  essay  by  Berendt.  Jukes-Brown  has 
described  an  interesting  case  in  England,  where  the  Trent  cap- 
tured the  headwaters  of  the  Wytham,  and  in  a recent  volume 
of  the  Geographical  Journal  of  London  I have  attempted  a more 
general  treatment  of  the  same  region.  Readers  who  wish  to  fol- 
low the  subject  into  examples  of  greater  intricacy  may  find  some 
problematic  examples  in  the  rivers  of  Penns^dvania  and  northern 
New  Jersey.  * 

In  the  general  discussion  of  this  problem  we  should  recognize 
two  divisions.  First,  the  processes  by  Avhich  it  is  accounted  for, 
these  having  just  been  summarily  described.  Second,  the  topo- 
graphical forms  by  which  its  occurrence  may  be  recognized,  dis- 
tinction being  made  between  examples  occurring  in  the  remote 
or  the  recent  past  and  others  likely  to  occur  in  the  near  or  dis- 
tant future.  Illustration  of  the  second  division  of  the  subject 
can  best  be  given  by  describing  the  concrete  case  of  the  river 
^larne  near  Chalons,  than  whicli  no  better  example  lias  come  to 
my  notice  an3'where  in  the  world. 

The  case  of  the  Marne  below  Chalons.  — In  the  province  of  Cliam- 
jiagne  the  Marne  drains  an  extended  interior  lowland  inclosed 
liy  a forested  upland  on  the  west.  The  lowland  is  the  ]>roduct 
of  comparatively  rapid  erosion  during  late  Tertiary  time  on  weak 
upper  Cretaceous  strata.  It  is  for  the  most  jiart  covered  b}^  ex- 
tensive farms.  The  uiiland  stands  where  the  lower  Tertiarv 
strata  have,  during  the  same  period  of  time,  more  successfully 
resisted  erosion.  As  the  dip  of  the  strata  is  gentl}'  westward,  the 
eastern  margin  of  the  upland  is  marked  by  a steep  escarpment. 
The  .Marne  gathers  man,y  branches  from  the  lowland,  and  escapes 
on  its  way  to  the  sea  li}'  a deep  vallc}'  cut  through  the  upland. 


♦Tkk  Natio.val  Gkoohaphic  Maoa/.ink,  Wiisliingtoii,  i,  188f);  ii,  1800. 


198  THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 

In  this  valley  it  receives  two  branches  on  the  southern  side,  to 
which  special  attention  should  be  given.  The  first  is  the  Sur- 
melin,  whose  head  is  found  in  the  upland  near  its  eastern  pre- 
cipitous margin ; but,  curiously  enough,  although  this  stream  of 
course  diminishes  toward  its  source  near  Montmort,  the  valley 
that  it  occupies  maintains  an  almost  constant  width  some  six 
miles  farther,  nearly  to  the  escarpment  of  the  upland.  The 
second  branch  is  the  Petit  Morin.  This,  like  the  Marne,  heads  in 
the  lowland  east  of  the  upland,  and  also,  like  the  Marne,  escapes 
by  a deep  and  narrow  valley  through  the  upland.  The  lowland 
area  that  it  drains  is,  however,  very  small,  and  for  about  ten 
miles  from  its  head  there  is  an  extended  marsh,  known  as  the 
Marais  de  St.  Gond,  lying  partly  on  the  lowlands  and  partly  in 
the  entrance  to  the  narrow  valley  in  the  U})land. 

In  searching  for  a reason  for  this  arrangement  of  the  Marne 
and  its  two  branches,  it  is  important  to  notice  that  if  the  branches 
were  prolonged  eastward  the}^  would  both  lead  to  streams,  the 
Soude  and  the  Somme,*  flowing  for  some  distance  on  the  low- 
land toward  the  heads  of  the  branches,  but  then  turning  north- 
ward and  entering  the  Marne  directl3^ 

The  beheading  of  the  Surmelin  and  the  Petit  — In  explana- 

tion of  all  these  facts  let  it  be  supposed  that  the  two  pairs,  Soude- 
Surmelin  and  Somme-Morin,  were  once  actuall}"  continuous 
streams  at  a time  before  the  lowland  was  eroded  on  the  weak 
rocks  east  of  the  upland,  and  let  the  verity  of  the  supposition  be 
tested  by  the  likelihood  of  a natural,  spontaneous  change  from 
that  condition  to  the  present. 

When  the  paired  streams  flowed  westward,  they,  like  the  Marne, 
must  have  run  in  the  direction  of  the  dip  of  the  strata;  hence 
they  mav  all  be  called  consequent  streams.  They  must  all  have 
passed  from  the  weak  Cretaceous  strata  to  the  resistant  Tertiary 
strata.  The  INIarne  is  much  the  largest  of  these  three  streams, 
and  its  valley  must  have-been  deepened  rapidly,  while  the  other 
valleys  must  have  been  deepened  slowly.  As  the  valleys  were 
deepened  they  progressively  widened,  but  the  widening  must 
have  been  much  more  rapid  on  the  weak  than  on  the  resistant 
strata ; and  the  deep  valle}'’  of  the  Marne  must  have  widened  in 
the  weaker  strata  much  more  rapidl}"  than  the  neighboring 
shallow  valleys  of  the  Soude-Surmelin  and  the  Somme-Morin. 
Now  the  question  arises,  will  the  divides  between  these  three 
valleys  shift  in  such  a manner  as  to  alter  the  assumed  original 


* Not  to  be  confused  with  the  river  Somme  in  northwestern  France. 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


199 


arrangement  to  the  actual  arrangement?  Undoubtedl}^  they 
would,  and  for  the  following  reasons. 

The  valley  of  the  Marne  being  deeper  than  that  of  the  Soude- 
Surmelin,  the  divide  between  the  two  would  be  pushed  away 
from  the  larger  and  toward  the  smaller  streams,  and  eventually 
the  upper  course  of  the  Soude-Surmelin  would  be  diverted  by  a 
growing  side  branch  of  the  Marne  (the  lower  part  of  the  Sonde), 
and  thus  led  to  join  that  vigorous  river,  while  the  lower  course 
of  the  Soude-Surmelin  (the  Surmelin)  would  remain  as  a dimin- 


ished, beheaded  river.  The  side  branch  of  the  Marne,  wliich 
causes  the  div'crsion,  ]>elongs  to  the  class  of  streams  called  sulm- 
qaent.  Let  us  next  look  at  the  divide  between  the  Soude-Surmelin 
and  the  Somme-Morin.  At  first,  as  these  streams  are  of  about 
equal  volume,  the  divide  between  them  would  not  be  pushed 
significantly  to  one  side  or  the  other,  but  after  the  ca))ture  of  the 
Sonde  by  a branch  of  the  Marne,  the  Soude  would  rapid  I deepen 
its  valley  on  the  weak  strata,  and  from  that  time  forward  the 
di  videbetween  the  Soiideand  theSomme-Morin  would  be  system- 
atically pushed  toward  the  latter.  Eventually  the  upper  waters 
of  this  stream  would  also  be  diverted  to  the  Marne  by  the  way 


200 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


of  the  lower  Soucle,  leaving  the  lower  waters  (the  Petit  Morin) 
as  another  diminished,  beheaded  stream ; hut  inasmuch  as  this 
second  capture  must  occur  at  a much  later  date  than  the  first,  it 
is  natural  to  expect  that  the  beheaded  Petit  Morin  will,  at  the 
time  of  capture,  have  cut  a much  deeper  valley  through  the  up- 
land than  was  cut  by  the  earlier  beheaded  stream,  the  Surmelin. 

The  elbow  of  capture. — Let  us  call  the  sharp  turn  that  the  di- 
verted headwaters  make  where  they  join  the  diverting  stream 
*■  the  elbow  of  capture.”  After  the  capture  the  rearranged  water- 
course will  cut  a sharply  intrenched  valley  above  and  below  this 
elbow,  for  the  diverted  stream,  of  considerable  volume,  being 
turned  into  the  head  of  the  diverting  stream,  where  the  volume 
is  zero,  must  immediately  deepen  its  channel.  As  time  passes 
the  trench  will  disappear  by  widening,  and  hence  the  occurrence 
of  such  a trench  may  be  taken  as  indication  of  recent  rearrange- 
ment. Similarly  the  diminished,  beheaded  stream  may  be  more 
or  less  obstructed  by  the  detritus  that  is  washed  into  its  valle}’’ 
by  small  lateral  branches;  thus  its  flow  may  be  delayed  by 
swani])s  or  it  ma}"  be  even  held  back  in  shallow  lakes,  as  the 
Inn  is  held  back  in  the  lakes  of  Engadine,  as  described  by  Heim ; 
but  this  is  also  a relatively  short-lived  condition,  for  as  time 
passes  the  beheaded  stream  will  adjust  its  grade  to  the  work 
that  its  diminished  volume  has  to  do  and  its  lakes  and  swamps 
will  disappear. 

In  nearly  all  cases  further  shortening  is  enforced  upon  the 
beheaded  stream  below  the  elbow  of  capture.  It  deepens  its 
valley  slowly,  while  the  reinforced  subsequent  diverter  deepens 
its  valley  with  relative  rapidity  ; hence  the  divide  will  be  pushed 
away  from  the  elbow  of  capture  and  the  beheaded  stream  will 
be  progressively  diminished.  The  distance  of  the  source  of  the 
beheaded  stream  from  the  elbow  of  capture  may  therefore  be 
generally  taken  as  a measure  of  the  remoteness  of  the  time  when 
the  capture  took  place.  It  not  infrequently  happens  that  a small 
stream  is  developed,  flowing  into  the  elbow  of  capture  from  the 
neighborhood  of  the  source  of  the  beheaded  stream,  and  pro- 
gressivel}"  lengthening  as  the  divide  is  })ushed  away  and  the  be- 
headed stream  is  shortened.  Let  us  call  streams  of  this  class, 
flowing  against  the  dip  of  the  strata,  obsequent.  They  will  mani- 
festly ])e  wanting  at  elbows  of  recent  capture,  but  they  may  attain 
a length  of  several  miles  if  the  capture  occurred  long  enough  ago. 

Now,  look  at  the  actual  arrangement  of  the  streams  on  the  low- 
land west  of  Chidons  and  on  the  upland  be}’ond  the  escarpment. 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


201 


while  bearing  these  deductive  criteria  in  mind.  The  Somme  has 
latel}’’  been  captured  i)y  the  growth  of  a subsequent  branch  from 
near  the  elbow  of  the  Soude;  for,  behold,  at  the  little  village  of 
Ecury-le-Repos  a sharp  elbow  in  the  course  of  this  stream  and 
a narrow  trench  for  a moderate  distance  above  and  below  the 
elbow.  The  Petit  Morin  is  evidently  the  lower  course  of  the 
Somme.  On  account  of  its  diminished  volume  it  is  for  the 
present  unable  to  keep  its  valley  clear  of  the  detritus  that  is 
washed  down  from  the  steep  valley  sides  in  the  upland,  proba- 
bly near  Boissy  and  Le  Thoult;  hence  the  great  marsh  of  St. 


Gond  and  its  extensive  deposits  of  ]ieat  about  the  head  of  the 
stream.  The  marshy  head  of  the  Petit  Morin  is  still  close  to  the 
elbow  of  ca})ture  at  Ecury-le-Uepos,  and  no  obscquent  stream  is 
yet  developed  in  this  case.  The  change  is  clearly  of  recent  date, 

• Look  next  at  the  Soude-Surmelin  system.  1 fere  the  capture 
occurred  long  ago;  there  is  no  sign  of  a gorge  at  the  elbow  of 
capture.  An  obsequcnt  stream,  the  Berle,  about  four  miles  in 
length,  has  grown  toward  the  retreating  escarpment  of  the  u[)- 
land,  and  the  head  of  the  beheaded  stream  is  now  ten  miles 
away  from  where  it  stood  at  the  time  when  the(!aj)ture  bad  just 
taken  j>lacc.  Having  lost  its  bead  rather  early  in  the  history  of 


202 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


the  region,  its  valley  through  the  upland  is  not  cut  to  a great 
depth  ; it  is  much  shallower  than  the  valley  of  the  Petit  Morin, 
which  was  beheaded  at  a much  later  period,  when  it  had  become 
nearly  as  deep  as  that  of  the  Marne  itself. 

It  was  while  studying  the  French  maps  at  home  that  I first 
came  on  this  almost  ideal  example  of  migrating  divides  and 
adjustment  of  streams  to  structures,  but  it  was  not  until  an  ex- 
cursion abroad  in  1894  that  I Avas  able  to  study  it  on  the  ground. 
I then  had  the  gratification  of  confirming  by  direct  observation, 
as  far  as  the  brief  time  at  my  disposal  would  allow,  the  expecta- 
tions formed  from  study  at  a distance.  The  example  of  the 
Marne  and  its  side  branches  therefore  still  serves  me  as  atypical 
case  of  adjustments  of  this  kind. 

It  is  curious  to  note  that  another  small  stream,  the  upper 
Vaure,  fiows  toward  the  marsh  of  St.  Gond,  but  instead  of  being 
diverted  northward  by  the  Soude  to  the  INIarne,  it  is  diverted 
southward  l)y  the  Superbe,  a su])seciuent  branch  of  the  Aulje. 
It  seems  also  i)rol)able  that  this  subsequent  branch  has  diverted 
the  Maurienne  at  Pleurs,  and  thus  cut  it  off  from  the  Grand 
iNIorin,  whose  head  is,  like  that  of  the  Surmelin,  on  the  upland 
Avest  of  the  escarinnent. 

It  is  manifest  that  the  terminology  here  employed  Avill  he  of 
service  in  simplifying  the  description  of  other  examples  of  shift- 
ing divides  and  river  adjustment  if  they  ])Ossess  the  same  sys- 
tematic features  as  are  here  so  Avell  exhibited.  That  such  is  the 
case  I can  confirm  from  the  study  of  several  examples  near  the 
escarpment  of  the  SAvabian  Alp  in  Wiirtemberg,  Avhere  the  head- 
Avaters  of  the  Xeckar  are  actively  pushing  aAvay  the  divide  that 
separates  them  from  the  northern  tributaries  of  the  upper  Dan- 
ube. Although  the  arrangement  of  i)arts  is  not  the  same  as  in 
the  examjde  near  Chalons,  yet  the  homologies  of  the'tAVO  regions 
can  l>e  clearly  made  out.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the  rivers  of 
central  England,  Avhich  are  as  a rule  Avell  adjusted  to  the  val- 
leys betAveen  the  uplands  of  the  oolite  and  the  chalk. 


(7b  be  continued.) 


ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST 

By  Jefferson  B.  Browne, 

Collector  of  Customs  of  the  Port  of  Key  Tlesi 

The  traveler  aiDproacliing  Key  West  from  the  gulf  of  Mexico 
cannot  but  wonder  that  upward  of  twenty  thousand  jDeople 
should  have  congregated  on  a spot  so  manifestly  and  completely 
isolated  from  the  rest  of  the  world.  After  landing  and  seeing 
how  little  man  has  done  for  the  improvement  of  the  island,  or 
rather  how  nature  has  been  marred  by  man’s  mistakes,  the  vis- 
itor’s wonder  changes  to  absolute  amazement  that  so  large  a city 
could  have  grown  up  Avithout  railroad  or  even  wagon-road  con- 
nection with  the  state  and  country  of  Avhich  it  jDolitically  forms 
a part.  Unless,  however,  our  visitor  is  an  exceedingly  superfi- 
cial observer,  he  will  soon  begin  to  realize  that  it  is  not  so  much 
a matter  of  surprise  that  the  city  has  attained  its  present  groAvth 
as  that,  with  the  natural  advantages  it  possesses,  its  development 
has  not  been  still  greater.  He  Avill  learn  that  for  fifty  years  Key 
West  has  held  its  supremacy  as  the  most  poinilous  city  of  the 
state,  and  that  it  OAves  its  prosperity  not  to  any  single  industry, 
but  to  the  diversity  of  its  sources  of  revenue,  the  outgroAvth 
mainly  of  its  geographical  location.  Its  fisheries,  its  siionge  in- 
du.stry,  its  cigar  manufactories,  its  importance  as  a coaling  station 
and  port  of  call  for  the  commerce  of  the  gulf,  its  superior  advan- 
tages as  a naval  rendezvous  and  military  station,  all  have  con- 
tributed to  the  upbuilding  of  Key  Weston  thatl)road  foundation 
Avhich  is  the  secret  of  its  continued  prosperity.  The  shipl)uilder, 
the  sailor,  and  the  sponger,  the  fisherman,  the  Avrecker,  and  the 
stevedore,  the  cigarmaker  and  the  machinist,  the  truck  farmer 
and  the  fruit  groAver,  all  find  em])loyment  in  Key  \>’est  and  the 
adjacent  islands,  and  no  man  Avith  a technical  knoAvlodge  of  any 
branch  of  industr}’,  Avith  the  single  important  exception  of  rail- 
roading, ever  has  to  abandon  his  trade  and  seek  a livelihood  in 
another. 

It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  upon  the  comi)letion  of  the 
Nicaragua  canal.  Key  West  Avill  become  the  most  imj)ortant  city 
in  the  South.  Its  harbor,  land-locked  by  reefs  and  keys,  in 


20.1 


204. 


ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST 


which  can  float  the  largest  ships  of  the  United  States  Navy,  has 
four  entrances.  The  southwest  passage  has  33  feet  of  water  on 
the  bar,  the  main  ship  channel  30  feet,  the  southeast  22  feet, 
and  the  northwest  14  feet.  A vessel  leaving  the  harbor  of  Key 
West  by  the  southwest  passage  would  have  to  sail  but  10  miles 
before  she  could  shape  her  course  for  her  port  of  destination, 
and  through  the  main  ship  channel  she  would  have  only  five 
miles  to  run  l)efore  she  was  at  sea.  Ships  putting  into  Key  West 
for  stores  or  rei)airs  neetl  go  out  of  their  course  but  10  miles, 
an  advantage  possessed  by  no  other  port  in  the  United  States. 
4'he  Government  is  now  engaged  in  deepening  the  northwest 
]>assage  to  21  feet,  and  when  this  is  completed  ships  trading  in  , 
the  gulf  will  ])ass  through  the  harbor  of  Key  West,  coming  in  at 
one  of  the  main  channels  and  pa.ssing  out  over  the  northwest 
l>ar,  thus  saving  70  miles  and  avoiding  the  dangerous  reefs  around 
the  Tortugas  islands. 

That  Key  West  will  within  a short  time  be  connected  with  the 
mainland  by  a*  railroad,  no  one  who  has  noted  the  trend  of  rail- 
road l)uilding  in  Florida  can  doubt.  The  ultimate  object  of  all 
railroad  construction  in  this  state  is  obviousl}'  to  reach  deep  water 
at  an  extreme  southern  point,  and  Ke}'’  West  meets  the.se  re- 
(juirements  to  the  fullest  degree. 

The  first  survey  of  a railroad  route  to  Key  West  was  made  by 
Civil  Engineer  J.  C.  Uailey  for  the  International  Ocean  Tele- 
graph Company  as  long  ago  as  I860.  General  W.  F.  Smith, 
better  known  as  “ Baldy  ” Smith,  at  that  time  president  of  the 
company,  obtained  from  the  Spanish  Government  an  exclusive 
landing  for  a calfie  on  the  coast  of  Cuba  for  forty  years.  The 
company  had  under  consideration  two  plans  for  reaching  Key 
West  with  its  telegraph  system.  One  contemplated  a land  line 
to  Punta  Rassa,  Florida,  and  thence  b}'  cable  to  Key  West;  the 
other  a continuous  land  line  along  the  keys.  It  was  proposed 
to  drive  iron  piles  into  the  coral  rock  in  the  waters  separating 
the  keys,  and  to  socket  them  about  10  feet  above  high-water 
mark  with  wooden  poles,  and  iMr  Bailey  was  employed  to  make 
the  surve3^  While  engaged  in  this  work  he  surveyed  the  route  for 
a railroad  to  Ke}"  West,  and  embodied  in  his  report  to  the  com- 
pany his  opinion  of  its  feasibility  and  cheapness  as  compared 
with  the  popular  idea  of  what  such  a road  would  cost,  ^\'hen 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  obtained  control  of  the 
International  Ocean  Telegraph  Company  this  report  came  into 
its  possession,  and  it  is  still  on  file  in  its  offices  in  New  York. 


ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST 


205 


The  distance  from  Ke}”^  West  to  the  point  where  a railroad 
would  connect  with  the  mainland  is  about  T20  miles,  100  miles 
of  which  would  be  on  the  keys.  The  construction  of  a railroad 
from  Key  West  to  Bahia  Honda,  an  island  30  miles  from  the 
former  point,  presents  no  difficult  problems  of  engineering  and 
would  be  comparatively  inexpensive.  When  cleared  of  a few 
inches  of  vegetable  mold  and  loose  stones,  the  surface  of  the 
islands  is  as  level  and  smooth  as  a ballroom  floor.  From  Key 
West  to  Bahia  Honda  the  railroad  wmuld  traverse  Boca  Chica, 
Saddle  Bunch,  Sugar  Loaf,  Cudjoe,  Summerland,  Torch,  and  Big 
Pine  Key.  Between  these  islands  short  trestles,  ranging  from 
one  hundred  yards  to  half  a mile  in  length,  would  be  necessary ; 
but  some  of  the  passages  could  be  filled  with  the  loose  rock  which 
is  found  in  immense  quantities  on  all  the  keys,  thus  obviating 
the  necessity  of  trestling  and  making  a solid  roadbed.  Not 
more  than  seven  feet  of  water  has  to  be  crossed  until  Bahia 
Honda  channel  is  reached.  This  channel  lies  between  West 
Summerland  Key  and  Bahia  Honda,  and  has  an  average  depth  of 
about  20  feet,  the  distance  across  it  being  a little  over  a quarter 
of  a mile.  Here  it  would  be  necessary  to  have  a drawbridge,  as 
the  channel  is  used  by  the  small  vessels  cruising  along  the  coast. 

The  most  difficult  and  expensive  i^ortion  of  the  road  would  be 
from  Bahia  Honda  to  Knights  Key.  Between  these  two  islands 
the  distance  is  about  eight  miles,  but  dotted  along  the  route  are 
several  small  keys,  surrounded  by  shallow  bars,  which  extend 
a half-mile  or  more  on  all  sides.  INIolasses  Key  lies  directly  on 
the  route  from  Bahia  Honda  to  Knights  Key.  Between  Molasses 
Key  and  Knights  Key  the  water  is  deep  and  bold,  and  if  the 
road  was  carried  in  a straight  line  throughout  it  would  cross 
about  half  a mile  of  water  varying  from  20  feet  to  25  feet  in 
depth ; but  by  making  a slight  detour  to  the  northward  and 
tre.stling  from  Molasses  Key  to  Pigeon  Key,  and  from  Pigeon 
Key  to  Knights  Key,  deep  water  would  l)e  avoided.  Between 
the  former  islands  lies  the  Moser  cliannel,  named  after  Lieut. 
Comdr.  .Jeff.  F.  Moser,  U.  S.  N.,  wlio  located  it  during  his  Coast 
Survey  work  in  this  vicinity  several  years  ago,  and  four  miles 
distant  and  to  the  westward  of  Knights  Key  is  the  channel  which 
bears  its  name;  over  one  or  both  of  the.se  channels  there  would 
be  another  drawbridge. 

After  reaching  Knights  Key  there  would  be  very  little  trestling 
for  a distance  of  30  miles,  until  the  small  keys  to  the  eastward  of 

li 


206 


ACROSS  THE  GULF  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST 


Grassy  Key  were  reached.  Thence  there  would  be  two  and  one- 
half  miles  of  trestling  to  Conch  Key  and  the  same  extent  to  Long 
Key.  After  traversing  Long  Key  for  four  miles  the  train  would 
run  over  a trestle  three  and  one-half  miles  long—  the  water  vaiw- 
ing  from  10  to  12  feet  deep — to  Lower  Matecumhe,  a fertile  island 
four  miles  in  length.  The  next  island  is  Upper  Matecumhe,  to 
reach  which  would  require  a trestle  two  miles  long  and  a draw- 
bridge over  one  of  the  three  channels  separating  these  two  keys. 
The  water  between  Lower  and  Upi>er  Matecumhe,  except  in  these 
channels,  is  ver}-^  shallow,  the  banks  at  low  tide  being  above  the 
surface  of  the  water.  The  channels  are  exceedingly  narrow,  but 
the  depth  of  water  in  them  ranges  from  12  feet  to  15  feet.  Upper 
Matecumhe,  Umbrella  Key,  Plantation  Key,  and  Key  Largo  are 
sei>arated  by  very  narrow  channels,  not  over  100  yards  in  width. 
The  last  named  island,  the  largest  and  most  fertile  of  the  entire 
chain,  is  30  miles  long,  and  connected  on  the  north  side  with  the 
mainland. 

By  a fortunate  provision  of  nature  there  is  situated  about  30 
miles  from  Key  West  a large  island  known  as  Big  Pine  Key, 
which  is  covered  with  a fine  growth  of  pine  suitable  for  railroad 
ties.  All  the  islands  over  which  the  road  would  run  are  of  coral 
formation.  The  piles  used  in  the  trestling  and  bridging  would 
be  of  iron,  which  is  easily  driven  into  the  soft  coral  rock.  The 
lighthouses  along  the  Florida  reef  are  so  constructed,  and,  stand- 
ing on  the  edge  of  the  gulf,  exposed  to  the  wind  and  sea,  they 
have  withstood  the  storms  and  cyclones  of  forty  years.  Over 
this  road  there  would  be  no  settling  or  washing  of  ties  nor  any 
sinking  of  tre.stles.  Outside  of  the  line  of  road  and  running 
parallel  with  it  lies  the  Florida  reef,  forming  a continuous  break- 
water from  Fowey  Rocks  to  Key  W'est,  and  protecting  the  road 
from  high  seas  even  in  the  severest  hurricanes.  The  channels 
between  the  reef  and  the  keys  are  not  over  12  feet  deep,  and  the 
water  in  which  the  trestling  would  be  built  would  be  no  rougher 
than  that  of  any  of  our  large  rivers. 

The  keys  are  all  below  the  frost  line.  The  mo.st  delicate  fruits 
and  vegetables  that  were  luxuriantly  growing  upon  them  during 
the  two  freezes  of  last  winter  were  not  affected  in  the  slightest 
degree,  and  tomatoes,  pineap{)les,  eggplant,  and  tropical  fruits 
were  supplied  from  these  islands  after  the  fruit  and  vegetables  in 
all  other  sections  of  the  state  had  been  destroyed.  Owing  to  lack 
of  transportation  facilities,  however,  onl}’  a few  of  the  keys  are 
under  cultivation ; so  the  growth  of  the  more  delicate  vegetables, 


ACROSS  THE  GULF.  BY  RAIL  TO  KEY  WEST 


207 


which  must  find  a daily  market,  is  limited  to  the  local  demand. 
"With  rapid  transportation  the  Florida  keys  would  supply  the 
country  with  fresh  vegetables  all  winter. 

Key  West  is  destined  to  become  the  Newport  of  the  South. 
Not  since  the  exceptional  year  1886  has  the  temperature  risen 
above  92°  F.  or  fallen  below  44°  ; in  fact,  the  mean  annual  maxi- 
mum of  the  last  nine  years  has  been  only  90.4°,  while  the  mean 
annual  minimum  has  been  50.5°.  In  1891  the  minimum  was 
53°,  in  1892  53°,  and  in  1893  52°.  Soft  breezes  from  the  ocean 
blow  continuously  over  the  island.  The  sun  shines  for  365  da}"s 
in  the  year  and  is  never  obscured  for  more  than  a few  hours  at 
a time,  except  occasionally  in  the  months  of  September  and 
October,  when  a West  India  cyclone  is  passing  up  the  gulf.  There 
are  no  malaria-breeding  pools  or  streams,  and  sooner  or  later  the 
thousands  of  tourists  who  are  restlessly  seeking  a milder  and 
more  equable  winter  climate  than  the  mainland  affords  will  find 
in  Key  ^^"est  their  ideal  health  resort. 

The  products  of  the  West  Indies  and  Caribbean  sea  will  be 
ferried  across  from  Cuba  in  five  hours  and  taken  b}^!^  railroad 
for  distribution  to  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  Capital  seek- 
ing investment  will  reap  no  handsomer  return  than  from  a dry 
dock  at  Key  West,  into  which  would  come  for  repairs  the  trad- 
ing-vessels of  the  gulf  which  now  have  to  go  hundreds  of  miles 
out  of  their  way  to  Newport  News,  and  with  the  completion  of 
the  Nicaragua  canal  Key  West  would  be  a port  of  call  for  sup- 
plies and  repairs  for  no  small  part  of  the  shipjnng  of  the  Avorld. 

A railroad  to  Key  West  will  assuredl}'-  be  built,  ^\’hile  the 
fact  that  it  has  no  exact  counterpart  among  the  great  achieve- 
ments of  modern  engineering  may  make  it,  like  all  other  great 
enterprises,  a subject  for  a time  of  incredulity  and  distrust,  it 
presents,  as  has  been  shown,  no  difficulties  that  are  insurmount- 
able. It  is,  however,  a magnificent  enterprise  and  one  the  exe- 
cution of  which  will  call  for  the  exercise  of  qualities  of  the  very 
highest  order.  ^^'llO  will  be  its  Cyrus  W.  Field?  The  hopes  of 
the  i)Cople  of  Key  West  are  centered  in  Henry  INI.  Flagler,  whose 
financial  genius  and  jmblic  spirit  have  opened  up  to  the  tourist 
and  health-seeker  300  miles  of  the  beautiful  east  coast  of  the 
state.  Tlie  building  of  a railroad  to  Key  West  would  be  a fitting 
consummation  of  Mr.  Flagler’s  remarkable  career,  and  his  name 
would  be  handed  down  to  jtosterity  linked  to  one  of  the  grandest 
achievements  of  modern  times. 


A GEOGRAPHICAL  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  BRITISH 

ISLANDS 


The  April  number  of  the  London  Geographical  Journal  con- 
tains an  important  account  by  Dr  H.  R.  Mill  of  his  plan  for  a 
comprehensive  Geographical  Description  of  the  British  Islands. 
He  proposes  that  a memoir  shall  be  prepared  for  each  sheet  of 
the  Ordnance  one-inch  maps,  giving  an  index  of  places;  the  mean 
elevation  of  the  sheet  and  of  the  areas  included  between  suc- 
cessive contour  lines ; a hypsographical  description ; a physio- 
graphical  explanation  ; the  areas  of  woodlands,  moorlands,  and 
cultivated  lands ; a description  of  local  iJolitical  boundaries  and 
of  historical  events  ; and,  finally  and  chiefly,  a geographical 
chapter,  “showing  the  relation  of  the  human  inhabitants  to  all 
the  foregoing  conditions,  especially  with  regard  to  the  sites  of 
towns  and  villages,  the  distribution  of  population,  the  utiliza- 
tion of  natural  resources,  and  historical  development  of  indus- 
tries.” A few  carefully  selected  photographs  of  typical  scenery 
should  accompany  each  memoir.  Some  sketch  maps  and  dia- 
grams may  also  be  included.  A bibliography  would  give  the 
titles  of  all  pertinent  publications. 

This  plan  was  favorably  received  at  a meeting  devoted  to  its 
]>resentation,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society  will  vigorously  promote  so  admirable  an  undertaking. 
Hitherto  concerned  chiefly  with  the  exploration  of  foreign  lands, 
a share  of  its  attention  7nay  well  be  turned  towards  its  home 
islands ; for,  as  was  truly  remarked  at  the  opening  of  a recent 
Italian  Geographical  Congress,  however  great  the  glory  of  dis- 
tant exploration  may  be,  the  study  of  the  home  country  is  a 
geographical  duty. 

It  may,  however,  be  questioned  whether  the  method  of  issuing 
a memoir  for  each  survey  sheet  is  on  the  whole  advisable  for  a 
work  in  which  the  physiographical  and  geographical  chapters, 
the  most  important  parts  of  all,  ought  to  be  limited  by  natural 
and  not  by  arbitrary  geometrical  boundaries.  Unity  of  treat- 
ment would  be  gained  and  much  repetition  would  be  avoided  by 
considering  each  physiographical  area  as  a whole  and  not  in  acci- 
dental fragments  as  it  happens  to  be  divided  by  the  edges  of  the 


208 


GEOGRAPHIC  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLANDS  209 


map  sheets.  The  usefulness  of  the  empirical  measurement  of 
altitudes  on  so  detailed  a scale  as  here  proposed  may  also  be 
questioned.  Not  contour-line  areas,  but  ph5’’siographical  areas, 
should  be  computed,  for  it  is  of  little  geographical  value  to  in- 
clude under  a single  arithmetical  heading  two  surfaces  of  equal 
limiting  altitudes,  one  a steep  slope,  the  other  a broad  flat. 
Again,  the  seriousness  of  the  undertaking  is  hardly  recognized 
in  the  statement  that  “the  physiographical  explanation  would, 
so  far  as  the  geology  is  concerned,  be  simply  a restatement  of  the 
‘ physical  geography  ’ section  of  the  [local]  geological  survey 
memoir,  with  such  modifications  as  the  modern  views  of  the 
cycle  of  development  of  a land  surface  suggest.”  This  is  as  if 
one  should  say  that  a petrographical  chapter  in  a new  geological 
report  should  be  merel}’’  a modification  of  a chapter  on  rocks 
that  was  written  before  the  methods  of  modern  petrography 
were  invented. 

It  is  stated  that  the  geographical  description  “ must  be  the 
work  of  a trained  geographer,  who,  after  studying  the  maps  in 
the  light  of  all  the  information  referred  to  above,  shall  have 
made  himself  familiar  with  the  ground.”  There  are  in  Great 
Britain  man}^  travelers  and  explorers,  but  not  many  “ trained 
geographers  ” in  the  sense  contemplated  by  Dr  Mill,  and  here 
seems  to  be  a prime  difficulty  besetting  this  grand  undertaking 
at  its  outset.  But  the  difficulty  may  be  in  great  part  solved  if 
to  this  crowning  chapter  we  apply  what  Dr  Mill  says  of  a certain 
subordinate  section  ; “ It  would  be  very  suitable  as  an  exercise 
and  training  for  students  if  any  institution  existed  in  this  coun- 
try where  students  could  he  induced  to  study  geography  seri- 
ousl}\”  A work  of  this  sort  must  necessarily  be  uneven  in 
quality.  It  should  exhibit  a marked  improvement  from  a fair 
beginning  to  a much  better  ending,  and  when  the  end  comes  a 
revision  of  the  earlier  parts  may  he  fairly  demanded.  It  is, 
therefore,  to  be  hoi)ed  that  Dr  Mill  will  not  adhere  too  closely 
to  the  philosophy  that  prohihits  going  into  the  water  until  after 
learning  how  to  swim.  Let  a beginning  of  the  work  at  least  he 
made  as  a means  of  training  up  new  geographers,  and  not  merely 
as  an  occupation  fijr  geographers  already  trained.  Let  the  Royal 
Geographical  Society  announce  that  it  will  ])uhlish  in  hrochurcs 
chapters  written  according  to  an  approved  )»lan  and  reaching  a 
standard  satisfactor}'  to  a committee  of  editors.  An  actual  be- 
ginning thus  made,  in  the  best  form  at  present  attainable,  will 
give  the  strongest  possible  ini[)ulse  to  the  serious  study  of  geog- 


210  GEOGRAPHIC  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLANDS 

raphy  in  the  colleges  and  universities  of  a country  where  its 
neglect  is  now  so  much  deplored. 

To  all  parts  of  the  work  might  be  applied  the  remark  intro- 
duced by  Dr  Mill  under  “ historical  information.”  It  should  be 
“ very  stringently  edited,  so  as  to  confine  it  strictly  to  those 
features  and  events  of  direct  geographical  importance.”  The 
varied  standards  of  articles  in  the  current  geographical  journals 
indicate  so  vague  an  idea  of  tlie  essential  quality  of  geographical 
discipline  that  this  stringent  editing  will  surely  be  needed  in 
every  chapter  of  the  proposed  memoirs.  Care  must  be  taken 
that  the  volumes  do  not  become  so  many  encyclopedias  of  sub- 
jects that  have  not  a “ direct  geographical  importance.”  Local 
floras  and  faunas,  for  example,  which  stand  in  the  list  of  sug- 
gested topics,  might  easily  depart  entirely  from  geography  and 
become  pure  biology.  ISIere  lists  of  species  have  practically  no 
geographical  bearing.  If  treated  with  relation  to  distribution 
they  gain  a touch  of  geographical  quality ; but  if  their  distri- 
bution is  used  to  reinforce  the  appreciation  of  conditions  of 
form,  altitude,  soil,  and  climate  they  become  as  fully  geograph- 
ical as  any  other  means  of  enlightened  description.  So  with 
the  study  of  population.  Numerical  tables  extracted  from 
census  reports  omit  the  essential  quality  of  relationship  that 
characterizes  geogra}>hy  proper.  True  geographical  study  is 
needed  to  bring  out  the  meaning  of  numbers  and  their  depend- 
ence on  physiographical  conditions.  \Te  believe  that  Dr  Mill 
appreciates  these  principles  very  fully,  but  there  is  a possibilit}’- 
that  others  who  will  probably  cooperate  with  him  are  not  so 
fully  impressed  by  them,  and  that  a committee  of  editors  as  a 
whole  might  not  see  the  importance  of  excluding  mere  tabula- 
tions of  species,  of  population,  and  similar  unrelated  records  from 
the  memoirs,  unless  the  principle  of  relationship  is  insisted  on 
from  the  beginning. 

There  is  no  place  in  the  world  that  is  today  so  favorably  situated 
for  the  undertaking  of  a work  of  this  kind  as  are  the  British  Isl- 
ands. Well  defined  b}'^  insular  position,  a compact  embodiment 
of  greatly  varied  forms,  a seat  of  vast  power  and  wealth,  the  rest 
of  the  world  may  hope  to  have  the  model  of  geographical  mono- 
graphs there  established.  There  is,  on  the  whole,  no  society  in 
the  world  better  fitted  to  encourage  and  support  such  an  under- 
taking than  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  of  London — estab- 
lished in  the  world’s  center  of  commerce,  the  resort  of  great 
numbers  of  explorers,  travelers,  and  others  of  geographic  sym- 


THE  MEXICAN  CENSUS 


211 


pathies,  possessing  vast  resources  in  its  library  and  its  funds. 
Dr  Mill,  as  a secretary  of  this  society,  is  to  be  congratulated  on 
the  surroundings  amid  which  his  project  takes  form,  and  we 
wish  him  the  greatest  success  in  its  execution. 

W.  M.  Davis. 


THE  MEXICAN  CENSUS 


The  population  of  Mexico,  as  ascertained  by  the  census  of  October  20, 
1895,  is  officially  announced  as  12,570,195.  The  population  of  the  differ- 
ent states,  with  their  respective  capitals,  is  as  follows : 

ST.-VTES 


Aguascalientes 103,645 

Campeche 90,458 

Coahuila 235,638 

Colima 55,677 

Chiapas 313,678 

Chihuahua 266,831 

Durangro 294,366 

Guanajuato 1,047,238 

Guerrero 417,621 

Hidalgo 548,0.39 

Jalisco 1,107,863 

Mexico 838,737 

Michoacan 889,795 

Morelos • 1.59,800 

Nuevo  Leon 309,607 

Oaxaca 882,  .529 

Puebla 979,723 

Queretaro 227,233 

San  Lnis  Potosi 570,814 

Sinaloa 256,414 

Sonora 191,281 

Tabasco 1.34,794 

Tamanlipas 204,206 

Tlaxcala  166,803 

Veracruz 855,975 

Yucatan 297, .507 

Zacatecas 4.52,720 

Federal  District 484,608 

Territory  of  Tepic 144, .308 

N.  Itist.  I.ower  Calif 7,4.52 

S.  Dist.  Lower  Calif. 34,.S35 


C.4PITAL  CITIES 


A guascalientes . ’. 31,619 

Campeche 16,631 

Saltillo 19,654 

Colima 19,305 

Tuxtla  Gutierrez 7,882 

Chihuahua 18,521 

Durango 42,165 

Guanajuato 39,3.37 

Chilpancingo 6,204 

Pachuca 52,189 

Guadalajara 83,870 

Toluca 23,648 

Morelia 32,287 

Cuernavaca 8,. 554 

Monterey 56,8.55 

Oaxaca 32,641 

Puebla 91,917 

Queretaro 32,790 

San  Lnis  Potosi 69,676 

Culiacan 14,205 

Hermosillo 8,376 

San  .Tuan  Bautista 27,0.36 

Ciudad  Victoria 14,575 

Tlaxcala 2,874 

.Talapa 18,173 

IMerida .36,720 

Zacatecas 40,026 

^Mexico .339,935 

Tepic 16,226 

Ensenada  <le  Todo.s  Santos.  1 ,2.59 
La  Paz 4,737 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


Hanrlhook  of  Arctic  Discoveries.  Columl>ian  Knowledge  Series.  ByA-W. 

Greely,  ]jri<radier-General,  United  States  Army  ; Chief  Signal  Otficer. 

Pp.  XI -I-  257,  with  11  maps.  Boston:  Roberts  Bros.  1890.  $1.00. 

Tliis  work  is  a perfect  storehouse  of  arctic  facts  and  figures,  from  the 
time  of  brave  old  Barents  and  'Willoughby  down  to  the  present.  As  the 
title  indicates,  it  is  a “ handbook  ” and  not  a narrative  of  arctic  discov- 
ery ; but  the  little  volume  “ represents  more  than  50,000  pages  of  original 
narrative,  from  which  the  author  has  faithfully  endeavored  to  comi^ile 
such  data  of  accomplished  results  as  may  subserve  the  inquiries  of  a busy 
man  who  often  wishes  to  know  what,  when,  and  where,  rather  than 
how.”  Beginning  with  a chajder  on  the  scope  and  value  of  arctic  ex- 
ploration, fifteen  succinct  chaptei's  are  devoted  to  a description  of  the 
north  polar  regions  and  of  the  successive  explorations  by  which  they 
have  been  made  known ; each  of  these  chapters  is  followed  by  a special 
bibliography,  while  a general  bibliography  forms  a final  chapter,  and  the 
volume  ends  with  an  excellent  index.  The  little  book  is  a model  of  con- 
densation and  logical  arrangement ; it  cannot  be  other  than  a godsend 
to  the  student  of  arctic  literature;  it  shows  immense  reading  and  study* 
with  jiatience  and  perseverance  beyond  the  average  man ; and  its  vivid 
and  forceful  style  carries  the  writer  back  over  years  of  arctic  research 
and  hundreds  of  volumes  of  arctic  literature  to  his  own  voyages  on  icy 
seas.  O.  W.  Melviu.e. 


Crater  Ixikc  Special  Map.  Klamath  County,  Oregon.  United  States  Geo- 
logical Survey.  'Washington,  189fi. 

Rami,  McXalhj  ib  Co.'s  Indexed  County  and  Railroad  Pocket  Map  and  Ship- 
pers’ Guide.  INIa.ssachusetts,  Pennsylvania,  Kentucky,  Washington, 
and  other  states:  Quebec.  British  Columbia,  and  other  provinces  of 
Canada.  New  edition.  Chicago:  Rand,  McNally  & Co.  1890.  25  cents. 

Occupations  of  the  Negroes.  By  Henry  Gannett,  of  the  United  States  Geo- 
logical Survey.  Pp.  10,  with  12  diagrams.  Baltimore:  The  Trustees 
of  the  John  F.  Slater  Fund.  Occasional  Papers.  No.  0.  1895.  25  cents. 

The  Foreign  Commerce  and  Navigatiem  of  the  United  States  for  the  Year  endinn 
June  30,  1895.  Prepared  by  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Statistics, 
Treasury  Department.  Washington,  1890.  Pp.  xcix -f  .110b -r  83, 
with  diagrams. 

S'atistical  Abstract  of  the  United  States.  1895.  Eighteenth  number.  Pre- 
pared by  the  Bureau  of  Statistics,  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury.  Pp.  xii  + 412.  Washington,  1896. 

A commendable  departure  recently  made  by  the  Geological  Survey  is 
well  exemplified  in  the  case  of  the  topographic  sheet  devoted  to  Crater 
lake,  Oregon,  which  contains  three  very  instructive  as  well  as  attractive 
illustrations,  together  with  an  interesting  description  of  the  lake  and  its 


212 


GEOGRAPHIC  LITERATURE 


213 


vicinity  from  the  pen  of  Mr  J.  S.  Diller,  the  accomplished  geologist  to 
whom  the  country  is  in  no  small  measure  indebted  for  its  scientific 
knowledge  of  this  great  natural  wonder. 

The  new  edition  of  the  Kand-McNally  state  pocket  maps  cannot  fail  to 
add  to  the  well-deserved  popularity  they  have  so  long  enjoyed.  The 
maps  are  clearer  and  handsomer  than  ever,  and  the  geographical  index  by 
which  they  are  accompanied  is  brought  down  to  the  date  of  publication, 
the  population  according  to  tlie  state  census  of  1895  being  substituted  for 
that  at  the  federal  census  of  1890  in  all  states  in  which  an  interdecennial 
census  has  been  taken. 

Nothing  could  be  more  admirable  in  its  way  than  is  Mr  Gannett’s  pre- 
sentation in  the  pamphlet  recently  published  by  the  Trustees  of  the  John 
F.  Slater  Fund  of  the  facts  brought  to  light  by  the  Eleventh  Census  con- 
cerning the  occupations  of  the  negroes.  The  treatise  is  a model  of  lucid 
condensation,  the  brief  compass  of  a dozen  pages  sufficing  for  a most  sat- 
isfactory setting  forth  of  the  following  important  facts  and  conclusions, 
viz.,  that  the  negro  is  mainly  engaged  either  in  agriculture  or  personal 
service ; that  he  has  in  a generation  made  little  progress  in  manufactures, 
transportation,  or  trade  ; that  males  are  in  greater  proportion  engaged  in 
agriculture  and  females  in  domestic  service ; that  the  negro  has  during 
this  generation  made  good  progress  toward  acquiring  property,  especially 
in  the  form  of  homes  and  farms,  and  that,  in  just  so  far  as  he  has  acquired 
possession  of  real  estate,  it  is  safe  to  say  he  has  become  more  valuable  as 
a citizen.  The  author’s  conclusion  that  the  outlook  for  the  Afro-Ameri- 
can race  is  very  favorable  as  agriculturists,  but  that  there  is  little  prospect 
that  they  will  become  an  important  factor  in  manufactures,  transporta- 
tion, or  commerce  seems  to  be  fully  warranted  by  the  expei’ience  of  the 
last  thirty  years. 

With  the  possible  exception  of  the  Yearbook  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture,  of  which  500,000  copies  are  printed  annually,  there  is  no 
publication  of  the  United  States  Government  that  is  consulted  more  fre- 
quently or  for  more  important  purposes  than  are  the  Annual  Report  on 
Commerce  and  Navigation,  published  by  the  Bureau  of  Statistics  of  the 
Treasury  Department,  and  the  Statistical  Abstract,  issued  annually  from 
the  same  office.  These  volumes  contain  the  statistics  of  e\'i)orts  and  im- 
jjorts,  those  of  immigration  and  of  the  currency,  and,  for  a large  number 
of  important  commodities,  those  of  total  and  per  capita  consumption  and 
of  market  prices.  They  an?  continually  being  consulted  and  quoted  by 
politicians  of  every  party  and  economists  and  financiers  of  every  school, 
and  however  conflicting  the  conclusions  j^rofessedly  drawn  from  them, 
the  figures  themselves  are  usually  accepted  without  ijiiestion.  It  is  there- 
fore much  to  be  regretted  that  the  value  of  tlie  volumes  for  1S!)5  is  so 
greatly  impaired  by  the  want  of  care  with  which  the  figures  for  the  last 
fi.scal  year  have  been  conq)iled.  While  many  of  tlie  errons  are  not  of 
sufficient  magnitude  to  seriously  affect  totals  or  percentages,  and  are 
therefore  of  consequence  only  so  far  as  they  help  fo  di-stroy  the  conli- 
•lenceof  the  reader  in  the  I’ontentsof  the  volumes  in  general,  this  cannot 
be  said  of  them  all.  In  several  cases  they  are  of  more  or  less  far-reach- 
ing effect,  while  one  by  no  means  self-evident  error  of  ten  million  dol- 


214 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPIITC  SOCIETY: 


lars  plays  havoc  in  all  its  relations.  The  efficient  and  respected  Chief 
of  the  Bureau,  who  has  in  so  many  different  ways  added  to  the  scope  and 
value  of  these  publications,  makes  a strong  appeal  to  Congress  for  addi- 
tional clerical  assistance,  the  number  of  persons  employed  in  the  Bureau 
not  luiving  been  increased  during  a period  of  nearly  thirty  }’ears.  Al- 
though the  compilation  of  so  enormous  a mass  of  figures  involves  an 
amount  of  labor  of  wdiich  the  average  Congressman  has  not  the  slightest 
conception,  it  is  not  too  much  to  hope  that  more  adecpiate  provision  will 
hereafter  be  made  for  the  work  of  this  most  important  Bureau.  The  per- 
fect indifference  with  which  statistical  inaccuracies  are  regarded  is  truly 
deplorable.  Our  legislators  themselves  are  <-onstant  and  serious  offenders, 
numerical  statements  in  tlie  daily  press  are  rarely  to  be  relied  u}wn,  and 
even  our  most  pretentious  works  of  reference  are  not  free  from  errors  that 
are  absolutely  inexcusable.  In  the  article  on  agi'iculture,  for  example,  in 
one  of  our  best  known  cyclo])edias,  an  eminent  college  professor  is  re- 
s])onsible  for  the  statement,  among  others  equally  erroneous,  that  the 
United  States  contains  nearly  a billion  horses,  or'over  fifty  times  the  num- 
ber it  actually  does  or  ever  did  contain.  It  is  useless  to  take  refuge  in  the 
plea  of  non-infallibility.  No  publication,  whether  official  or  non-official, 
can  afford  to  make  misstatements  that  are  more  than  mere  elusive,  typo- 
graphical errors.  J.  Hydk. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY,  SESSION  i895-’96 

Sj'iecud  Meeting,  March  27,  Vice-President  Ogden  in  the  chair. 

Hon.  James  II.  Eckels,  Comptroller  of  the  Currency,  addressed  the 
Society  on  the  Geographic  History  of  Cnrrency. 

Special  Meeting,  March  30,  189G. — Fifth  IMonday  afternoon  lecture.  ]\Ir 
W J McGee  in  the  chair.  Prof  Harry  Fielding  Reid  described  and  illus- 
trated the  Glaciers  of  Alaska,  exhibiting  many  original  views  by  means 
of  the  lantern. 

Regular  Meeting,  April  3,  Vice-President  Gannett  in  the  chair. 

IMr  Robert  T.  Hill  read  a paper  on  the  Greer  County  Case. 

Specutl  Meeting,  April  6, 1896. — Sixth  Monday  afternoon  lecture.  Presi- 
dent Hubbard  in  tbe  chair.  The  President  announced  that  Prof  Wm.  H. 
Dali,  who  was  to  have  addressed  the  Society,  was  prevented  from  doing 
so  by  illness,  and  that  Mr  IMarcus  Baker  had  kindly  consented  to  take  his 
])lace.  IMr  Baker  then  described  the  voyage  from  Sitka  westward  to  Attn 
island,  with  lantern-slide  illustrations. 

Special  Meeting,  April  10,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Mr 
Wm.  F.  Mannix  addressed  the  Society  on  Cuba  as  Seen  by  a War  Corre- 
spondent, with  lantern-slide  illustrations. 

Special  Meeting,  April  13,  —Seventh  Monday  afternoon  lecture. 
President  Hubbard  in  tbe  chair.  Prof.  I.  C.  Russell  described  his  visit 


ITS  PROCEEDINGS 


215 


to  the  interior  of  Alaska,  up  the  Yukon  and  Porcupine  rivers,  and  across 
the  Chilcat  pass  to  Lynn  canal,  illustrating  his  address  by  means  of  a 
large  map  and  numerous  lantern  slides.  The  President  announced  that 
this  was  the  last  of  the  special  afternoon  course,  and  that  the  subject  of 
the  Lenten  course  of  1897  would  probably  be  an  illustrated  tour  across 
the  Atlantic  and  through  the  Mediterranean. 

Regular  Meeting,  April  17, 1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Hon. 
Fred.  T.  Dubois,  U.  S.  S.,  read  a paper,  illustrated  by  lantern  slides,  on 
the  Geography,  Scenery,  and  Resources  of  Idaho. 

The  following  amendments  to  the  by-laws  were  offered  in  writing,  to 
come  up  for  action  at  the  annual  meeting; 

By  Vice-President  Greely:  Article  V,  Dues.  Add  after  second  para- 
graph : “ Suitable  rebates  may  be  made,  in  the  discretion  of  the  Board  of 
Managers,  in  the  annual  dues  of  members  elected  in  February,  March, 
Aju'il,  and  May.” 

By  Secretary  Hayden : Add  the  following  new  article:  “Article  IX. 
Seal.  The  seal  of  the  Society  shall  consist  of  a polyconic  projection  of 
the  western  hemisphere,  from  0°  to  180°  west  from  Greenwich,  with  the 
legend  ‘ National  Geographic  Society  ’ above  and  ‘ Incorporated  A.  D. 
1888’  below,  as  in  the  design  herewith.” 

Special  Meeting,  April  24,  1896. — Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President 
of  the  Society,  delivered  the  annual  address  from  the  chair,  taking  for 
his  subject  the  Progress  of  Africa  since  1888,  with  special  Reference  to 
South  Africa  and  Abyssinia.  The  addi’ess  was  accompanied  by  lantern- 
slide  illustrations. 

Special  Meeting,  May  8,  1896. — President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  Mr 
George  F.  Kunz  read  a paper,  with  lantern-slide  illustrations,  on  Geog- 
raphy as  Illustrated  by  Precious  Stones. 

Regular  Meeting,  May  15, 1896. — Eighth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society. 
President  Hubbard  in  the  chair.  The  Secretary  and  Treasurer  i^resented 
their  annual  reports.  Pending  amendments  to  the  by-laws  were  con- 
sidered and  adopted  as  follows : 

Article  V,  Dues.  Add,  after  second  paragraph,  “ Suitable  rebates  may 
be  made,  in  the  discretion  of  the  B(jard  of  Managers,  in  the  annual  dues 
of  members  elected  in  April  and  May.” 

Add  the  following  new  article  : 

“Article  IX,  Seal.  The  seal  of  the  Society  shall  consist  of  a polyconic 
projection  of  the  western  hemisphere,  from  0°  to  180°  west  from  Green- 
wich, with  the  legend  ‘National  Geographic  Society’  above  and  ‘ Incor- 
j^orated  A.  D.  1888’  below,  as  in  the  design  herewith.” 

Mr  Wm.  A.  De  Caindry  and  Col.  H.  C.  Rizer  were  appointe<l  a com- 
mittee to  audit  the  Society’s  accounts. 

The  Presi<lent  announced  that,  in  accordance  with  the  re.«olution 
adopte<l  by  the  Society  at  a meeting  held  December  27,  1895,  the  Board 
of  Managers  had  cliussified  its  members  in  three  groups  of  six  members 
each,  as  follows:  To  retire  in  May,  1890,  Mr  C.  .1.  Bell,  Hon.  C.  IV.  Dab- 
ney, .fr.,  Mr  G.  K.  (iilbert,  .Mr  II.  G.  Ogden,  lion.  J.  R.  Procter,  and 
Miss  K.  R.  Scidmore;  in  May,  1897,  Mr  Marcus  Baker,  Mr  II.  F.  Rloiint, 
Lieut.  E.  Hayden,  DrC.  Hart  .Merriam,  Prof.  \V.  B.  Powell,  and  Mr.I.  B. 


216 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 


"Wight;  in  May,  1808,  Mr  Hy.  Gannett,  Gen.  A.  "W.  Greely,  Hon.  Gardi- 
ner G.  Hubbard,  Mr  J.  Hyde,  ]\Ir  "W  J McGee,  and  Mr  F.  H.  Newell. 

The  Society  then  elected  the  following-named  gentlemen  members  of 
the  Board  of  ^Managers  for  a term  of  three  years:  Mr  C.  J.  Bell,  Hon. 
C.  AV.  Dabney,  Jr.,  Prof.  AVm.  H.  Dali,  Dr  David  T.  Day,  Mr  G.  K.  Gil- 
bert, and  Mr  H.  G.  Ogden. 

Special  Meeting,  May  16,  1896. — Eighth  Annual  Excursion  and  Field 
fleeting.  About  .300  members  and  guests  went  by  special  train  to  Char- 
lottesville, A^a.,  and  there  visited  Monticello  (the  home  of  Jefferson)  and 
the  University  of  A'irginia.  The  meeting  was  held  at  Alonticello,  Presi- 
dent Hubbard  in  tbe  chair,  and  addresses  were  made  by  Alayor  Patton, 
of  Charlottesville ; President  Randolph,  of  the  University ; General  A.  AA^. 
Greely,  Dr  Randolph  McKim,  Prof.  AA'"  J McGee,  Dr  G.  Brown  Goode, 
and  other  gentlemen.  After  lunch  the  party  visited  the  Univ^ersitj'  and 
were  received  by  the  faculty,  returning  to  AA'^ashington  the  same  evening. 

Elections. — New  members  have  been  elected  as  follows : 

April  3. — Edward  Bailey,  Alaj.  Geo.  A^.  Boutelle,  Mrs  L.  A.  Bradley, 
Henry  G.  Bryant,  Dr  John  P.  Davis,  Mrs  James  AI.  Foster,  8.  L.  Lupton, 
Frank  C.  Allies,  Thos.  C.  Noyes,  Dr  Heinrich  Ries,  Geo.  F.  Thompson. 

April  17. — Dr  S.  AA’.  Beyer,  Lieut.  AA’.  V.  Bronaugh,  U.  S.  N.,  Lewis 
Clephane,  Alaj.  H.  L.  Cranford,  Aliss  S.  B.  Hale,  Geo.  AV.  Holdrege, 
Alaj.  James  AI.  Alorgan,  Alex.  R.  Alullowny,  T.  AV.  Neill,  Gen.  Albert 
Ordway,  Horace  L.  Piper,  Aliss  Elizabeth  AA’right,  Henry  Xander. 

May 4. — AA’.  L.  Atkin,  E.  B.  Baldwin,  Hiram  E.  Deats,  Dr  Johnson 
Eliot,  Aliss  E.  F.  Fisher,  J.  C.  Gifford,  Chas.  Hallock,  Rev.  P.  AI.- AIc- 
Teague,  Chas.  A.  Perkins,  Chas.  S.  Prosser. 

May  15. — James  0.  Brooks,  Dr  AVm.  D.  Cabell,  Aliss  Ella  Loraine  Dor- 
sey, Gen.  AI.  F.  Force,  AA’.  F.  Foster,  Airs  H.  D.  Green,  F.  AA’.  Perkins, 
AVm.  E.  Rogers,  Lorin  P.  Smith,  Hon.  J.  Randolph  Tucker,  AA’.  A.  Turk. 

Obitcary. — The  Society  has  to  deplore  the  deaths  of  three  of  its  mem- 
bers— Air  Charles  Addison  Alann,  Jr.,  who  died  Alarch  12;  Alajor 
AVilliam  Holcomb  AA’ebster,  the  well  known  and  much  respected  Chief 
Examiner  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission,  who  expired  suddenl}"  on 
Alarch  23,  and  Judge  A’ictor  C.  Barringer,  formerly  and  for  many  years 
a distinguished  member  of  the  International  Court  of  Appeals  at  Alex- 
andria, Egypt,  whose  death  occurred  Alay  27. 

Officers  for  1896-’97. — At  a meeting  of  the  Board  of  Alanagers,  held 
June  5,  1896,  the  following  were  elected  officers  of  the  Society  for  the 
ensuing  year : President,  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard  ; A’ice-Presidents, 
Air  Alarcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey ; Prof.  AA’m.  H.  Dali,  Smith- 
sonian Institution;  Air  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey;  Gen.  A. 
AA’.  Greely,  U.S.A.,  Chief  Signal  Officer;  Dr  C.  Hart  Alerriam,  U.  S.  De- 
partment of  Agriculture,  and  Air  Herbert  G.  Ogden  ; Treasurer,  Air  C.  J. 
Bell,  President  of  the  American  Security  and  Trust  Company ; Recording 
Secretary,  Lieut.  Everett  Hayden,  U.S.N. ; Corresponding  Secretary,  Air 
Henry  Gannett,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


NORTH  AMERICA 

Newfoundland.  The  Newfoundland  seal  fishery  has  ended  in  a total 
catch  of  196,485  seals,  weighing  4,637  tons  and  of  the  value  of  $268,000. 

Mexico.  The  imports  of  British  cottons  into  Mexico  in  1895  were  nearly 
double  those  of  the  preceding  year,  although  the  Mexican  mills  were 
favored  by  protection  and  also  by  the  low  price  of  silver. 

Canada.  The  Royal  Society  of  Canada  has  adopted  a memorial  to  the 
governor-general  praying  his  intervention  with  the  imperial  government 
in  favor  of  the  unification  of  nautical,  civil,  and  astronomical  time,  the 
reform  to  come  into  effect  on  the  first  day  of  the  new  century. 

The  Canadian  and  British  governments  have  come  to  an  agreement 
relative  to  the  subsidization  of  a fast  steamship  service  between  Liverpool, 
or  some  other  English  port,  and  Quebec  in  summer,  and  Halifax,  Nova 
Scotia,  in  wipter.  The  vessels  are  to  be  in  every  respect  equal  to  the  best 
steamers  running  into  New  York. 

SOUTH  AMERICA 

British  Guiana.  About  20  miles  have  been  completed  of  the  railroad 
that  is  being  constructed  from  Kartabo  point,  at  the  junction  of  the 
Mazaruni  and  Cuyuny  rivers  and  opposite  the  mining  town  of  Bartica, 
to  the  interior  of  the  country.  Another  enterprise  that  will  facilitate 
access  to  the  interior  is  the  line  that  is  being  built  from  AVismar,  on  the 
Demerara  river,  to  a point  on  the  Esequibo  above  the  dangerous  falls  that 
interfere  with  the  navigation  of  that  stream.  Two  other  lines,  both  in 
the  Barima  mining  district,  are  being  rapidly  pushed  to  completion. 

EUROPE 

Austria.  Large  vessels  can  now  sail  right  up  the  Danube  to  Vienna, 
and  tlie  construction  of  ship  canals  connecting  the  Danube,  Oder,  and 
Vistula,  and  also  between  Budapest  and  Fiume,  is  strongly  advocated. 

E.ngl.vnd.  Tlie  total  receipts  of  the  Manchester  Ship  Canal  for  the  first 
four  months  of  the  present  year  showed  an  increase  of  more  than  $55,000 
on  those  for  the  corre.sponding  period  of  1895. 

The  president  of  tlie  Royal  Geographical  Society,  Mr  C.  R.  Alark- 
ham,  receivetl  the  honor  of  knighthood  on  the  recent  anniver.sary  of 
Queen  Victoria’s  birthday. 

The  Founders’  medal  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  has  been 
awarded  to  Sir  W.  Macgregor  for  his  valuable  geograi)hical  work  in  New 
Guinea;  the  Patrons’  me<lal  to  Mr  St.  George  R.  Littleilale  for  his  expe- 
ditions in  Central  Asia;  the  Mun;hison  award  to  Khan  Bahadur  Yusuf 
Sharif,  native  Indian  surveyor;  the  (till  memorial  to  Mr  A.  P.  Low  for 
explorations  in  I.«abrador ; the  Black  grant  to  Mr  .1.  Burr  Tyrrell  for  his 


217 


218 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


expeditions  to  the  Barren  Grounds  of  northwest  Canada,  and  the  Cuth- 
bert  Peck  grant  to  Mr  Alfred  Sharjje  for  his  many  journeys  in  British 
Central  Africa. 

Fk.\xce.  According  to  the  recent  census,  the  population  of  Paris  is 
now  2,511,955,  an  increase  of  87,250  in  five  years. 

The  proposed  ship  canal  between  the  bay  of  Biscay  and  the  Mediter- 
ranean is  pronounced  impracticable  as  a private  enterprise,  and  the  com- 
missioners fui'ther  report  that  it  offers  no  such  strategic  or  other  advan- 
tages as  would  justify  its  construction  by  the  government. 

The  activity  and  influence  of  the  Societe  de  Geographie  de  Paris  are 
indicated  by  the  fifteen  medals  and  prizes  just  awarded  as  follows ; 
1.  Great  Gold  Medal,  Prince  Henri  d’Orleans,  Exploration  from  gulf 
of  Tonkin  to  gulf  of  Bengal ; 2.  Gold  Medal,  Captain  G.  Toutee,  Ex- 
plorations tlirough  Dahomey  and  on  the  Niger ; 3.  Logerot  Medal,  Com- 
mander Decoeuer,  The  Niger  Mission;  4.  Fournier  Medal,  L.  Romsselet, 
The  New  Dictionary  of  Universal  Geography  ; 5.  Malte-Brun  Medal,  E. 
Chantre,  Ethnogi-aphical  and  archeological  investigations  in  the  Caucasus; 

6.  JJeicez  Medal,  F.-J.  Clozel,  Explorations  to  the  north  of  Upper  Sangha ; 

7.  Herbert- Fournel  Medal,  A.  Pavie,  Explorations  in  Indo-China  and  his 
efforts  to  extend  the  power  of  France  in  the  far  East;  8.  Bourbonnaud 
Medal,  L.  Lapicque,  Voyage  in  the  Persian  gulf  and  study  of  the  Negritos ; 
9.  iJuveyrier  Medal,  Commander  Decazes,  Investigations  of  French  Congo 
and  surveys  north  of  Abiras;  10.  Morot  Medal,  J,  Renaud  and  C.  Rollet 
de  L’Jsle,  Surveys  in  the  Pai-tsi-long  archipelago.  Tonkin;  11.  Montherot 
Medal,  R.  de  Saint  Arroman,  Study  of  geographic  enterj)rises  of  the  Min- 
ister of  Public  Instruction ; 12.  Grad  Medal,  A.-M.  Gochet,  Works  on 
geographic  instruction;  13.  Huber  Medal,  F.-A.  Forel,  Work  on  lake 
Ixunan  and  on  glaciers ; 14.  Jaimen  Medal,  F.  Foureau,  Physical  observa- 
tions and  explorations  in  the  Sahara;  15.  Jomard  prize,  H.  Froidevaux, 
Memoirs  of  travel  in  French  Guya.nne. 

Geu.m.vny.  The  final  report  of  the  census  of  the  German  Empire,  taken 
December  2,  1895,  shows  a total  population  of  52,244,503,  an  increase  of 
nearly  three  millions  within  five  years. 

The  traffic  receipts  of  the  North  Sea  and  Baltic  Ship  Canal  have  so  far 
been  vei'y  disappointing.  A traffic  of  7,500,000  tons  and  receipts  of  nearly 
5,000,000  marks  per  annum  had  been  counted  on,  whereas  the  first  eight 
months’  receipts  amounted  to  only  605,050  marks  and  rei)resented  a tratfic 
of  only  976,478  tons. 

It.\i,y.  The  population  of  Rome  on  December  31,  1895,  is  officially 
reported  as  471,801,  an  increase  of  35,621  since  December  31,  1891.  For 
some  unexplained  reason  no  enumeration  was  made  of  such  of  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  city  as  were  without  fixed  abode,  their  number  being  assumed 
to  be  the  same  as  at  the  census  of  1891,  viz.,  28,765.  The  number  having 
fixed  abodes  was  431,881  and  the  garrison  11,155. 

ASIA 

The  French  authorities  at  Chentabun  are  making  a road  to  Bat- 
tambang  and  constructing  a telegraph  line. 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


219 


Upper  Bcrma.  Active  operations  looking  to  the  development  of  the 
mineral  wealth  of  Upper  Burma  are  about  to  be  commenced.  A promis- 
ing gold  reef  has  been  discovered  in  the  Wuntho  district,  and  coal  of  ex- 
cellent quality  is  reported  from  Lawksawk,  in  the  Southern  Shan  country. 

. Cni.v.A.  An  imperial  edict  directs  the  constniction  of  a railway  from 
Shanghai  to  Soochow,  65  miles,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  2,000,000  taels. 
Shares  for  one-half  the  amount  are  offered  to  the  public  at  Shanghai. 
Only  Chinese  stockholders  will  be  admitted,  and  the  government  will 
retain  control.  The  government  has  sanctioned  a large  increase  in  the 
production  of  salt  as  an  additional  source  of  revenue  for  the  rej^ayment  of 
the  Russian  loan. 

Turkestan.  The  Russian  government  is  said  to  have  decided  to  take 
another  step  toward  getting  within  striking  distance  of  Herat.  A broad- 
gauge  railway  is  to  be  built  from  Merv  to  a point  near  the  Afghan  fron- 
tier, a distance  of  about  130  miles,  and  all  necessary  material  is  to  be 
collected  at  the  far  end  of  the  line  for  the  rapid  extension  of  the  road  to 
Herat,  a further  distance  of  only  94  miles,  in  the  event  of  war.  Authority 
has  also  been  given  to  the  Turkestan  administration  to  begin  the  build- 
ing of  a railroad  along  the  Oxus  from  Charjui,  where  the  river  is  bridged, 
to  Kerki,  within  a short  distance  of  the  Afghan  frontier. 

AFRICA 

West  Coast.  An  amicable  settlement  of  the  boundaries  between  Sene- 
gal and  Gambia  has  been  arrived  at  by  the  French  and  English  commis- 
sioners. 

Ea.st  Coast.  In  the  British  Colony  of  Natal  there  are  more  than 
51,000  Indian  laborers,  and  the  Europeans  are  clamoi’ing  for  the  prohi- 
bition of  further  immigration. 

Profe-ssor  Elliot’s  Expedition.  Consul  Masterson  reports  that  Prof. 
D.  G.  Elliot  and  Messrs  Akeley  and  Dodson  arrived  at  Aden  April  14, 
where  they  procured  70  Somalis,  80  camels,  and  20  horses  and  mules.  A 
week  later  they  crossed  to  Berliera,  on  the  Somali  coast.  An  absence  of 
10  months  is  planned,  during  which  they  will  cross  Somali  into  Gallaland 
and  pass  to  the  south  of  Juba  river.  The  main  object  of  the  journey  is 
the  collection  of  mammals,  but  no  effort  will  be  spared  to  make  the 
zoological  collection  varied  and  complete. 

Dr  S.mith’s  Expedition.  Interest  is  added  to  Elliot’s  journey  by  the 
very  successful  exiiedition  of  Dr  A.  Donaldson  Smith,  of  Pliiladelpliia, 
who  left  Berbera  July  10,  1894,  and  visited  the  unexi>lored  country  of 
Gallaland,  between  Shebeli  river  and  lake  Rudolf.  This  lake,  to  tlie 
northeast  of  Victoria  Nvanza,  was  reacbe<l  in  July,  1895.  After  a jour- 
ney of  4,000  miles.  Dr  Smith  arrived  at  Lamu,  on  the  ea.st  coast,  north  of 
Zanzibar,  on  October  25, 1895,  having  lost  only  six  men  in  sixteen  months. 
His  most  interesting  discovery  was  a race  of  pigmies,  the  Dunne,  very 
black,  flat-nosed,  large-lipped,  woolly-haired,  and  averaging  only  five  feet 
in  height,  the  tallest  being  5 feet  2 inches.  The  most  valuable  results  of 
the  expedition  are  the  large  and  varied  natural  history  collections,  con- 


220 


MISCELLANEA. 


sisting  of  75  mammals ; 300  specimens  of  plants,  24  new  ; 700  specimens 
and  400  varieties  of  birds,  24  new ; 375  specimens  of  reptiles,  22  new,  and 
7,000  specimens  of  butterflies,  50  nev/. 

POLAR  REGIONS 

The  Wbidimnl,  of  the  Jackson-Harmsworth  expedition,  will  leave  for 
the  Arctic  regions  early  this  month.  She  will  carry  letters  for  Dr  Nansen, 
on  the  chance  of  falling  in  with  him  north  of  Franz  Josef  Land. 

Prof.  Y.  Nielsen,  of  the  University  of  Christiania,  states  that  at  the 
last  moment  Dr  Nansen  contemplated  a change  in  his  route.  It  was  to 
follow  the  sea  of  Kara  along  the  east  Coast  of  Nova  Zembla  and  reach 
Franz  Josef  Land  to  the  north  of  the  80th  parallel,  whence  he  would 
push  to  the  north  to  seek  polar  currents.  Nielsen  believes  that  this 
course  has  been  followed  by  Nansen,  since  he  failed  to  call  for  the  dogs 
and  supplies  collected  for  him  at  the  mouth  of  the  Olenek. 


MISCELLANEA 

Pkof.  R.  S.  T.\rr  will  take  a party  of  Cornell  men  to  Greenland  with 
Lieut.  Peary  this  summer.  The  intention  is  to  spend  five  or  six  weeks  in 
studying  the  geology  and  natural  history  of  a part  of  the  coast  north  of 
Upernavik.  The  main  object  will  be  the  study  of  glaciation,  but  the  party 
will  be  so  constituted  that  other  subjects  will  receive  full  attention. 

A Bronze  Memori.vl  Bust  of  Commodore  G.  W.  Melville,  Engineer- 
in-Chief  of  the  United  States  Navy  and  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Steam 
Engineering,  has  been  presented  to  the  Philadelphia  Commander}'  of  the 
Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion  by  a few  of  the  friends  and  admirers 
of  that  distinguished  engineer  and  arctic  explorer.  The  bust,  which  is 
by  Ellicott,  is  pronounced  an  excellent  likeness. 

Albert  Perry  Brigii.\m  has  recently  published  a noteworthy  article 
entitled  “The  New  Geography”  {Popular  Science  Monthly,  April,  189()),  in 
which  some  of  the  characteristics  of  scientific  geography  are  appreciatively 
set  forth.  The  geography  of  past  generations  related  to  earth-forms  treated 
as  changeless  units;  the  geography  of  the  present  generation  treats  of 
earth-forms  as  landmarks  in  teri’estrial  evolution,  and  leads  to  the  con- 
sideration of  growth  and  decay,  cause  and  effect,  process  and  product, 
and  finally  of  the  agencies  of  earth-making;  the  old  geography  was  mere 
description  of  dead  forms,  the  new  geographic  description  extends  to  his- 
tory and  cause.  The  contributions  of  Powell,  Gilbert,  Dutton,  McGee, 
Davis,  and  other  American  students  of  the  new  science  are  recognized, 
Superintendent  Powell’s  activity  in  disseminating  sound  method  is  com- 
mended, and  the  activity  of  the  National  Geographic  Society  in  discovery 
and  in  inculcating  modern  ideas  is  noticed.  The  article  is  of  interest  as 
an  indication  of  progress  in  the  development  and  diffusion  of  scientific 
geography,  and  its  appearance  in  a journal  not  given  to  the  recognition 
of  modern  earth  science  is  especially  welcome. 


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Its  Sleeping  and  Dining  Car  service  is 
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It  runs  vestibuled.  steam-heated  and 
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It  has  the  absolute  block  system. 

It  uses  all  modern  appliances  for  the 
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The  National  Geographic  Magazine, 

NOW  PUBLISHED  MONTHLY, 

numbers  among  its  contril)iitors  the  following  well-known  writers  on  the  different 

branches  of  geogra])hic  science: 


Mr.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

Dr.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsouiau  Institution. 

Mr.  Marcus  Baker,  U-  S.  Geological  tpnrve)'. 

Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Tlieol.  Seminary. 

Hon.  JetTeuson  B.  Browne,  Collector  of  Cus- 
toms at  Ke}'  West. 

Dr.  E.  L-  Corthell,  C.  E.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Elliott  Cones. 

Hon.  William  E.  Curtis,  e.x-Director  of  the 
Bureau  of  the  American  Republics. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  iithnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  Assistant  Secre- 
tary ol  Agriculture. 

Dr.  Win.  H.  Dali,  Smith.sonian  Institution. 

Dr.  George  David.son,  Pre.sident  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

i\lr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  S.  Geological  Snrve3\ 

i\Ir.  Win.  M.  Davis,  Professor  of  Physical  Geog-  ■ 
raphy  in  Harvard  Universit3\ 

Dr.  David  T.  Da\',  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Statistics  and  Technology',  U.  S-  Geol.  Siir 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

H'lii.  John  W.  Foster,  ex-,Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Chief  Geographer,  U.  S. 
Geological  Survey'  and  iith  Census. 

Mr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  vSociety'. 

Dr.  Mark  W.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  liveretl  Hay'deii,  U.  S.  N.,  Secretary'  of 
the  hfational  Geographic  Society'. 

air.  Robert  T.  Hill,  U.  S.  Geological  vSurvey'. 

Mr.  Win.  H.  Holmes.  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  An- 
thropology, Field  Colnm.  Museum,  Chicago. 

Dr.  Emil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson.  U.  S.  Coinmi.ssioner  of 
I'Mncation  for  Ahuska. 


Mr.  Willard  D.  Johnson,  U.  S.  Geol.  Survey. 
Mr.  Mark  B.  Kerr,  C.  E. 

Mr.  George  Kennan. 

Prof.  William  Libbey',  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J. 
Prof.  Py.  McClure,  University  of  Oregon. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Eth- 
nology. 

air.  John  E.  aicGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey'. 
Admiral  R.  W.  aieade',  U.  ,S.  N, 

Dr.  T.  C.  aiendenhall.  President  of  the  Poly'- 
technic  Institute,  Worcester,  aia.ss. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  aierriam.  Ornithologist  and  Mam- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 
Hon.  John  H.  aiitchell,  U.  S.  S. 

Prof.  W.  L-  aioore.  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau, 
air.  Frederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hydrographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey, 
air.  Herbert  (i.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey'. 
Lieut.  Robert  E.  Peary,  U.  S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Peary. 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  S. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Professor  of  Astron- 
omy' in  Harvard  University', 
aiajor  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent  of  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Hon.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  S. 

Civil  .Service  Commission, 
air.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Professor  of  Geology  in 
the  University  of  aiichigan. 

Dr.  N.  vS.  vShaler,  Professor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sigsbee,  Hydrographer 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Navy'  Dept, 
aiiss  Plliza  Ruhamah  .Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L-  Tanner,  U.  S.  N. 
air.  Frank  Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.  S. 

Geological  .Survey, 
airs.  P'annie  B.  Ward. 

air.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS  OF  RECENT  NUMBERS. 

JANUARY. — Rus.sia  in  Europe,  with  map,  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard  ; The  Arctic  Cruise 
of  the  U.  S.  Revenue  Cutter  “Bear,”  with  illustrations.  Dr.  .Sheldon  Jack.son  ; The 
Scope  and  Value  of  Arctic  E.xploration,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.' 

FEBRUARY. — Venezuela:  Her  Government,  People,  and  Boundary',  with  map  and  ilhustra- 
tions,  William  IL  Curtis;  The  Panama  Canal  Route,  with  illustrations,  Prof.  Robert!'. 
Hill  ; The  Tehuantepec  .Ship  Railway,  with  map.s,  li.  L.  Corthell,  C.  IC.,  LL-  D.  ; The 
Present  .State  of  the  Nicaragua  Canal,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely:  I*yX])lorations  by  the  Bureau 
of  .American  Ivthnology,  W J McGee.  ^-Ilso  map  of  the  Orinoco  valley,  stunvin^:  territory 
(trained  by  that  tvatencay  and  its  bearing;  on  the  V'encznelan  Boundary  Question. 

MARCH. — The  So-Calleil  “ Jeannette  Relics,”  Prof.  Wm.  H.  D.ill  ; Nansen’s  Polar  hyXpedi- 
tion,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely;  The  Submarine  Cables  of  the  World,  Gustave  Herrle  ; The 
Survey  and  Snbilivision  of  Indian  'I'enilory,  with  map  and  illnstratitm,  Henry  Gannett; 
“ I'ree  Burghs”  in  the  ITnited  .States,  James  H.  Blodgett.  .Uso  chart,  p)  x yo  inches, 
slunviny  Submarine  Teteyraph  Cables  of  the  World  and  I'rineipal  Land  Lines.  P'ull- 
paye  portraits  of  Dr.  Nansen  and  B>  of  Wm.  If  nail. 

APRIL. — Seriliind,  with  maj)  and  illustration,  W J McGee  ami  Willard  I).  Johnson  ; The 
Olymjnc  Country,  with  map,  the  late  S-  C.  Gilman;  The  Di.scoverv  of  Glacier  B.iy, 
Alaska,  Ivli/.a  Rnhanndi  Scidmore  ; Hydrography  in  the  Unite<l  States,  b'rederick  H. 
Newell;  Recent  Triangnlatioii  in  the  Cascailes,  .S.  ,S.  Gannett;  The  Altitude  of  Mt. 
.Afl.ims,  Washington,  b'dgar  McClure. 

MAY. — .Africa  since  iSSS,  with  special  reference  to  South  Africa  ;iml  .Abyssinia,  with  map, 
Hon.  (i.irdiner  G.  Hnbbanl  ; I'umlamental  Geographic  Relation  of  the  Three  .Americas, 
with  maj).  Prof.  Robert!'.  Ilill  ; I'lie  K.tnsas  River,  .Arthur  P.  Davis.  c/Ao  portrait  of 
lion.  Oardiner  (/.  //uhbard,  /’resident  of  the  National  Geoyraphic  Society. 

25  Cents  per  Number  or  $2.50  per  Year. 


THE  JULY  NUMBER 


OF 


will  contain  among  other  important  articles 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR, 


By  mark  B.  KERR,  C.  E. ; _ 


GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES, 


By  HENRY  GANNETT, 

Chief  Geographer  of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey  and  President  of  the 
U.  S.  Board  on  Geographic  Names  ; 


• AND  THE  CONCLUSION  OF  THE  ARTICLE  BY 


PROFESSOR  W.  M.  DAVIS 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE. 


JVDD  & DETWEILER,  PRINTERS,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C- 


JULY,  1896 


No.  7 


\THLX 


The 


7'^  _ 


V'S'T 


AN  ILLUSTRATED 


Honorary  Editor:  JOHN  HYDE 


A.  W.  QREEL 


Honjorary  Associate  Editors  j 

^3ElQ  ELIZA^  RUHAmAH  SCIDMOI^E 

' Ji- 


. CONTENTS  ; i / i 

I PAGE 

THE  WORK  pF  THE  U.,  S.  BOA^  ON  GEOTQI^APHIC  NAMES. 

' HENRY  GANNETT.  221 

t THE  SEINEr  l^PE  MED^E.  ANp  THE  MOSELLE,  II.  . / 

1 T^(itti"maps.  william  m/dAVIS.  228 

\ A JXJf^RNEY  IN\BCUADOR^  MARK  B.  KERR,  C.  E 238 

With  map  and  illustrations. 

THE  ABERRATION  OF  SOUND  AS  ILLUSTRATED  BY  THE  BERKE- 
LEY POWDER  EXPLOSION.  With  diagrams. 

ROBERT  H.  CHAPMAN.  246 
MINERAL  PRODUCTION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.  250 

^ Geographic  Notes,  p.  251;  Miscellanea,  p.  252. 


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THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 
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NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


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See  page  242. 


HANDIWORK  OF  THE  CAYAPAS  INDIANS,  ECUADOR 
From  an  Original  Photograph  by  Mark  B.  Kerr,  C.  E. 


THE 


Yol.  VII  JULY,  1896  No.  7 


THE  WORK  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES  BOARD  ON 
GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES 

By  Henry  Gannett, 

Chairman  of  the  Board  and  Chiif  Geographer  of  t]>e  U.  S.  Geological  Survey 
and  of  the  Tenth  and  Eleventh  Censuses 

This  board  was  originally  constituted,  in  the  early  part  of 
1890,  as  a voluntaiy  association  of  officers  of  various  depart- 
ments of  the  government  for  the  purpose  of  securing  uniformit}" 
in  the  official  spelling  of  geographic  names.  It  was  the  result, 
in  the  main,  of  the  efforts  of  Dr  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  then  Super- 
intendent of  the  U.  S.  Coast  and  Geodetic  Surve}g  who  was 
chosen  its  first  chairman.  It  was  given  standing  and  authority 
by  an  executive  order  of  September  4,  1890,  which  reads  as 
follows : 

“A.s  it  is  desirable  tliat  uniform  usa^e  in  regard  to  geogra])hic  nomen- 
clature and  orthography  oldain  throughout  the  e.xecntive  de])artments 
of  the  government,  and  i)articnlarly  upon  the  maps  and  charts  i.ssned  l)y 
the  various  de[)artments  and  bureaus,  I hereby  constitute  a Loard  on 
Geographic  Names  and  designate  the  following  persons,  who  have  here- 
tof(we  cooperated  for  a similar  purpose  under  the  authority  of  the  several 
departments,  l>ureaus,  and  institutions  with  which  thej'  are  connected, 
as  members  of  said  board.  ...  To  this  board  shall  be  referred  all 
unsettled  (piestious  c(jncerning  geographic  names  which  arise  in  the  de- 
partments, and  the  decisions  of  the  board  are  to  be  accepted  by  these 
<lei)artments  as  the  standard  authority  in  such  matters.”  . . . 

The  board  now  consists  of  representatives  of  the  following 
departments  ami  bureaus:  State,  M'ar,  and  Navy  departments, 
Light-House  Board,  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  Geological  Sur- 
vey,General  Land  Office,  Rost  Odice  De[)artinent,  and  Smith- 
sonian Institution. 


15 


]VORK  OF  THE  BOARD  OX  GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES 


222 

During  the  five  years  or  more  of  its  existence  the  board  has 
held  48  meetings  and  has  decided  2,835  cases.  Its  modus  ope- 
raudiis  simple  and  direct.  The  cases  of  dis]nited  nomenclature 
which  reach  it  are  referred  at  once  to  an  executive  committee 
consisting  at  present  of  the  representatives  of  the  Geological 
Surve.y,  Navy  Department,  and  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  An 
investigation  of  each  case  is  made  by  this  executive  committee, 
which  reports  it,  with  recommendations,  to  the  board,  which 
makes  a final  decision.  For  such  decision  a majority  of  the 
entire  board  is  necessaiy.  It  not  infrequently  happens,  there- 
fore, that  it  is  only  by  a unanimous  vote  of  those  present  at  a 
meeting  that  definite  action  can  be  taken. 

Geographic  names  ma}"  be  broadh’'  distinguished  into  two 
classes : tliose  which  are  established  b}'-  usage,  commonly  local 
usage,  and  those  which  are  not  so  established.  In  regard  to  the 
former  class,  the  primary  })rincii>le  which  controls  the  decisions 
of  the  board  is  that  local  usage  ouglit  to  prevail.  What  the 
people  call  themselves  and  what  they  call  tlie  natural  features 
lying  within  their  jurisdiction  should,  unless  there  is  good 
reason  to  the  contrary,  be  the  names  thereof.  That  tliis  is  just 
and  proj)er  surely  goes  without  sa}dng.  In  general,  every  man 
has  a right  to  insist  that  other  people  call  him  by  the  name 
which  he  selects  and  accept  that  spelling  of  his  name  which  he 
chooses  to  adopt.  The  rights  which  a man  has  over  his  own 
name,  a community  has  over  its  own  name  and  over  the  names 
of  all  natural  features  hung  within  its  jurisdiction.  Lest  it 
should  appear  that  I am  dwelling  too  much  on  this  aspect  of 
the  case  and  arguing  a self-evident  proi>osition,  let  me  quote 
from  an  article  recently  published  in  Justus  Perthes’  Geograph- 
ische  Mittheilungen,  which  will  show  that  there  are  men,  and 
men  of  eminence,  too,  who  do  not  accept  this  principle. 

“Tlie  practical  Americans  have  had  since  1890  a Bureau  of  Geographic 
Names.  . . . The  establishment  of  this  Bureau  on  Geograpliic  Names 

and  its  first  decisions  were  referred  to  in  our  last  report.  We  gave  a 
hearty  greeting  to  the  new  creation,  and  added  to  the  greeting  a few  sug- 
gestions; but  these  have  not  been  considered.  Nay,  more,  tlie  later  de- 
cisions of  the  board,  about  700  in  number,  relating  to  geographic  names 
at  home  and  abroad,  correspond  still  less  to  the  most  reasonable  expecta- 
tions. We  miss  the  principle  that  the  original  form  of  the  name,  the 
meaning  and  etymology  of  the  name,  the  motive  for  naming,  is  to  be  con- 
sidered, and  considered  first  and  foremost.  We  miss  the  scientific  spirit, 
which,  instead  of  cleaving  to  the  form,  unlocks  the  intrinsic  meaning, 
and  accordingly  we  miss  in  the  works  of  a government  board  of  names 
all  evidence  of  acquaintance  with  toponymic  literature.” 


WORK  OF  THE  BOARD  ON  GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES  223 


Summarizing  a discussion  which  took  place  before  the  National 
Geographic  Society  on  the  subject  of  geographic  names,  the  same 
author  says : 

“Only  the  last  named  among  the  four  speakers  has  a word  to  say  in 
behalf  of  the  original  forms  of  the  nomenclature  introduced  by  discovery 
and  explorers,  or  received  from  the  Indians;  but  his  chain pionshi])  is  timid 
and  surrounded  by  wide  reservation.  Nowhere  do  we  find  the  principle 
laid  down  that  the  original  forms  of  names,  esiiecially  Indian  names, 
which  are  so  true  to  life,  are  to  be  preserved  as  much  as  possible.  A 
board  of  names  hasmo  easy  task.  It  has  not  merely  to  give  ‘decisions,’ 
but  also  to  base  these  decisions  on  thorough  study,  and  to  inform  the 
public,  so  far  as  necessary,  of  the  grounds  on  which  they  are  made.  AVe 
wish  to  know  from  what  variations  the  form  selected  has  been  picked  out ; 
and  this  statement  will  serve  to  show  the  amount  of  knowledge  of  litera- 
ture possessed  and  the  scientific  principle  followed,  and  will  itself  win  for 
the  decision  the  confidence  of  the  interested  circles.  Only  this  method 
turns  out  solid  work  ; any  other  procedure  merely  replaces  private  caprice 
by  otficial  caprice.  This  official  caprice  is  able  to  turn  a ‘ Golfo  Triste  ’ 
(sad  bay)  into  a ‘ Gulf  of  Triste,’  thus  manufacturing  a personal  name  or 
place  name,  Triste,  alter  which  the  bay  must  have  been  named.  It  is 
well  known  that  this  feature  is  the  arm  of  the  sea  between  the  Orinoco 
and  Trinidad,  to  which  the  Dragon’s  gorge  forms  the  northern  entrance, 
a passage  which  was  deserted  and  feared  even  in  the  time  of  Columbus, 
because  ships,  driving  with  spread  sails  under  brisk  west  wind  against  the 
mighty  current  of  the  Orinoco,  are  exposed  to  danger.  The  above-men- 
tioned decision  of  the  board  of  names  has  masked  the  physical  fact  and 
formally  falsified  an  expressive  geographic  name.” 

With  regard  to  tliis  ca.se,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  hoard  has 
made  no  decision  whatever.  It  has  not  come  before  it. 

“ In  the  United  States  and  elsewhere  there  are  undoubtedly  an  infinity 
of  names  and  places  of  obscure  origin,  and  for  which  a decision  has  to  be 
made  without  giving  i-easons.  Be  it  so.  We  recognize  the  necessity 
where  it  exists ; but  just  as  positively  must  we  demand  that  the  decision 
be  made  on  scientific  grounds  whenever  possible.” 

Dr  Egli,  the  writer  of  this  article,  is  well  known  as  one  of  the 
leading  geographers  of  Europe  and  one  who  has  given  mucli 
attentifm  to  this  subject  of  geographic  names.  It  seems  to  me 
clear,  however,  and  in  that  view  I know  that  I share  the  opinion 
of  the  other  members  of  the  hoard,  that  he  is  radically  wrong  in 
the  views  he  here  presents,  lie  states  the  exact  fact  when  he 
says  that  “We  mi.ss  tlie  prineii>le  that  the  original  form  of  the 
name,  the  meaning,  tlie  etymology  of  tlie  name,  the  motive  for 
naming,  is  to  he  considered,  and  considered  /f'rs^  ixnd  foroiirntP 

It  is  true  that  the  hoard  attaches  little  importance  to  these 


224 


^yORK  OF  THE  BOARD  ON  GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES 


matters.  On  the  contrary,  its  fundamental  principle,  as  before 
stated — a principle  which  has  controlled  many  hundreds  of  its 
decisions — is  that  local  usage,  the  prevalent  usage  of  the  people 
living  in  the  neighborhood,  should  be  followed.  By  this  it  is 
not  meant  that  local  usage  has  absolutely  controlled  in  all  cases. 
Departures  have  been  made  whenever,  for  other  reasons,  such  a 
course  seemed  wise,  but  this  principle  has  controlled  the  de- 
cisions of  the  board  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten.  I have  already 
touched  on  its  validity.  Concerning  its  expediency,  I may  say 
that  unless  the  decisions  of  the  board  are  adopted  by  the  peoi)le 
and  generally  followed  its  work  will  be  a hiilure.  It  was  con- 
stituted not  to  restore  corrui)ted  forms  to  so-called  pure  forms, 
but  to  secure  uniformity  of  usage.  There  is  not  force  enough 
in  any  government,  at  least  not  enough  in  the  government  of 
the  United  States,  to  make  the  people  do  what  they  do  not  Avish 
to  do.  To  fly  in  the  face  of  the  community  is  like  attempting 
to  dam  uj)  a river  and  force  it  to  flow  up  hill. 

To  adopt  as  the  “ first  and  foremost  ” j)rinciple  the  one  formu- 
lated by  Dr  Egli,  that  the  original  forms  of  names  be  restored, 
Avould  lead  to  some  startling  results,  results  Avbicb  he  surely  does 
not  full}"  appreciate.  Geograi)hic  names  in  the  United  States 
have  been  modified,  changed,  distorted,  corrupted,  if  you  will, 
to  an  astonishing  extent.  To  throAV  aside  these  corrupted  but 
Avell  established  names  and  replace  them  by  old  and  forgotten 
forms  would  involve  wholesale  changes,  such  as  would  find  no 
following  among  the  peoi)le  of  the  United  States.  The  name 
Avhich  was  accepted  fifty  or  a hundred  years  ago  is  not  the  name 
in  use  at  i)resent;  today  the  people  accei>t  something  else. 

An  example  of  corru[)tion  is  seen  in  the  name  Bol)ruly,  ap- 
plied to  a creek  in  Missouri.  The  original  Avill.  of  course,  be 
recognized  as  Bois  Brule.  Again,  Rum  river,  Wisconsin,  AA'as 
originally  the  St.  Esprit,  which,  translated,  became  S[)irit  river, 
and  thence,  by  some  pundit,  rendered  in  its  ])resent  form.  For 
a Avhole  century  Wisconsin  Avas  spelled  Ouisconsing.  Would 
there  be  any  right  or  propriety  in  reverting  to  that  spelling  and 
requiring  the  citizens  of  the  Badger  State  to  adopt  it  in  place  of 
the  present  form  ? Shall  Ave  attempt  to  revive  the  nasne  Illinois 
or  Illinovacks  in  place  of  Michigan  for  one  of  the  Great  Lakes. 
Ouabash  for  Wabash,  and  apjjly  it  to  the  Ohio  river,  or  call  it 
La  Belle  Riviere?  Should  Ave  substitute  Kichi  Gummi,  Grand 
Lac,  Tracy,  Conde,  or  Algona  for  Lake  Superior,  and  lhankton 
for  Yankton?  Shall  Ave  call  the  Mississippi  the  St.  Francis,  the 


WORK  OF  THE  B6ARD  ON  GEOORA  PHIC  NAMES  225 


Colbert,  the  Conception,  or  the  St.  Louis ; shall  we  change  Mis- 
souri into  Missouries  or  St.  Phillip,  and  Iowa  into  loway? 

M"e  might  go  on  and  quote  thousands  of  names  that  have 
been  changed  to  a greater  or  less  extent,  but  these  few  will 
suffice  to  illustrate  the  matter.  Examination  of  old  maps  of 
the  United  States  shows  that  a majority  of  the  geographic  names 
now  in  use  have  been  changed  since  the}^  were  first  applied ; 
consequently  it  Avould  be  utterl}'’  impracticable  to  ignore  the 
forms  to  which  the  people  are  now  accustomed,  even  if  there 
were  no  impropriety  in  so  doing.  In  short,  it  is  impossible, 
even  were  it  desirable,  to  restore  the  original  forms  of  names. 

The  principle  above  enunciated  is  a far-reaching  one,  and  it 
will  be  well,  before  entering  upon  a discussion  of  the  exceptions 
which  the  board  makes  to  it,  to  follow  it  and  see  to  what  it  leads 
us.  The  names  of  many  features  in  foreign  countries  have  from 
time  out  of  mind  been  known  to  English-speaking  i)eople  by 
names  other  than  those  ajiplied  by  their  inhabitants.  The  Ger- 
mans call  their  country  Deutschland,  the  Italians  call  theii’s 
Italia,  the  Spaniards  Espana.  The  citizens  of  certain  places  in 
Italia  call  their  cities  Livorno,  Roma,  Venecia,  but  we  call  them 
1)3’-  other  names  in  a way  that  is  utterly  unwarranted.  Eveiy 
American  resents  having  a Frenchman  call  our  countiy  Les  Etats 
Unis,  and  properly,  for  it  is  not  its  name.  There  is  no  more 
sense  in  translating  a geographic  name  than  a person’s  name. 
A name  is  not  a common  noun,  that  it  should  be  translated.  The 
time  is  ap})arentl_y  not  ripe  for  ado})ting  the  home  names  of  all 
foreign  geographic  features,  but,  speaking  for  myself,  I have  no 
doubt  that  it  will  soon  be  feasible  to  institute  this  reform.  In- 
deed, in  almost  every  individual  case  of  this  sort  that  has  been 
lu'ought  before  the  board  the  decision  has  been  rendered  in  favor 
of  the  home  name. 

The  universal  adoj)tion  of  this  principle  would,  however,  lead  to 
many  inconsistencies.  For  instance,  in  many  cases  what  is  plainly 
the  same  name  a]»pears  in  different  ))arts  of  the  United  States 
as  a designation  of  different  features,  with  different  spellings. 
In  such  cases  should  these  different  spellings  be  unified?  The 
tendency  of  the  board  (hnibtless  is  in  that  direction,  l)iit  in  nianv 
cases  they  not  old}'  rim  against  strong  local  usage  but  against 
legal  anthorit}'  as  well.  Wichita,  Washita,  and  Ouachita  are  the 
same  word  ; so  with  \\'\’andot,  Wyandotte,  and  (Jnyandot.  All 
are  familiar  with  the  name  Allegheny,  Iimiji,  (iin/,  applied  to 
counties  in  New  York,  I’ennsylyania,  \firgiida.  West  \'irginia, 


226  TI’Oi?A"  OF  THE  BOARD  ON  GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES 


and  North  Carolina,  and  to  mountain  ranges  and  a river.  As  a 
county  name  it  is  spelled  in  three  different  forms,  each  of  which 
is  fortified  by  legislative  acts,  legal  documents,  and  no  end  of 
local  usage.  It  is  desirable  to  make  the  spelling  uniform  ; but 
can  it  be  done?  In  such  a case  the  board  is  between  tlie  devil 
and  the  deep  sea.  Consistency  in  following  local  usage  pro- 
duces inconsistency  in  orthography.  In  some  cases  of  this  sort, 
where  the  board  was  of  the  opinion  that  local  usage  could  be 
overcome,  it  has  adopted  a uniform  spelling,  but  in  other  cases 
it  has  refrained  from  making  decisions. 

In  the  matter  of  geographic  names,  as  in  everything  else,  de- 
velopment is  constantly  going  on;  names  are  continually  chang- 
ing, being  modified  in  some  cases  slightl}%  in  other  cases  radicall,v. 
Is  it  best  that  this  develojnnent  should  be  suffered  to  go  on 
blindly,  as  development  has  proceeded  throughout  the  world 
in  times  past,  or  will  it  be  more  economical  and  will  the  results 
be  more  satisfactoiw  and  be  attained  at  less  cost  if  it  be  guided 
intelligently?  Surely  no  one  will  hesitate  to  admit  that  the 
latter  is  the  better  condition.  Recognizing  this  course  of  de- 
velopment in  geograj)hic  names,  the  board  has  studied  it  with 
a view  to  ascertaining  its  trend,  of  discovering  what  changes 
are  going  on,  and  what  their  result  is  likely  to  be  in  the  future, 
and,  acting  upon  the  knowledge  thus  acquired,  it  has  endeav- 
ored to  guide  the  course  of  development  into  the  best  channels, 
so  as  to  ju'oduce  good  results  from  it  as  speedily  as  i)racticable. 
The  most  marked  direction  in  which  development  is  proceeding 
is  that  of  simplification.  Useless  letters  are  being  dropped, 
hyphens  are  being  omitted ; appendages  to  names,  such  as  the 
word  city,  town,  court-house,  cross-roads,  etc.,  are  one  after  an- 
other l)eing  dro})]5ed.  The  possessive  form  of  names  is  being 
given  up.  Life  is  too  short  to  expend  it  in  writing  these  useless 
words  and  letters.  Names  consisting  of  more  than  one  word 
are  b^ng  run  together  into  one  word.  In  these  and  many 
other  ways  the  course  of  develoj:)ment  is  toward  simplification 
and  abbreviation.  Of  these  changes  the  hoard  heartily  approves 
and  it  is  going  as  fast  and  as  far  in  the  direction  of  furthering 
them  as  it  believes  the  public  will  support  it.  To  go  faster  or  to 
go  further  at  the  ]n’esent  time  would  be  to  discredit  itself,  and 
this  the  board  prefers  not  to  do.  Another  tendency  in  develop- 
ment is  towar<l  uniformity  in  spelling.  Certain  names  ending 
in  hurg  were  formerly  spelled  burgh,  others  burg,  necessitating 
constant  reference  to  gazetteers  in  order  to  learn  whether  the 


WORK  OF  THE  BOARD  ON  GEOGRAPHIC  NAMES 


227 


name  had  a final  hov  not.  The  board  at  one  stroke  relieved  the 
American  public  of  this  necessity  b}'’  striking  off  the  h in  every 
case.  The  same  thing  was  done  with  the  termination  ugh  of 
borough  and  for  the  same  purpose.  Similarl}'-  the  word  centre  is 
now  uniformly  spelled  center  wherever  it  appears  as  a part  of  a 
geographic  name. 

There  is  one  other  class  of  names  to  be  considered,  that  is, 
names  in  remote,  unsettled  parts  of  the  country,  where  there  is 
no  local  usage.  These  are  mainly  of  Indian  origin,  and  they 
may  be  said  to  be  still  in  an  unsettled  state,  like  the  country  in 
which  they  are  found.  How  do  we  obtain  Indian  names  ? The 
spelling  given  to  an  Indian  name  represents  the  way  in  which 
some  white  man  understood  some  Indian  to  pronounce  it,  and 
every  one  knows  that  in  such  a case  there  will  be  just  as  many 
different  spellings  of  an  Indian  name  as  there  are  white  men  to 
hear  it  and  Indians  to  pronounce  it.  From  our  Northwest  we 
could,  if  space  permitted,  give  hundreds  of  such  names,  each  of 
them  with  a dozen  or  perhaps  twenty  different  versions,  and  each 
version  just  as  correct  as  any  other.  In  such  cases  the  board 
selects  from  among  the  different  versions  the  one  which  seems 
to  represent  the  sound  the  most  clearly  and  most  simply. 

Early  in  the  life  of  the  board  a long  list  of  Alaskan  names  was 
sui)initted  to  it  for  decision.  These  names  were  referred  by  the 
board  to  some  half-dozen  gentlemen,  all  of  whom  were  known  as 
Alaskan  geographers,  and  the  subsequent  decisions  were  based 
upon  the  weight  of  evidence  submitted  by  these  specialists.  Of 
course,  the  decisions  did  not  in  all  cases  please  all  persons  ac- 
quainted with  Alaskan  names. 

In  the  matter  of  names  in  unsettled  countries  under  foreign 
jurisdiction,  the  ])olicy  of  the  board  has  been  to  accept  the  spell- 
ing of  the  nation  having  jurisdiction  there. 

The  work  involved  in  making  these  decisions  is  in  the  main 
simple  in  character.  Although  much  of  it  involves  investiga- 
tion, it  is  common  every-day  investigation,  consisting  mainly  in 
finding  out  what  people  call  themselves.  The  matters  with 
which  the  boanl  are  concerned  arc  not,  as  a rule,  scientific  mat- 
ters. They  are  sim[)ly  matters  of  fact  or  judgment.  The  board 
is  often  criticised  for  inc(msistency  in  its  decisions;  with  having 
decided  one  way  in  one  case  and  a dill'erent  way  in  another  case 
whicli  appears  to  l»e  (piih!  similar.  I think  tlu^  board  is  (luito 
read}’’  to  plead  guilty  to  the  charge  of  inconsistency,  but  with 
extenuating  circumstances,  since  c<jnsistency  in  certain  matters 
involves  inconsistency  in  others. 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 

By  MTlliam  M.  Davis 
Professor  of  Physical  Geography  in  Harvard  University 

II 

Dhersion  of  the  upper  Moselle  from  the  Meuse. — After  this  long 
digression  let  us  now  return  to  the  case  of  the  Meuse  and  see 
whether  indications  can  he  found  that  any  of  its  branches  have 
been  diverted  to  the  basins  of  the  Seine  or  of  the  Moselle.  The 
first  example  to  he  mentioned  is  found  in  the  neigld^orhood  of 
Toul,  and  for  simplicity  of  description  I shall  take  the  liberty 
of  changing  the  names  of  tlie  streams  in  this  region  in  accord- 
ance with  the  adjoining  diagram,  the  actual  names  being  given 
in  thin-lined  letters,  the  assumed  names  in  heavy-lined  letters. 
Tlie  case  may  then  l)e  brietly  stated  as  follows  : The  Toul  (upper 
Moselle;  once  tlcnved  through  a meandering  valley  and  joined 
the  Meuse  at  the  little  village  of  Pagny-sur-Meuse.  The  mean- 
dering valley  trenches  an  u|)land  of  middle  oolite  strata,  Imt  in 
the  course  of  time  the  Po!npe\'.  a branch  of  the  Moselle,  pushed 
away  the  divide  at  its  head,  tap))ed  the  Toul  where  the  city 
of  that  name  now  stands,  and  diverted  it  from  the  ^leuse  to  the 
Moselle.  * 

The  first  fact  to  note  is  that  the  abandoned  valley  between 
Toul  and  Pagny  swings  on  large  curved  meanders,  after  the 

* My  attention  was  first  called  to  this  example  bj’  my  kind  friend,  M.  Emm.  de  Mar- 
Kcrie,  wtio  was  so  good  as  to  refer  me  to  the  writings  of  several  French  autliors  by 
wliom  it  had  t)een  described  more  or  less  fully' and  to  wliose  essays  I thereupon  re- 
ferred either  in  the  original  or  in  some  citation.  The  earliest  writer  to  make  mention 
of  this  change  in  the  course  of  the  Toul  seems  to  have  been  Boblay’e,  (i)  who  in  1829 
reported  that  he  found  pebbles  in  the  valley  of  the  Meuse  unlike  the  rocks  of  its  upper 
Vjasin.  but  like  those  of  the  upper  valley  of  the  Toul  in  the  Vosges  mountains.  Buvig- 
nier  (2)  gave  a fuller  account  of  the  same  facts  in  1852  and  came  to  the  same  conclu- 
sion. Housson(3)  wrote  on  the  same  subject  in  1804,  but  I have  not  seen  his  article. 
The  latest  account  of  the  case  is  by  Godron  (4)  in  1876.  .All  these  authors  recognize 
what  may  be  called  the  geological  evidence  of  the  change,  that  is,  the  occurrence  of 
pebbles  from  the  Toul  in  the  valley  of  the  Meuse  ; but  as  far  as  I have  read,  they  did 
not  give  particular  care  to  the  geographical  features  of  the  case.  It  is  to  these,  there- 
fore, that  special  attention  is  here  called. 

(1)  -Mem.  sur  la  formation  jurassique  dans  le  nord  de  la  France.  .Ann  .Sci.  Nat.,  1829. 

(2)  Statistique  geol.  et  min.  du  department  de  la  .Meuse,  Paris,  1852. 

(:$)  Origine  de  respO»ce  humaine  dans  les  environs  de  Toul.  Pont-a  Mousson,  1804. 

(4)  Ann.  Club  \lpin  franyais,  xiii,  1870,  442-457. 


228 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


229 


fashion  often  assumed  by  the  valleys  of  large  rivers,  but  never 
imitated  by  valley’s  of  small  streams.  It  is  true  that  the  valleys 
of  small  streams  may  in  the  course  of  time  become  compara- 
tively wide, but  the}^ 
can  never  develop 
S3’stematically  curv- 
ing meanders  of 
large  radius  with 
steep  sloping  bluffs 
on  the  ‘outside  of 
the  curves  and  long 
sloi»ing  spurs  on  the 
inside  of  the  curves. 

The  form  of  the  val- 
ley from  Toul  to 
Pagny,  therefore,  at 
once  suggests  not 
onlv  that  a stream 
once  passed  through 
it,  but  also  that  the  stream  was  a large  one. 

In  the  second  ]>lace,  on  looking  more  closely  at  the  topo- 
gra])hic  details  in  the  neighborhood  of  Toul,  it  is  seen  that  we 

have  here  a well 
developed  elbow 
of  c a p t u r e — a 
shar{)  l)cnd  in  the 
river  course,  inde- 
pendent of  local 
rock  structure, 
'file  Toul  makes 
a sharp  turn  from 
the  direction  of 
its  upper  course 
and  swings  off 
along  the  course 
f)f  the  Pompcv  to 
the  .Moselle,  'flie 
Pompev  was  once 
inerelv  one  of 
m a n v s in  a 1 1 
branches  of  the  Moselle,  of  which  the  neighboring  .Ache  mav  be 
taken  as  the  tvpe;  but  in  consetiuence  of  adding  the  large  vol- 


230 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


lime  of  tlie  Toul  to  the  formerly  small  volume  of  the  Pompe}% 
tlie  valley  has  been  distinctly  deepened  both  down  and  iii)- 
stream  from  the  elbow  of  capture  below  the  former  level  of  the 
streams  and  now  exhibits  the  steep-sided  trench  characteristic 
of  recent  captures.  Not  only  the  diverted  Toul  but  several  of 
its  l)ranches  above  the  elbow  of  capture  have  intrenched  them- 
selves beneath  the  "eneral  level  of  the  open  valley-plain  of  lower 
oblite  strata  on  which  they  formerly  flowed.  On  restoring  the 
surface  of  this  old  valle}'  floor  by  filling  up  the  trenches  which 
now  dissect  it,  it  may  he  seen  to  slope  at  such  a grade  as  would 
lead  it  to  the  floor  of  the  meandering  valley  on  the  wa}"  to  the 
Meuse.  Immediately  after  the  division  of  the  Toul  we  may 
imagine  that  only  a small  stream — the  Pagny — fed  by  the  drain- 
age from  the  valley  slopes,  was  left  to  follow  the  meandering 
valley  to  Meuse.  This  would  be  the  diminished,  beheaded 
stream  of  our  terminology.  But  in  conseciuence  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  dee()  trench  at  the  elbow  of  capture  and  the  accom- 
})anving  growth  of  the  obsequent  stream — the  Ingressin — the 
l)eheaded  Pagny  has  been  still  further  shortened  and  is  now  not 
more  than  two  and  one-half  miles  in  length.* 

The  Pacpiy  and  the  Ingressin. — I^et  me  here  turn  a moment  from 
the  main  subject  to  consider  some  special  features  of  the  me- 
andering valley  and  its  })resent  occui>ants,  the  Pagny  and  the 
Ingressin.  In  the  first  place,  midway  in  the  valley,  at  the  village 
of  Foug,  there  is  a little  stream  coming  in  from  the  Bois  Romont 
on  the  north.  The  topograjdiic  details  of  the  district  give  good 
reason  for  thinking  that  this  little  stream  used  to  join  the  valley 
at  Lay-St.-Remy  on  the  next  meander  to  the  west,  and  thus  we 
have  here  a repetition  of  an  accident  of  the  Ste.  Austreberte 
type.  Mdien  the  vigorous  Toul  was  running  through  this  valley 
and  widening  its  meander  belt  it  must  have  pushed  its  swinging 
current  so  vigorously  against  the  outer  side  of  its  curves  that  it 
cut  through  the  ridge  separating  the  Foug  meander  from  the 
little  stream  on  the  north,  and  thus  changed  the  mouth  of  its 
own  tributary  from  a lower  to  an  upi)er  meander.  .This  mai"  be 
added  to  the  evidence  indicating  the  former  passage  of  a large 
river  through  the  meandering  valle^^ 

Next  as  to  the  obsequent  Ingressin,  whose  head  is  at  least  si.x 

*Tlie  following  altitudes  are  significant : 

Junction  of  the  Meurtlie  and  the  Moselle  at  Pompey,  about  190  m. 

Elbow  of  capture  at  Toul,  204  m. 

Old  valley  floor  at  elbow  of  capture,  about  255  m. 

Divide  between  Ingressin  and  Pagny,  265  m. 

Junction  of  the  Pagny  and  the  Meuse,  245  m. 


THE  SEINE,  THE  HEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


231 


miles  from  the  elbow.  The  comparative  narrowness  of  the  trench 
both  above  and  below  the  elbow  of  capture  b}'-  Toul  would  not 
lead  us  to  expect  an  obsequent  stream  of  much  length,  and  I 
therefore  suggest  the  following  explanation  of  the  rather  surpris- 
ing length  of  the  Ingressin.  A little  southwest  of  Foug  is  the 
narrowest  part  of  the  old  valley,  its  narrowness  here  being  due 
to  the  greater  resistance  of  the  middle  Oolite,  which  form  the 
highland  through  which  it  is  cut.  From  these  steep  slopes  it 
appears  that  a significant  amount  of  waste  has  crept  down  into 
the  valley  trough,  obstructing  it  more  or  less  and  producing  a 
swamp  of  small  dimensions.  The  beheaded  Pagny  seems  to 
have  been  unable  to  hold  its  course  through  this  obstruction. 
It  probably  accumulated  for  a time  in  a shallow  lake  above  the 
obstruction,  until  on  overflowing  into  the  gorge  at  the  elbow  this 
j)art  of  its  course  reversed  its  direction  of  flow,  and  thus  gave 
rise  to  an  obsequent  stream  of  a somewhat  aberrant  type  which 
is  now  called  the  Ingressin. 

All  this,  however,  only  by  way  of  suggestion.  Further  study 
of  the  geographical  aspects  of  the  country  is  necessary  before 
this  sugge.stion  deserves  acceptance.  There  need,  however,  be 
no  doubt  on  the  general  problem  concerning  the  diversion  of  the 
Toul  from  the  Meuse  to  the  Moselle,  and  to  my  mind  the  case 
would  be  perfectly  satisfactory  if  no  pebbles  from  the  Vosges 
had  ever  been  found  in  the  valley  of  the  Meuse  below  Pagny. 
The  dimensions  of  the  meandering  valle\%  the  systematic  form 
of  its  bluffs  and  curves,  the  gorge  above  and  below  the  elbow  of 
capture  at  Toul,  the  relation  of  the  old  valley  plain  in  which 
the  gorge  was  cut  to  the  floor  of  the  meandering  valley  that 
leads  through  the  upland,  and  the  accident  that  hapj)ened  to  the 
little  side  stream  at  Foug,  all  combine  into  so  S3^stematic  an 
arrangement  of  parts  as  to  leave  no  doubt  that  an  explanation 
which  can  account  for  them  by  a single  and  simifle  process  is 
their  true  explanation. 

The  (liniinished  Meuse. — Looking  now  again  at  the  Meuse  l)y 
CommercN'  we  must  recognize  it  as  a river  whose  volume  has  been 
diminished  by  the  diversion  of  an  important  tributary  to  another 
river  .sj'stem.  Its  volume  having  diminished,  it  is  unable  now 
to  accommodate  itself  to  the  large  curves  of  its  vallcv  and  must 
instead  advance  in  an  uncertain  course  as  it  staggers  along  on  the 
valley  floor.  Not  011I3'  so;  hiiving  lost  volume,  it  seems  unable 
to  maintain  so  gentle  a slope  as  it  had  assumed  when  its  volume 
was  larger,  for  its  tlood-|)lain  now  has  every  appearance  of  hav- 


232 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


ing  filled  up  the  former  valley-trough  to  a moderate  depth.  It 
therefore  gives  us  au  illustration  of  a river  which  has  changed 
its  action  from  degrading  its  slope  when  its  volume  was  large  to 
aggrading  its  slope  now  that  its  volume  is  small. 

\\diat  the  Meuse  has  lost  the  Moselle  has  gained,  and  the  con- 
siderable addition  that  the  Toul  has  given  to  its  volume  has 
undoubtedly  confirmed  its  habit  of  swinging  boldlv  around  the 
meanders  of  its  lower  valle}",  even  to  the  point  of  cutting  almost 
or  quite  through  the  necks  of  its  meander  spurs. 

The  Aire  and  the  Bar. — Let  us  next  look  at  tlie  case  of  the  Aire. 
Tins  stream  was  once  an  affluent  of  the  Meuse  on  the  we.stern 
side, of  its  basin.  but  it  has  been  diverted  to  swell  the  volume  of 

tlie  Seine.  The  elbow  of  cap- 
ture in  this  case  lies  about  two 
miles  east  of  Grand  Pre.  The 
Aire  coming  from  the  southeast 
here  makes  a sharp  turn  west- 
ward through  the  ridge  of  lower 
Cretaceous  strata  that  bears  the 
forest  of  Argonne  and  thus  joins 
the  Aisne.  In  direct  continua- 
tion of  the  course  of  the  Aire  an 
oi)en  valley  leads  to  the  Meuse  a 
little  below  Sedan.  The  greater 
length  of  this  valle}'  is  followed 
by  a small  stream — the  Bar; 
but  while  the  valley  exhibits 
strong  meanders  of  rather  large 
radius,  the  Bar  is  nothing  l.)ut  a 
little  brook  that  wriggles  here 
and  there,  back  and  forth,  on 
the  valley  floor.  The  slopes  of 
the  valley  floor  have  the  usual  systematic  arrangement — steeper 
slopes  on  the  outside  of  the  curves,  gentler  slopes  on  the  inside. 
A s})ur  that  enters  one  of  the  meanders  from  the  upland  on  the 
west,  covered  l)y  the  Bois  la  Queue  near  St  Aignan,  has  so  narrow 
a neck  that  the  canal  leading  from  the  Meuse  to  the  Seine  sys-' 
tern  has  cut  a trench  through  the  neck  instead  of  going  around 
the  spur.  (See  Plate  V.) 

Tlie  indications  of  the  former  greater  volume  of  water  in  the 
stream  tliat  once  swung  boldly  around  tbe  meanders  of  this 
valley  are  perfectly  conclusive.  But  now  the  little  Bar  staggers 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


233 


about  in  the  most  random  manner,  quite  unable  to  continue  the 
widening  of  the  meanders  and  the  narrowing  of  the  necks  of  the 
spurs  by  running  S3^stematically  against  the  outer  side  of  tlie 
valley  curves.  The  meadow-like  (piality  of  the  flat  valle}'  floor 
suggests  that  the  Bar  has  aggraded  its  course  since  the  greater 
volume  of  Avater  was  AvithdraAvn  at  the  Grand  Pre  ell)OW,  thus  re- 
peating the  features  of  the  Meuse  about  Commercy.  FolloAving 
up  the  Bar,  the  breadth  of  the  valley  and  the  radius  of  its  large 
meanders  are  slowly  diminished  for  a long  distance ; but  the  little 
Bar  winding  through  the  meadow  floor,  rapidly  diminishes,  and 
near  Buzanc}’’  the  meadow  is  left  without  more  drainage  than  is 
given  by  such  ditches  as  the  farmers  have  cut  here  and  there  for 
the  better  drying  of  their  flat,  marshy  fields.  Passing  further  to 
the  southeast  along  the  meandering  valley,  we  soon  find  a small 
stream,  successively  called  the  Moulin,  Briquenay,  and  Agron, 
flowing  soutliAvard  for  seven  miles  in  a trench  cut  along  the  val- 
ley-trough to  the  elbow  of  capture  above  Grand  Pre.  This  is 
the  back-handed  stream  by  Avhose  growth  from  the  elbow  of  cap- 
ture the  beheaded  Bar  has  been  progressively  more  and  more 
shortened. 

Whether  the  divide  at  present  existing  beGveen  the  obsequent 
Briquenay-Agron  and  the  beheaded  Bar  has  been  determined  in 
this  case  by  the  accumulation  of  detritus  washed  in  from  the 
valley  slopes,  as  it  apparentl}'’  was  in  the  case  of  the  Pagny,  I 
cannot  surely  say;  but  there  does  not  appear  to  be  much  dis- 
]>arity  between  the  time  required  for  the  amount  of  widening 
that  the  gorge  of  the  Aire  has  received  at  the  elbow  of  capture  and 
for  the  headward  growth  of  the  back-handed  Bri(iuenay-Agron. 
As  in  the  case  of  the  Toul  (upper  Moselle),  so  with  the  Aire  ; its 
old  valley  floor,  occupied  at  a time  Avhen  it  still  ran  down  the 
valley  now  occupied  by  the  Bar,  is  easily  recognized  in  the  flat, 
terrace-like  benches  in  either  direction  from  the  elbow  of  caj)- 
ture;  but  these  benches  now  overlook  the  widened  trench  of  the 
diverted  Aire  and  the  narrower  trench  of  the  reversed  Bri<pie- 
nay-Agron.  A considerable  dei)th  is  maintained  l>y  the  trench 
of  tlie  Aire  for  some  distance  U[)  the  stream  from  the  elbow  of 
capture,  and,  of  course,  also  through  the  former  valley'  Ibjor  of 
the  diverter  on  the  way  to  ,\isne;  but  on  going  iq>  the  reversed 
stream  its  trench  rapidl}'  decreases  in  dei)th,  and  near  Buzancy 
it  makes  but  a slight  deju’ession  in  the  meadows. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  p(flnts  of  view  for  the  appreciation 
of  this  exani[)le  of  river  arrangement  is  on  the  flat  fields  of  the 


234 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


old  valley  floor  near  the  elbow  of  capture,  just  south  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Chanipigueules.  Here  all  the  different  parts  are  easily 
recognized,  as  if  on  a model  made  expressly  for  the  explanation 
of  the  problem.  In  some  pits  dug  here  and  there  by  the  road- 
side on  the  plain  one  may  see  the  old  river  gravels  laid  down  by 
the  Aire  while  it  was  running  at  this  high  level  on  its  way  north- 
ward to  the  INIeuse.  Another  point  of  view  no  less  instructive  is 
offered  after  surmounting  the  hill  by  which  the  national  road 
soutliward  from  Sedan,  on  the  Meuse,  crosses  over  to  the  valley  of 
the  Bar  at  Chevenges.  Fi*om  the  summit  and  along  the  south- 
ward descent  one  has  a beautiful  view  of  the  broad  valley  as  it 
swings  around  the  narrow-necked  sjiur  of  the  Bois  la  Queue,  but 
he  looks  in  vain  for  the  stream  by  which  the  valley  was  cut.  He 
fails  to  see  any  stream  at  all  until  descending  to  the  valle}^  floor, 
when  the  only  occupant  of  the  great,  boldly  swinging  valle}^  is 
found  to  be  a little  meadow  brook. 

Here,  as  before,  it  should  be  remembered  that  it  is  not  the 
width  of  the  valley  that  is  essentially  discordant  with  the  size 
of  the  brook  that  now  drains  it;  for  in  the  late  maturity  of  the 
geogra))hical  development  of  a land  surface  even  small  streams 
have  broad  valleys.  Tlie  discordance  which  proclaims  that  the 
valley  is  not  the  work  of  the  existing  stream  is  seen  in  the  rela- 
tive dimensions  of  their  meanders.  The  valley  swings  regularly 
in  curves  of  at  least  half  a mile  in  radius,  and  maintains  this  habit 
of  curvature  with  small  diminution  far  up  toward  the  elbow  of 
capture  and  probably  still  further  south.  The  stream  turns  and 
twists  in  curves  whose  radius  may  often  be  less  than  a hundred 
feet.  * 

In  comparing  the  case  of  the  Toul  (upper  Moselle)  and  Aire, 
we  see  that  these  rivers  are  the  diverted  upper  portions  of 

♦ The  following  altituiles  are  instructive: 

Junction  of  Bar  and  Meuse 153  m. 

Divide  in  old  valley-trough  between  the  beheaded  Bar  and  the  reversed  Bri- 

quenay-Agron  on  the  meadows  west  of  Buzancy 175  m. 

Junction  of  the  reversed  Briquenay-Agron  with  the  Aire  at  the  elbow  of 

capture 130  m. 

Floor  of  old  Aire  valley  at  elbow  of  capture 182  m. 

Junction  of  Aire  and  Aisne 113  m. 

The  advantage  of  depth  thus  gained  by  the  Aire  is  about 50  m. 

It  is  worth  noticing  that  if  the  Aire  had  not  been  diverted  at  Grand  Pr6  it  would 
have  soon  been  captured  farther  down  its  former  valley  at  Brieulles-sur-Bar  for  here 
the  Fournelle,  a branch  of  the  Aisne,  has  almost  cut  through  the  forested  ridge  of 


Argonne,  as  the  following  heights  show  : 

Mouth  of  Fournelle  in  Aisne  by  Vouziers 100  m. 

Divide  between  head  of  Fournelle  and  Bar  near  Noirval 174  m. 

Bar  at  Brieulles 168  m. 


THE  SEINE,  THE  HEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


235 

branches  that  once  belonged  to  the  INIense.  The  diverters  (by 
which  the  Toul  was  given  over  to  the  Moselle  and  the  Aire  to 
the  Aisne)  may  be  called  the  Pompey  and  the  Grand  Pre  re- 
spectively, the  latter  ultimately  delivering  its  prize  through  the 
Marne  to  the  Seine.  The  beheaded  streams  of  the  two  are  the 
Pagny  and  the  Bar.  The  former  is  so  insignificant  that  I have 
had  to  invent  a name  for  it,  finding  no  name  for  the  stream  but 
only  the  “ IVlarais  de  Pagny  ” entered  on  the  Etat-major  map  of 
1 80,000.  The  Bar  is  the  best  example  that  I have  ever  seen 
of  a beheaded  stream  trying  ineffectually  to  live  up  to  the  robust 
habits  of  its  great  predecessor. 

The  diminished  Meuse  again. — The  loss  suffered  by  the  Meuse 
and  the  increase  gained  by  the  Seine  through  the  diversion  of 
the  Aire  are  of  no  great  moment,  but  as  far  as  they  go  they  serve 
to  confirm  each  river  in  the  habits  that  now  characterize  it — the 
IMeuse  in  staggering  with  uncertain  steps  around  its  valley  curves, 
the  Seine  and  the  Moselle  in  swinging  boldly  around  their  curves 
and  undermining  the  inclosing  bluffs.  It  should  be  noted,  how- 
ever, that  when  a large  tributar}^  is  diverted  from  a point  high 
u[)  on  the  trunk  of  a main  river,  the  loss  of  volume  that  the 
change  produces  may  be  a large  fraction  of  the  total  volume  that 
once  belonged  to  the  main  river,  and  hence  that  the  loss  may 
greatl}'  affect  the  ability  of  the  main  river  still  to  follow  the 
swinging  valley  tliat  it  cut  out  when  its  volume  was  greater. 
On  the  other  hand,  when  a tributary  of  relatively  small  volume 
is  diverted  from  some  point  near  the  middle  of  the  main  river, 
the  loss  thus  occasioned  will  be  a comparatively  small  fraction 
of  tlie  trunk  volume,  and  tlie  change  of  habit  thus  produced 
will  be  corresi)ondingly  small.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  the 
staggering  of  the  Meuse  near  Commercy  is  so  much  more  marked 
than  between  Sedan  and  Mezieres.  The  loss  of  the  Toul  (upper 
Moselle)  was  a much  more  serious  affair  for  the  Meuse  than  the 
loss  of  the  Aire. 

Sapideinentarij problems. — There  are  certain  aspects  of  this  ])rol)- 
lem  tliat  remain  to  be  considered  briefly.  First,  are  there  any 
other  examples  of  branches  diverted  from  the  system  of  the 
Meuse  to  those  of  its  neighliors  on  the  west  and  east?  Although 
I have  been  unable  to  find  any  direct  signs  of  them  on  the  maj), 
there  still  does  seem  to  be  indication  that  other  diversions  have 
occurred.  On  looking  at  the  Meuse  above  Pagny,  it  is  there 
almost  as  much  out  of  proportion  to  its  valley  as  it  is  below 
Pagu}’.  It  is  po.ssilde,  therefore,  that  other  headwater  branches 


230 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


higher  up  than  the  upper  Moselle  have  been  diverted.  Looking 
at  the  Aire,  it  appears  that  the  present  radius  of  the  meanders 
is  much  smaller  than  the  radius  of  the  swinging  valley  that  is 
followed  by  the  little  Bar,  and  from  this  it  may  be  inferretl  that 
not  only  the  existing  Aire  but  the  drainage  of  a still  larger  basin 
once  ran  down  the  valley  of  the  Bar.  Perhaps  the  upper  Ornain 
represents  something  of  the  additional  volume  that  the  Aire 
once  po.ssessed,  but  I cannot  find  direct  indication  tliat  such  is 
the  fact.  The  maps  on  the  scale  of  1 : 80.000  seem  hardly  of 
suHicient  detail  to  enable  one  to  solve  this  j)hase  of  the  problem 
by  indoor  study  alone.  The  whole  subject  calls  for  extended 
study  in  the  field,  and  a more  interesting  problem  could  hardly 
l)e  selected  for  a summer’s  work. 

Another  subject  to  which  no  reference  has  yet  been  made  is, 
nevertheless,  of  fundamental  importance  to  the  whole  ])roblem  : 
Why  is  it  that  the  Seine  and  the  Moselle  are  waxing  at  the  ex- 
j)ense  of  the  waning  Meuse  ? Why  do  they  possess  an  advantage 
while  tlie  intermediate  stream  is  at  a disadvantage  ? How  could 
the  Meuse  ever  have  gainetl  so  large  a drainage  area  as  it  once 
must  have  had,  if  at  a later  stage  of  its  history  it  was  to  be  so 
closely  sliorn  of  its  branches  ? This  is  too  large  a problem  to 
enter  far  ui)on  now,  but  it  contains  two  elements  that  may  be 
Indefiy  stated.  One  is  that  many  ot  the  streams  in  the  region 
of  the  Meuse  are  longitudinal  streams — that  is,  they  run  chiefly 
along  the  strike  of  the  weaker  strata  and  their  valleys  have  long 
ascending  slopes  on  the  eastern  side  and  more  abrui)t  sloi)es  on 
tlie  western  side.  The  highlands  reached  by  these  slopes  are 
determined  by  the  outcrop  of  more  resistant  strata  than  those  of 
the  valleys  wliich  the  streams  have  excavated.  Longitudinal 
streams  of  this  kind  I have  called  ‘'subsequent,^'  l)elieving  that 
they  cannot  have  originated  in  immediate  conseciuence  of  the 
original  slopes  of  the  land  surface  when  it  first  arose  above  the 
sea,  but  that  their  opportunity  came  later  when  the  wasting  of 
the  weak  strata  allowed  the  headward  growth  of  streams  along 
tlieir  strike,  after  the  manner  ex})lained  in  connection  with  the 
adjustments  of  the  Marne  and  its  branches  near  Chalons.  The 
Meuse  and  at  least  some  of  the  branches  that  it  once  had  there- 
fore seem  themselves  to  have  been  the  result  of  dejjredations 
committed  on  the  territory  of  some  still  earlier  river  or  rivers, 
and  if  this  is  true,  the  sympathy  that  the  present  impoverished 
condition  of  the  Meuse  excites  is  not  deserved. 

However  this  may  be,  why  is  it  that  the  Meuse  has  lately 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXVI 


(C 


'’rr^lS,, 


jMalmv^i:^ 

r/  /jt%  M 


iVTaj^nccl 


the  lower  valley  of  the  bar 


i>hi-n  ,1/,.^  f.,  I'tati., , / $o.o,M 


THE  SEINE,  THE  MEUSE,  AND  THE  MOSELLE 


237 


found  so  great  difficulty  in  deepening  its  valley  and  thus  saving 
its  branches  from  capture  b}''  its  neighbors?  The  chief  cause  of 
this  difficulty  must  be  looked  for  in  the  u})lift  of  the  Ardennes, 
across  whose  resistant  rocks  the  lower  Meuse  has,  during  Tertiaiy 
time  (perhaps  only  during  later  Tertiary  time),  been  cutting  its 
grand  gorge.  Like  the  highlands  #of  the  middle  Rhine,  the 
Ardennes  consist  of  ancient  and  deformed  rocks  which  have 
once  been  reduced  to  a peneplain  of  moderate  relief  drained 
idle  streams,*  but  across  which  the  Meuse  is  now  actively  cutting 
a deej)  transverse  valley  in  consequence  of  the  strong  uplift  of 
the  region.  While  the  peneplain  was  yet  a lowland  the  Meuse 
was  comparatively  safe  from  depredations,  but  during  the  eleva- 
tion of  the  peneplain  and  thereafter,  great  difficulty  must  have 
been  experienced  in  deepening  the  valley.  The  Moselle  must 
also  have  had  some  difficulty  in  deepening  its  valley  through 
the  uplifted  highlands  of  the  middle  Rhine,  but  the  uplift  there 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  so  great  as  it  was  in  the  Ardennes, 
and  thus  the  Seine  and  the  Moselle  seem  to  have  gained  an  ad- 
vantage over  the  unlucky  river  between  their  headwaters.  It  is, 
indeed,  remarkable  enough  that  the  Meuse  is  still  able  to  main- 
tain its  course  across  the  uplifted  Ardennes,  and  its  success  can 
only  be  explained  by  regarding  it  as  an  excellent  example  of  an 
antecedent  river.  It  has  battled  manfully  to  preserve  its  course, 
and  in  this  it  has  been  wonderfully  successful,  for  the  highlands 

*Thi.s  view  of  tiie  history  of  the  Ardennes  is  strongly  presented  in  an  essay  by  Pro- 
fessor de  Lapparent,  entitled  “ L’age  des  formes  topdgraphiques  ” (Rev.  des  questions 
scientifiqnes,  October,  1894) ; but  there  is  one  conclusion  that  he  announces  from  which, 
if  I understand  him  correctly,  I must  differ.  Professor  de  Lapparent  states  that,  at  the 
beginning  of  Tertiary  time,  when  the  Ardennes  were  denuded  close  to  the  level  of  the 
sea,  “the  streams  there  circulated  capriciously  and  almost  with  out  slope  on  the  sur- 
face of  a region  devoid  of  relief.”  The  “ capricious  ” .irrangement  of  the  streams  seems 
to  me  very  unlikely.  Inasmuch  as  the  present  drainage  of  tlie  Ardennes  is  for  the 
most  part  accomplisheil  by  a rectangular  system  of  streams,  which  follow  longitudinal 
courses  along  the  weaker  strata  and  transverse  courses  across  the  stronger  strata,  it 
seems  advisable  to  picture  the  peneplain  to  which  the  Ardennes  were  reduced  as  still 
possessing  faint  residuals  of  the  many  ridges  that  once  rose  above  the  peneplain,  and 
to  conceive  the  streams  as  e.xhibiting  a well-adjusted  relation  to  the  structures,  such 
as  they  would  have  slowly  and  laboriously  acquired  during  the  making  of  a peneplain 
from  a once  mountainous  region  of  disorderly  structure.  The  present  rectangular 
streams  wouhl  then  be,  not  the  readjusted  successors  of  :i  capricious  system  of  di-ainage 
on  the  peneplain,  but  the  persistent  successors  of  the  laboriously  adjusted  streatns  of 
pre-Teriiary  beginning.  If  some  of  the  streams  of  the  Ardennes  now  exhibitcapri<'inus 
courses,  unrelated  to  the  structure  in  which  their  valleys  are  incised,  they  may  be  the 
successors  of  late  Tertiary  streams  that  had  lost  the  adjustment  of  maturity  in  the 
meandering  of  old  age,  or  they  may  be  inherited  fi-om  courses  that  were  assumed  on  a 
cover  of  unconformably  superposed  strata  of  late  (Iretaceous  or  early  Tertiary  date, 
now  all  strippeil  off;  but,  as  far  as  I have  seen  the  region  and  studied  the  maps,  capi  i- 
ciouH  streams  of  this  kind  ilo  not  prevail.  The  characteristic  rectangular  streams  aro 
well  shown  on  slieets  48  and  .‘it  of  tlie  Helgian  topogranliical  maps;  scale,  1 : 4u,nno. 

Ifi 


288 


A JOUEXEY  IX  ECUADOR 


of  the  Ardennes  through  which  its  deep  gorge  is  cut  are  now 
higher  than  the  uplands  in  which  its  meandering  valley  is  sunk 
for  some  distance  above  Mezieres.  Yet  although  successful  in 
holding  its  wa}’’  through  the  revived  mountains  of  the  Ardennes, 
it  has  had  to  pay  dearly  for  this  success  by  the  loss  of  its  side 
branches.  The  hard  rocks, of  the  uplifted  Ardennes  form  a sill 
that  holds  the  upper  Meuse  at  a relatively  high  level  and  allows 
the  head  branches  of  the  Seine  and  Moselle  to  undercut  it  on 
either  side.  Thus  it  is  left  as  a waning  river,  still  persevering 
l>ravely  in  its  course,  but  much  embarrassed  by  the  diversion  to 
its  encroaching  neighbors  of  certain  tributaries  from  whom  it 
had  expected  loyal  assistance  in  its  great  task  of  cutting  a way 
through  all  obstacles  to  the  sea. 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR 

By  Mark  B.  Kerr,  C.  E. 

I left  Panama  on  June  26,  1894,  and  two  days  later  made 
my  first  stop  at  Buenaventura.  Here  a Californian,  Mr  J.  L. 
Cherry,  is  building  a railroad  to  the  interior  of  Colombia,  to  pene- 
trate Cauca  valle}^  probabl}’’  the  richest  district  in  quartz  and 
placer  gold  mines  in  South  America.  The  railroad  here  has  been 
completed  to  Cordoba,  some  thirty  or  forty  miles  inland  from 
this  town.  Transportation  across  the  mountains  is  effected  by 
})acking. 

On  June  30  I arrived  at  Tumaco,  on  the  borders  of  Colombia 
and  Ecuador,  at  the  mouth  of  Rio  Mira.  From  this  point  in- 
land via  Patia  river  and  Barbacoas  another  mule  trail  leads  to 
the  interior  of  Colombia,  this  and  the  one  already  noted  being 
the  only  ways  of  reaching  the  interior  from  the  Pacific.  At 
Tumaco  the  fruit  is  delicious,  mangoes,  pineapples,  oranges,  and 
a})i'icots  being  finer  than  at  any  other  place  I visited. 

The  next  river  southward  (in  Ecuador)  is  Rio  Santiago.  Be- 
tween this  river  and  the  Mira  there  is  at  high  water  a deep  and 
narrow  interior  channel  or  sound,  which  is  generally  traversed  by 
canoe  in  preference  to  the  rougher  outside  journey  by  sea.  In 
this  portion  of  Ecuador  transportation  is  entirely  by  canoe,  as  the 
Andes  rise  abruptly  from  the  Pacific,  culminating  in  the  im- 
mense peaks  of  Chimborazo  (20,498  feet)  and  Cotopaxi  (19,480 
feet).  The  onl}"  regular  route  to  the  interior  in  Ecuador  is  the 


DRAINAGE  MAP  OF  NORTHWESTERN  ECUADOR 
I-fom  the  Stitvey  of  Mark  li.  Kerr,  Civil  /engineer,  and  A’.  M.  etrango.  Assistant  /engineer 

Coast  line  ami  adjacent  country  from  the  Ivcuador  Government  Survey,  hy  courtesy  of  C.  Van  Kscliott,  Ksq., 

of  Guayaquil,  Kcuaclor 

Klevation  above  sea  level  shown  in  figures 


Kerr's  route 


240 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR 


rough  road  from  Guayaquil  to  Quito,  crossing  the  Andes  at  an 
elevation  of  14,0rX)  feet  just  south  of  Chimborazo. 

On  the  journey  from  Tumaco  I was  accompanied  by  an  English- 
man named  Nelson.  The  first  day  out  we  stoi)ped  for  the  night 
in  this  interior  channel.  The  vegetation  was  dense  and  thick,  and 
])arasitic  vines  stretched  completely  across  the  waterway.  Many 
different  kinds  of  parrots  combined  with  innumerable  insects 
and  lizards  and  a few  monkeys  to  make  night  hideous ; and 
when  a sharj),  curious  noise  like  a dog-bark  caused  my  friend 
to  thrust  his  head  from  under  his  leafy  canopy  in  the  canoe  to 
inquire,  “ What  is  that  noi.se?”  I answered  “An  equi  snake.” 
Nelson  dropj>ed  back  under  his  ranch,  and  when  he  ventured 
out  in  the  morning  remarked,  “ What  an  infernal  country,  when 
even  the  snakes  bark  ! ” 

We  followed  the  inland  passage  to  the  mouth  of  Rio  Santiago 
and  ascended  this  river  12  miles  to  Borhon.  The  pa.ssage  was 
so  narrow  and  the  vegetation  so  thick  as  to  give  the  impression 
of  floating  through  a forest.  At  Borhon  we  found  a warehouse 
which  thereafter  served  as  our  base  of  supplies.  The  Spaniards 
knew  of  gold  jdacers  on  the  Santiago  over  two  hundred  3’^ears 
ago  and  brought  in  negro  slaves  to  work  them.  The  descendants 
of  these  .slaves  now  peoi)le  one  branch  of  the  river,  numbering 
over  1 ,500.  The\^  crowded  out  the  natives  (the  Cayapas  Indians, 
about  1,000  in  number),  who  retired  to  another  fork  of  the  same 
river.  At  Borhon  the  Santiago  forks,  the  left  (northern)  and 
decidedl}'  smaller  branch  retaining  the  name,  while  the  right 
fork  is  called  Cayapas,  after  the  native  tribe.  The  old  semi- 
civilization of  South  America  and  Central  America  seems  to 
have  been  confined  to  the  elevated  j)lateaus,  particularly  in  Peru 
and  Ecuador,  and  there  onlv  do  we  find  ruins  of  the  remarkable 
Imildings  constructed  by  the  Incas,  such  as  those  of  Quito,  Cuzco, 
and  Lake  Titicaca.  When  Pizarro  conquered  this  region  in  the 
earlier  half  of  the  sixteenth  century  many  of  these  people  fled 
before  the  conquistador  and  established  new  homes  along  the 
banks  of  these  torrential  rivers,  which  plunge  into  the  Pacific 
after  a limited  course,  usuall}"  75  to  KK)  miles.  These  rivers 
would  seem  magnificent  if  the}'  were  not  surpa.ssed  by  the  gran- 
deur of  their  neighbors,  the  Orinoco  and  the  Amazon.  Santiago 
river  and  its  branches  rise  in  the  snowy  crest  of  the  Andes,  and 
the  Cayapas  Indians  are  })robably  descendants  of  the  Chimec  or 
Chibcha,  who,  conquered  neither  by  Inca  nor  Spaniard,  retired 
to  remote  districts  and  held  themselves  aloof  from  strangers. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXVII 


- ^ 
QC 

uJ  ^ 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR 


241 


Along  most  of  the  rivers  descending  from  the  Andes  to  the 
Pacific  in  Ecuador  gold  was  found  in  small  quantities  by  the 
Spaniards.  In  this  eager  search  for  the  yellow  metal  the  In- 
dians were  forced  to  give  way,  and  now  in  tiieir  homes  along  the 
banks  of  the  Cayapas  the}'’  meet  all  strangers  in  an  inhospitable 
and  surly  manner.  The  negroes  have  borrowed  many  customs 
and  useful  arts  in  weaving,  house-building,  etc.,  from  the  Cayapas 
Indians,  and,  having  retained  many  old  habits  of  their  former 
African  abode,  combined  with  some  of  the  worst  traits  of  the  in- 
ferior whites,  may  be  summed  up  as  being  phlegmatic,  ignorant, 
superstitious,  without  strong  family  ties  or  sense  of  gratitude. 
Their  superstitions  take  the  form  of  incantations  to  prevent  acci- 
dents, and  especial  trouble  is  taken  to  prevent  the  devil  from 
taking  possession  of  infants.  Some  respect  is  felt  for  the  priest 
who  occasionally  visits  here,  but  with  these  negroes  religion  is 
only  another  word  for  superstition. 

But  to  return  to  my  journey  On  July  17  we  left  Borbon  and 
proceeded  by  steam  launch  28  miles  up  Rio  Cayapas.  Grasses, 
ferns,  and  bushes  (mostly  of  the  class  Umbellifer£e)  lined  the 
banks  and  mingled  with  the  cocoanut  trees,  the  breadfruit,  the 
splendid  royal  palm,  and  the  mango  with  its  spreading  and 
symmetrical  foliage.  These  magnificent  trees  with  their  large 
leaves  strained  imagination  to  the  utmost  and  utterly  deceived 
the  eye  in  grasping  proportions.  While  lost  in  silent  admira- 
tion of  such  a wealth  of  vegetation,  we  turned  a sharp  bend 
of  the  river  and  over  the  tliatched  huts  of  the  natives  could 
be  seen  the  overhanging  feathery  tufts  of  the  bamboo,  w'hich 
softened  as  well  as  lightened  up  the  intensely  dark  hue  of  vege- 
tation in  the  background.  This  was  the  headquarters  of  Na})0, 
the  gobernador  of  the  Cayapas.  A judicious  presentation  of 
heads  and  buttons  insured  us  a pleasant  reception  from  the  chief, 
and  he  detailed  a guide  for  us  on  the  upper  river. 

The  house  of  the  gobernador  was  on  stilts  (as  is  the  case  with 
most  of  these  houses)  and  was  built  like  a long  rectangle,  100  by 
GO  feet.  Two  large  fireplaces  (wooden  Ijoxes  elevated  about 
three  or  four  feet  above  the  lloor  and  filled  witli  sand)  and  some 
large  fiat  stones  sufiiced  for  cooking  pur|>o.ses,  wliile  four  small 
e.xtensions,  two  on  each  side  of  the  house,  like  hay  windows, 
served  as  sleeping  apartments  for  the  difi'erent  meml)ers  of  the 
family.  The  men  are  well  formed,  of  good  stature,  beardless, 
with  glossy  black  hair,  and  splendid  chest  development,  while 
the  women,  l)eing  forced  to  do  all  the  work,  are  generally  small, 


242 


A JOURXEY  IX  ECUADOR 


coarsely  fat,  and  disfigured  b}'’  black  streaks  across  their  faces 
arms,  and  breasts.  They  wear  an  embroidered  cloth  of  their 
own  manufacture  tied  around  the  waist  and  reaching  to  the  knee, 
and  the  men  wear  a garment  like  swimming  trunks,  made  of  the 
same  material. 

Boiled  plantain  lieaten  into  cakes  between  two  flat  stones  con- 
stituted supper  and  breakfast.  After  supi)er  the  women  engaged 
in  weaving  cloth  from  shreds  of  i)lantain  fiber,  and  through  this 
embroidered  long  pieces  of  cotton  dyed  by  rolling  cotton  in 
natural  l)lues  and  reds  through  the  cloth  like  wax-ends.  This 
cloth,  all  hand-made,  was  when  completed  extremely  hand- 
some, reminding  one  of  the  figures  and  coloring  of  German  em- 
broidery. The  men  amused  themselves  lolling  in  hammocks  or 
])laying  on  the  marimba,  an  instrument  made  of  upright  pieces 
of  bamboo  with  pieces  of  hard  wood  laid  across  them,  in  tone  like 
a xyloplione.  Sometimes  they  played  minor  chords  on  another 
instrument  like  a harp.  A fire  of  a sort  of  resinous  wood  served 
to  light  up  the  scene  until  night  fell  black  and  damp,  and  we 
were  lulled  to  sleep  by  the  crackling  flight  of  large  beetles  and 
the  occasional  hoarse  bark  of  a tree-frog  or  lizard. 

p]arly  the  next  morning  we  visited  the  trapiclie  or  sugar-cane 
press  of  the  chief.  Here  two  huge  wooden  rollers  set  close  to- 
gether pressed  the  cane  stalks  and  large  metal  ve.ssels  received 
the  juice.  Distilling  pots  were  placed  convenient!}’' near.  All 
the  apparatus  had  apparently  been  in  use  for  many  years. 

These  natives  make  light  and  swift  canoes  and  leaf-shape  pad- 
dles, and  are  also  skillful  in  weaving  hats,  fans,  and  hammocks 
from  the  many-colored  rushes  and  grasses.  From  the  “ pita  ’’ 
they  make  fish  nets  and  lines,  and  by  whipping  a small  stream, 
diving,  and  keeping  the  net  close  to  the  bottom  they  inclose  the 
fish  in  a small  space,  when  men,  women,  and  children  have  great 
sjjort  in  spearing  them.  Besides  this,  the  men  are  skillful  fisher- 
men, and  when  the  river  is  high  an  Indian  can  often  be  seen,  with 
one  hand  holding  his  pole  and  the  other  propelling  and  guiding 
his  canoe  in  a manner  worthy  of  the  most  scientific  sportsman. 
They  also  make  a sort  of  vegetable  cloth  by  beating  otf  the  out- 
side covering  of  strips  of  Tanajaqua  bark,  which  afterwards  by 
repeated  washings  becomes  pliable. 

By  some  means  of  rapid  signaling  our  ])rogress  up  the  river 
was  anticipated,  but  thanks  to  the  kind  office  of  our  friend,  the 
gobernador,  although  not  altogether  hospitably  received,  we  were 
still  permitted  to  pass  along  without  question.  Along  the  whole 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR 


243 


course  of  this  river  we  found  different  clans  living  in  communal 
style  in  these  large  houses,  similar  to  the  house  of  the  chief,  skill- 
ful in  weaving  cloth  and  carving  figures  out  of  wood,  without 
doubt  arts  from  a higher  civilization.  The  custom  of  removing 
the  bones  from  the  head  of  the  dead  and  then  drying  and  em- 
balming the  latter  seems  confined  to  the  Serranos  on  the  upper 
plateaus,  but  I saw  one  of  these  heads,  about  the  size  of  an  ordi- 
nary ball,  with  perfect  hair  and  features.  This  tribe  is  entirely 
pure,  and  although  most  of  them  understand  the  Spanish  of  the 
country,  they  use  their  own  language  among  themselves. 

Reaching  the  head  of  steam  navigation,  we  again  took  to  bur 
canoes.  The  river,  swollen  by  recent  rains,  rushed  down  at  a 
furious  rate,  and  the  native  boatmen,  clinging  to  roots  and  over- 
hanging bushes,  used  vigorously  both  paddle  and  pole,  shouting 
and  babbling  to  each  other  louder  even  than  the  roar  of  the  water. 
We  encountered  mostly  sedimentary  rocks  until  we  reached  the 
Sapayo.  The  bed-rock  then  was  soft  and  contained  fossil  shells, 
some  of  them  belonging  to  the  Chico  group.  A short  distance 
up  this  river  the  formation  changes.  Immediately  above  an 
altered  sandstone  and  slate  and  then  granite  and  quartz  occur. 
In  the  Sapollite  the  quartz  is  gold-bearing,  but  above  it  is  barren. 
Further  above  occur  the  diabase  rocks  and  lavas  to  the  crest  of 
the  mountains.  Outside  of  the  Sapollite  and  Sapayo  Grande  the 
rocks  are  base,  gabbro-like,  and  carry  no  gold.  The  float  of  the 
Sapayo  Grande  shows  crystals  of  quartz  and  Brazilian  topaz,  but 
none  of  the  stones  we  saw  were  valuable. 

Having  reached  the  head  of  canoe  navigation  on  Cayapas  river 
and  made  an  examination  of  the  placers  there,  we  built  a hut  after 
the  native  fashion  and  made  our  second  base  camp.  My  plan 
was  to  cross  the  cordillera  and  examine  the  rocks  and  topography 
of  the  country  between  tlie  rivers  Cayapas  and  Santiago. 

We  found  here  an  old  trail  running  into  the  interior  across  the 
Andes  to  the  town  of  Cotocachi.  No  white  man  had  ever  gone 
so  high  u[)  the  river  or  attempted  the  interesting  journey  across 
the  Andes.  On  account  of  the  heavy  rainfall  (a)jout  30  inches  a 
montli)  it  is  very  dillicult  to  j)reserve  negatives,  and  even  cloth- 
ing S(jon  becomes  mildewed.  A great  many  of  my  exposures 
were  ruined  ami  most  of  the  negatives  were  spotted  by  the  damp- 
ness. Thus  my  photographs  are  few  and  im])erfect. 

Leaving  all  our  miscellaneous  equipage  at  this  camp,  we 
decided  to  cut  our  way  along  the  old  trail.  Never  bolbn'  in  all 
my  experience  had  I encountered  such  a wealth  of  vegetable 


244 


A JOURXEY  IX  ECUADOR 


and  insect  life  as  here  in  the  depth  of  the  equatorial  forest. 
Many-colored  moths,  butterflies,  and  humming-birds  fluttered 
from  plant  to  plant,  and  even  snakes,  toads,  and  lizards  were 
clothed  in  ])revailing  bright  hues.  The  snakes  were  generally 
about  the  size  of  the  rattlesnake,  with  flat  heads  and  large  fangs, 
and  many  of  them  were  venomous.  The  boa  here  does  not  reach 
so  great  a size  as  on  the  Amazon  drainage,  the  largest  we  saw 
being  eight  feet  long  and  three  inches  thick.  On  some  of  the 
smaller  streams  one  species  of  reptile,  light  green  in  color,  had 
an  uncanny  way  of  dropping  unexpectedly  from  trees,  once  in 
awhile  actually  dropping  into  our  canoe  as  we  passed.  Two 
large  copper  tanks  were  filled  with  different  species  of  reptiles. 
One  earthworm  was  found  two  feet  long,  a cockroach  three 
inches,  and  a grasshopper  three  and  one-half  inches  in  length. 
Large  fireflies,  with  two  phosphorescent  eyes,  were  plentiful; 
they  made  a crackling  noise  in  flight.  During  the  night  we 
stuffed  cotton  in  our  ears,  not  alone  to  drown  the  droning  and 
buzzing  of  the  insects,  but  also  to  prevent  the  pests  from  crawl- 
ing in  while  we  slept. 

Four  or  five  natives  in  charge  of  an  assistant  were  sent  ahead 
with  provisions,  to  put  up  ranches  (a  ranch  here  is  a temporary 
camp)  of  cane  and  palm  leaves,  and  with  three  others  I brought 
up  the  rear.  The  vegetation  changed  somewhat  and  became 
semi-tropical  in  character,  the  red  cedar  predominating,  and 
although  there  was  not  the  same  dense  jungle  .as  below,  still  the 
underl)rush  was  luxuriant,  and  our  machete  men  were  kept  busy 
in  cutting  out  the  large  tangled  roots  and  dense  vegetation  which 
obstructed  our  path  up  the  ridges.  As  we  ascended  the  stream 
we  noticed  many  butterflies  on  the  playas.  Toward  evening  the 
numl^er  increased  until  for  an  hour  they  passed  over  our  heads 
in  perfect  swarms  like  locusts. 

We  passed  two  falls  by  swimming  and  climbing  along  the  edge 
of  the  rocky  bank  until  it  was  too  steep  to  even  afford  foothold. 
We  then  made  a raft  of  light  balsa  wood  and  passed  along  the 
cliffs  to  the  third  fall.  Wearied  by  our  work,  we  j>itched  our 
tent  .along  the  edge  of  the  canon  about  thirty-five  feet  aVjove  the 
water.  For  the  sake  of  convenience  our  Jamaican  cook  had 
l)itched  his  camp  under  a shelving  rock  about  twent}'  feet  above 
the  water.  Shortly  after  dark  we  heard  the  distant  thunder  in 
the  mountains,  and  in  two  hours,  before  we  bad  even  time  to 
realize  wbat  had  happened,  the  water  came  doAvn  in  one  solid 
sheet  of  white  foam  and  washed  our  kitchen  away,  leaving  us. 


A JOURNEY  IN  ECUADOR 


245 


however,  the  cook.  The  water  rose  thirty  feet,  and  then  gradu- 
ally subsided,  having  just  missed  canying  away  our  entire  camp. 

After  we  left  the  river  one  high  ridge  was  reached  onl}"  to 
plunge  again  into  a ravine  on  the  other  side,  for  the  trail  carried 
us  across  the  many  forks  of  the  Sapa}^  Grande.  We  made  only 
four  or  five  miles  a day.  One  day,  having  a particularly  rough 
and  difficult  journe}'  to  make,  we  failed  to  reach  our  camp  and 
remained  all  night  upon  the  cordillera.  The  darkness  fell 
rapidly.  Suddenly  a peal  of  thunder  was  heard,  followed  by  a 
sound  like  a rushing,  furious  wind  through  the  tree-tops,  the 
signal  of  approaching  rain.  It  came  in  torrents,  wetting  us 
through  and  through,  and  putting  out  our  fire.  The  earth,  like 
a sponge  filled  to  repletion,  received  and  gave  off’  its  additional 
moisture,  making  the  air  intensely  humid.  We  sat  up  the  rest 
of  the  night,  clinging  to  the  roots  of  the  trees,  hearing  the  whirr 
of  innumerable  birds,  the  buzz  of  countless  insects,  and  the  howl- 
ing of  wild  cats,  while  large  firebugs  and  a phosphorescent  gleam 
from  decayed  vegetation  spread  a weird  glow  that  only  served  to 
intensify  the  darkness. 

On  the  fourth  day  we  reached  the  main  divide  or  cordillera 
overlooking  Rio  Santiago,  8,000  feet  above  the  sea,  and  leading 
direct  to  the  summit  of  Cotocachi.  This  peak  is  included  in 
the  scheme  of  triangulation  and  observation  of  Juan  and  Ulloa, 
Humboldt  and  Pissis.  At  this  point  the  Andes  begin  to  show 
their  power;  numerous  streams  fall  in  beautiful  cascades  over 
the  cliff's  and  disappear  in  the  vegetation  below,  while  not  far 
away  looms  up  a snowy  summit,  17,000  feet  above  sea  level. 

After  extending  our  reconnaissance  to  the  river  we  returned 
over  our  trail  and  down  the  Cayapas  to  the  headquarters  at  Bor- 
bon.  For  some  reason  we  were  avoided  by  the  natives,  and  even 
treated  with  o)>en  signs  of  enmit3^  Plowever,  we  had  accom- 
plished all  we  wished  in  limiting  the  areas  containing  gold  gravel 
and  in  making  a rough  but  interesting  trip  in  a very  short  time. 


THE  ABERRATION  OF  SOUND  AS  ILLUSTRATED  BY 
THE  BERKELEY  POWDER  EXPLOSION 


By  Robert  LI.  Chapman, 

United  States  Geological  Surrey 

Dr  Cl):irle.s  A.  Wliite*  and  Mr  Arnold  B.  Johnson  t have 
treated  of  the  sounds  given  by  fog-sirens.  They  have  discovered 
areas  close  to  the  siren  in  which  the  sound  is  inaudible.  In  some 
cases  this  fact  is  accounted  for  by  the  intervention  of  an  object, 
such  as  an  island  or  mountain,  but  not  infrequently  there  is  no 
visil)le  obstruction  to  the  sound  waves  coming  from  the  siren. 
It  is  my  wish  to  ju’esent  some  facts  that  have  come  within  my 
own  observation  and  that  show  a direct  relationship  between 
sound  waves  and  waves  of  motion  generated  b}'  sharj)  explosions. 

On  Saturday,  July  1),  1892,  about  9.30  a.  m.,  an  explosion  oc- 
curred at  the  giant-powder  works  at  LVest  Berkeley,  California. 
The  first  explosion  was  in  the  “ mixing-room,”  and  about  1,000 
pounds  of  nitro-glycerine  were  discharged.  About  five  minutes 
later  the  three  magazines  blew  up,  the  final  ex])losion  being  the 
heaviest.  The  total  amount  of  powder  and  nitro-glycerine  ex- 
ploded was  about  250  tons.  The  shock  of  the  last  explosion  was 
very  severe,  the  column  of  smoke  and  flame  rising  to  a height 
of  at  least  1,200  feet,  and  resembling  a volcanic  eruption.  The 
damage  in  San  Francisco,  eight  miles  across  the  bay,  was  very 
great,  ])late-glass  windows  being  broken,  doors  forced,  and  sky- 
lights shattered.  Tne  shock  seemed  to  be  a little  heavier  in  the 
low-lying  portion  of  the  city,  although  farther  from  the  scene  of 
the  explosion,  than  in  the  hilly  (piarter.  It  was  distinctly  felt  by 
the  engineer  and  passengers  of  a rapidly  moving  express  train 
12  miles  north  of  the  works.  A train  only  five  miles  distant  was 
l)artially  protected  by  hills,  and  no  shock  was  noticed.  At  Napa, 
28  miles  due  north,  the  shock  was  distinctly  noticeable. 

About  one  and  one-half  miles  a little  south  of  east  of  the  works 
and  at  about  100  feet  higher  elevation  is  situated  a large  frame 

* Science,  yo\.  xxiii,  pp.  59-62,  The  Relation  of  the  Sounds  of  Fog  Signals  to  other 
.Sounds. 

t Science,  vol.  xxiii,  pp.  3-6,  The  Cruise  of  the  Clover. 

See  also  The  Modern  Light-house  Service,  pp.  “4-91,  .4.  B.  Johnson,  and  Report  upon 
Fog-signal  Experiments  (Report  of  the  Light-house  Board,  1891,  Appendix  No.  V), 
pp.  289-304,  W.  R.  Livermore. 


24G 


THE  ABERRATION  OF  SOUND 


247 


building,  built  for  hotel  purposes,  and  having  a great  number  of 
rooms  and  windows.  It  was  used  at  that  time  as  a young  ladies’ 
seminary,  but  the  explosion  occurred  during  vacation,  and  the 
president  of  the  institution  and  his  family  were  the  only  persons 
occupying  it.  Accordingly  most  of  the  rooms  were  vacant  and 
the  doors  and  windows  closed.  The  dimensions  of  the  building 
are  about  200  feet  in  an  east- west  direction  by  50  feet  north  and 
south,  and  it  is  several  stories  high.  On  the  first  floor  are  large 
dining-rooms,  reception-rooms,  etc,  with  a hallway  in  the  middle 


rooms  on  each  side  of  the  hall,  and  transoms  over  the  doors, 
with  elevator  and  stairways  in  the  middle  of  the  building,  as 
shown  in  the  accompanying  ground  jdan  and  proHle,  whicli, 
however,  are  given  as  correct  only  as  to  their  general  features. 
For  convenience,  the  windows  shown  in  the  skeUih  arc  numbered 
vertically  from  the  bottom  and  lettered  con.secutively  from  tlu; 
loft. 

'file  conservatory,  on  the  north  side  of  the  building,  was  badly 
broken,  both  glass  and  framewctrk,  the  latter  being  movi'd  out- 


248 


THE  ABERRATION  OF  SOUND 


ward,  or  toward  the  focus  of  action.  All  the  windows  on  the 
western  end  of  the  building  were  broken,  while  those  on  the 
eastern  end  were  uninjured.  The  direction  of  the  waves  of  mo- 
tion was  toward  the  northwest  corner  of  the  building.  On  exam- 
ining the  column  marked  6,  I found  window  2 blown  in  and  its 
frame  broken  into  small  pieces.  Window  3 was  uninjured,  while 
4 was  in  a condition  similar  to  2,  both  glass  and  frame  being 
broken.  This  skipping  of  alternate  windows  in  the  same  verti- 
cal line  was  remarked  in  several  instances,  but  the  broken  win- 
dows were  not  always  in  the  same  horizontal  line.  I remarked 
no  .s\’’stematic  alternations  in  injuries  to  windows  of  the  same 
stoiy.  In  some  cases  the  transom  above  the  door  of  a room,  the 
door  and  window  being  shut,  was  broken,  glass  and  frame,  the 
door  blown  in  toward  the  room  and  broken  from  the  hinges  and 


S 

MAIN  ENTRANCE 


lock,  the  window  remaining  uninjured.  Many  windows  on  the  * 
south  side  of  the  building,  the  side  unexposed  to  the  direct  force 
of  the  explosion,  were  broken  and  many  doors  on  the  south  side 
of  the  hallway  were  broken  and  unhinged.  The  large  doors  at 
the  entrance  of  the  building  on  the  south  side  were  broken  from 
hinges,  lock,  and  floor-bolt;  one  was  blown  in  and  the  other 
blown  out.  No  damage  was  noted  in  the  vicinity  of  the  eleva- 
tor shaft,  where  the  air  in  the  building  was  free  to  circulate.  The 
general  rule  appeared  to  be  that  the  doors  were  forced  toward 
the  room  or  hallway  having  the  greater  cubical  contents.  Look- 
ing at  the  north  side  of  the  building,  one  was  impressed  with  the 
fact  that  it  appeared  to  have  been  bombarded,  the  windows  be- 
ing broken  in  groups.  This  seems  to  bear  out,  to  some  extent 
at  least,  the  assertion  of  Professor  P.  G.  Tait,  that  “in  the  case 
of  a disturbance  in  air  due  to  a very  sudden  explosion,  as  of 
d^mamite  or  as  by  the  passage  of  a flash  of  lightning,  it  is  proVj- 


THE  ABERRATION  OF  SOUND 


249 


able  that  for  some  distance  from  the  source  the  motion  is  of  a 
projectile  character.”* 

The  breaking  of  the  transoms  over  doors,  while  the  window 
w'as  uninjured,  and  the  breaking  of  the  windows  unexposed  to 
the  direct  force  of  the  explosion  are  very  interesting  phenomena, 
and  I wish  to  otTer  an  explanation  which  I think  will  account 
for  the  facts  observed.  The  path  of  the  maximum  of  disturb- 
ance results  largely  from  the  unequal  resistance  of  the  air,  and 
while  at  the  actual  center  of  explosion  the  pressure  may  be  in 
“ concentric  shells,”  at  a very  short  distance  it  becomes  stellar. 
The  changing  pressure  of  the  wind,  as  shown  b^^  Professor  Lang- 
ley’s experiments,  and  the  shape  of  the  flame  in  an  explosion 
(stellar)  lead  one  to  this  conclusion.  As  the  maximum  wave 
moves  from  the  focus,  the  air  forming  it  is  constantly  changing, 
and  the  following  sketch  illustrates  the  path  of  an  air  particle 
as  I believe  it  to  be : 


A,  B,  and  Care  air  particles  in  the  })ath  of  a maximum  wave 
traveling  along  the  line  0 P.  The  motion  of  each  is  first  along 
the  line  of  0 P,  away  from  the  focus,  a result  of  direct  imj)act  of 
other  particles,  then  back  to  its  original  i)osition,  or  near  it.  the 
track  forming  a closed  curve.  When  the  ])article  is  in  the  posi- 
tion A',  B\  or  C',  its  motion  is  toward  the  focus  of  the  explosion, 
and  so  any  damage  it  might  do  would  be  evidenced  I)}"  a break- 
ing of  objects  unexposed  to  the  force  of  the  direct  wave.  In  the 
case  of  the  transoms  mentioned  above,  the  back  thrust  which 
bnjke  the  glass  and  frame  was  cushioned  by  the  air  in  the  room, 
and  so  the  window  was  not  injured. 


* Eneyclop-cdia  firitannicn,  ninth  eilition,  vol.  x.xiv,  p.  418. 


MINERAL  PRODUCTION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 


The  mineral  products  of  the  United  States  in  the  calendar  year  1895 
had  a total  value,  according  to  the  statistics  collected  by  the  U.  S.  Geologi- 
cal Survey,  of  $611,795,290.  This  amount,  although  nearly  one-sixth 
greater  than  that  for  the  preceding  year,  was  less  than  in  1890,  1891,  or 
1892.  The  quantities  of  the  principal  items  were,  however,  greater  than 
ever  before,  while  the  values  were  in  many  cases  less,  owing  to  the  reduc- 
tion in  prices. 

The  most  noteworthy  increase  in  the  list  is  in  the  case  of  pig  iron,  the 
quantity  of  which  increased  nearly  42  per  cent,  viz.,  from  6,657,388  long 
tons  to  9,446,308  long  tons,  and  the  value  nearly  62  per  cent,  viz.,  from 
$65,007,247  to  $105,198,550.  This  production  is  the  largest  the  country 
has  ever  seen  and  is  probably  not  far  from  double  that  of  the  British 
islands.  The  decrease  in  silver  production  has  continued,  the  amount 
j)roduced  being  47,000,000  ounces,  or  about  24  million  ounces  less  than 
the  year  before.  The  production  of  gold  has  greatly  increased,  being 
$47,000,000  against  $39,500,000  in  1894.  The  product  of  the  Transvaal 
was  almost, equal  to  that  of  this  countr}'.  The  production  of  copper  has 
increased  slightly,  being  381,106,868  pounds.  The  production  of  lead 
also  has  increased,  reaching  161,440  short  tons.  The  output  of  coal  con- 
sisted of  135,118,193  short  tons  of  bituminous  and  51,785,122  long  tons  of 
Pennsylvania  anthracite.  The  output  of  coal,  both  bituminous  and  an- 
tliracite,  is  the  largest  on  record.  The  production  of  petroleum  was 
52,9S;l,526  barrels  of  42  gallons  each,  the  largest  amount  ever  produced 
in  a single  year  with  the  exception  of  1891.  The  production  of  natural 
gas  has  slightly  diminished. 

The  enormous  increase  in  some  of  these  items,  especially  those  of  pig 
iron  and  coal,  illustrates  in  emphatic  terms  the  promptness  with  which 
the  supjily  of  such  products  responds  to  an  increased  demand.  For  two 
years  the  railroads  of  the  United  States  were  economizing  in  the  pur- 
chase of  rails,  with  the  result  that  at  the  end  of  that  time  an  unusually 
large  number  of  lines  were  needing  new  rails,  and  the  different  compa- 
nies took  advantage  of  the  low  price  of  steel  to  supply  their  necessities  in 
this  regard.  The  result  was  a large  and  sudden  demand  for  steel  rails, 
causing  a great  increase  in  price ; mines  and  furnaces  were  reopened,  and 
general  activity  prevailed  in  the  trade,  resulting,  as  before  stated,  in  an 
increase  in  the  iron  output  of  nearly  42  per  cent  over  the  previous  year. 
In  the  case  of  most  of  our  mineral  products  the  output  is  limited  only  by 
the  market.  The  supply  and  the  facilities  for  extraction  are  more  than 
sufficient  to  meet  any  l^ossible  demand. 


250 


GEOGRAPHIC  NOTES 


EUROPE 

England.  Four  additional  "wires,  mainl}'  for  telephone  pur])Oses,  are 
to  be  laid  between  London  and  Paris. 

A census  taken  in  iNIarcb  last  found  the  population  of  London,  e.xclusive 
of  the  outer  suburbs,  to  be  4,411,271,  an  increase  of  199,528  in  five  years. 

ASIA 

India.  In  1895  new  railways  aggregating  over  800  miles  in  length  were 
opened,  while  nearly  3,800  miles  were  under  construction  or  sanctioned. 
The  net  earnings  of  the  Indian  railways  averaged  5.78  per  cent. 

China.  The  imports  during  1895  amounted  to  171,696,715  taels  (the 
tael  fluctuating  between  65  and  74  cents),  against  162,102,911  taels  in 
1894.  The  exports  amounted  to  143,293,211  taels,  against  128,104,522  taels 
in  1894.  Silk  is  now  a more  important  export  article  than  tea.  Raw  cot- 
ton, also,  is  an  export  that  is  increasing  very  rapidly.  Of  the  total  foreign 
trade  of  nearly  315  million  taels,  Great  Britain  had  over  215  millions, 
Japan  32  millions.  Continental  Europe  (excluding  Ru-ssia)  29  millions,  the 
United  States  2O5  millions,  and  the  Russian  empire  17  millions.  Nearly 
219  million  taels  of  this  trade  had  its  center  in  the  port  of  Shanghai.  The 
total  number  of  foreign  residents  in  China  last  year  was  10,091, the  British 
and  Americans  leading  all  other  nations,  with  4,084  and  1,325  respect- 
ively. Of  the  603  foreign  firms  in  the  empire,  361  were  British  and  91 
German. 

AFRICA 

Uganda.  About  100  miles  of  the  new  railway  are  expected  to  he  con- 
structed this  year,  at  a cost  of  about  £520,000.  The  total  outlay  will  lie 
not  less  than  £3,000,000. 

• Asha.nti.  iMajor  Donovan,  a British  officer,  recently  visited  lake 
Busumakwe  and  is  said  to  be  the  first  white  man  to  have  jienetrated  that 
region.  The  area  of  the  lake  was  found  to  be  about  48  s(iuare  miles,  and 
there  is  no  aiijiarent  outlet. 

• Damomkv-Lagos.  The  Anglo-French  commission  for  the  demarcation 
of  the  boundary  between  Dahomey  and  Lagtis  has  coiii|)leted  its  task  to 
the  satisfaction  of  all  concerned.  Tiie  French  were  found  to  have  occu- 
pied several  i)laces  in  British  territory  and  to  have  been  receiving  taxes 
therefrom,  but  the  representatives  of  the  French  government  i>romptly 
withdrew  on  this  fact  being  established. 

P>iHTiHH  Ckntkal  Ai-'kica.  Mr  A.  J.  Swann,  the  British  magistrate  at 
Kotakota,  lake  Nya.«sa,  who  some  time  ago  discovered  some  remarkable 
fresh-water  medusa;,  has  recently  found  an  immense  bed  of  lime  fo.ssils 


252 


MISCELLANEA 


and  flint,  and  the  Royal  Society  of  London  has  sent  out  an  expedition  to 
examine  and  report  upon  tlie  latter  discovery,  with  a view  to  throwing 
light  on  the  origin  of  the  great  African  lakes. 

NORTH  AMERICA 

British  A.merica.  The  government  of  Newfoundland  is  issuing  bonds 
for  the  construction  and  equipment  of  a railway  from  a point  on  the  Ex- 
ploits river  about  200  miles  from  Placentia  Junction  to  Port-aux- Basques. 


AUSTRALASIA 

Au.str.\li.\.  An  expedition  left  Adelaide  on  May  22  to  explore  the  in- 
terior of  the  island.  Its  return  is  not  expected  until  late  in  1897. 

POLAR  REGIONS 

The  .steam-yacht  Windward  left  London  for  Franz  Josef  Land  on  June  9 
for  the  relief  of  the  Jackson  expedition.  She  carried  a very  large  supply 
of  provisions,  a number  of  sledges,  5,000  tabloids  of  the  essential  proper- 
ties of  blood,  and  several  thousand  letters  and  packages.  The  Windward 
will  call  at  Vardo  to  take  on  board  coal,  sheep,  and  reindeer,  and  she  ex- 
pects to  communicate  with  the  explorers  at  cape  Flora,  Franz  Josef  Land, 
on  or  about  July  20.  The  return  of  the  exploring  party  before  1897  is, 
however,  very  unlikely. 


MISCELLANEA 

The  Suez  C.\x.\i>.  The  traffic  through  the  Suez  canal  in  1895  comprised 
3,4:J4  ships,  of  8,448,383  tons,  with  216,938  passengers.  Of  the  ships, 
2,318  were  British,  314  German,  278  French,  192  Dutch,  78  Italian,  72 
Austrian,  57  Norwegian,  39  Russian,  36  Turkish,  33  Spanish,  5 American, 
3 Portuguese,  2 Chinese,  2 Egyptian,  2 Japanese,  2 Swedish,  and  i Danish. 
Of  the  passengers,  118,639  were  soldiers,  74,878  civilians,  and  23,421  pil- 
grims and  emigrants.  The  total  receipts  were  78,426,000  francs,  an  in- 
crease of  4,299,000  francs,  gross,  and  of  3,172,000  francs,  net,  over  those 
of  1894.  The  average  duration  of  the  transit  was  16  hours  18  minutes, 
a reduction  of  23  minutes  from  the  average  of  the  preceding  year. 

Deep-se.\  Soundings.  The  British  Admiralty  has  just  issued  its  report 
of  the  deep-sea  soundings  conducted  by  shij^s  of  the  royal  navy  in  1895. 
Commander  A.  F.  Balfour,  in  the  Penguin,  while  surveying  in  the  South 
Pacific,  found  very  deep  water  to  the  eastward  of  a line  drawn  between 
the  Friendly  and  Kermadec  islands.  Soundings  of  5,147  and  5,155  fath- 
oms were  obtained  in  latitude  28°  44.4'  S.,  longitude  176°  04'  W.,  and 
latitude  30°  27.7'  S.,  longitude  176°  39'  W.,  respectively.  The  deepest 
sounding  ever  before  obtained  was  4,655  fathoms,  to  the  northeast  of 
Japan.  The  new  soundings  are  therefore  deeper  by  about  3,000  feet  than 
anything  before  discov^ered.  A remarkable  fact  in  connection  with  the 
new  soundings  is  that  these  extraordinary  depths  are  not  far  from  land. 


NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE  • 
• OHli”nOETE. 

“The  Rhine,  the  Alps  and  the  Battlefield 
Line.” 


XM  E 

FAMOUS  m.  LIMITED 

FAST  FLYING  VIRGINIAN 

IS  THE  ONLY  SOLID  VESTIBULED  TRAIN,  ELECTRIC-LIGHTED,  STEAM-HEATED, 
WITH  THROUGH  DINING  CAR, 

BETWEKN 

NEW  YORK,  PHILADELPHIA,  BALTIMORE,  WASHINGTON 


AND 


CINCINNATI,  LOUISVILLE,  ST.  LOUIS,  CHICAGO,  AND  THE  WEST. 

OBSERVATION  CAR  ATTACHED. 

H.  W.  FULLER,  General  Passenger  Agent,  Washington,  D.  C. 


EUGENE  FIELD  MEMORIAL  FUND. 

A beautiful  souvenir  volume,  containing  some  of  the  late  lamented 
author’s  choicest  poems,  with  a fine  portrait  and  many  exquisite  illustrations, 
will  be  .sent  to  every  contributor  of  One  Dollar  (with  ten  cents  added  for 
postage)  to  the  Field  Memorial  Fund. 

The  publishers  of  Mr.  Field’s  works  have  generously  waived  their  copy- 
right in  the  poems  selected,  thirty  arti.sts  of  the  very  highest  talent  have 
contributed  the  illustrations,  and  admirers  of  the  gentle  poet  all  over  the 
country  are  uniting  in  doing  honor  to  his  memory. 

The  proceeds  will  be  divided  equally  between  Mr.  Field’s  family  and  the 
fund  for  the  erection  of  a monument. 

The  movement  has  the  warm  and  generous  support  of  the  profession  of 
which  Mr.  Field  was  .so  distinguished  an  ornament,  and  The  Nation.vl 
Gkogkapiiic  Mag.azink  offers  its  own  sincere  tribute  to  the  exceeding 
worthiness  of  the  object  and  the  peculiar  appropriateness  of  the  means  by 
which  it  is  sought  to  be  attained. 

Send  One  Dollar  and  Ten  Cents  to  Henry  W.  Tiernan  and  Albert  L. 
Swift,  Secretaries  Field  Memorial  Fund,  i8o  Monroe  Street,  Chicago,  111. 


NA  TIONA L GEOGRA PHIC  MA  GA ZINE 


vO/ 


ARIZONA  FOR  THE  SPORTSMAN. 


Heretofore  most  people  in  their  busy  lives  have  thought 
of  Arizona  and  New  ^lexico  only  as  the  great  storehouse  where 
dame  Nature  in  coquettish  mood  hid  her  treasures  in  the  for- 
midable mountain  ranges.  It  is  true  that  Humboldt  said  of  this 
region  that  it  was  the  richest  in  minerals  of  any  section  of  the 
globe  ; but  w’hile  its  mountains  are  filled  with  veins  of  gold, 
silver,  iron  and  coal,  its  valleys  are  as  inviting  to  the  agricult- 
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many  respects  perfect.  To  the  sportsman  it  is  a most  enchant- 
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The  National  Geographic  Magazine, 

NOW  PUBLISHED  MONTHLY, 

numbers  among  its  contributors  the  following  well-known  writers  on  the  diflerent 

branches  of  geogra})hic  science : 


Mr.  Cyrus  C.  Adams,  New  York. 

])r.  Cyrus  Adler,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Mr.  Marcus  Baker,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  Francis  Brown,  Union  Theol.  Seminary. 

lion.  Jefferson  B.  Browne,  Collector  of  Cus- 
toms at  Key  West. 

Dr.  H.  L.  Corthell,  C.  E.,  New  York. 

Dr.  Elliott  Cones. 

Hon.  William  E.  Curtis,  ex-Director  of  the 
Bureau  of  the  .\merican  Republics. 

Mr.  Frank  Hamilton  Cushing,  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  Assistant  vSecre- 
tary  of  Agriculture. 

Dr.  Win.  H.  Dali,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Dr.  George  David.son,  I’resident  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  of  the  Pacific. 

Mr.  Arthur  P.  Davis,  U.  ,S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Win.  M.  Davis,  Profe.ssor  of  Pli}'sical  Geog- 
raphy in  Harvard  University. 

Dr.  David  T.  Day,  Chief  of  the  Div.  of  Mining 
Statistics  and  Technology,  U.  S.  Geol.  Sur. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Diller,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

H«ni.  John  W.  P'oster,  ex-,Secretary  of  State. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Chief  Geographer,  U.  S. 
Geological  .Survey  and  nth  Census. 

IMr.  G.  K.  Gilbert,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A.,  Chief  Signal 
Officer,  War  Department. 

Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  Society. 

Dr.  Mark  W.  Harrington,  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  Washington. 

Lieut.  Everett  Hayddn,  U.  S.  N.,  Secretary  of 
the  National  Geographic  Society. 

Mr.  Robert  T.  Hill,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 

Mr.  Win.  H.  Holnie.s,  Dir.  of  the  Dept,  of  An- 
thropology, Field  Colum.  Museum,  Chicago. 

Dr.  Emil  Holub,  Vienna,  Austria. 

Dr.  Sheldou  Jackson,  U.  S.  Commissioner  of 
Education  for  Alaska. 


Mr.  Willard  D.  Johnson,  U.  S.  Geol.  Survey. 

Mr.  Mark  B.  Kerr,  C.  E. 

Mr.  George  Kennan. 

Prof.  William  Libbey,  Jr.,  Princeton  Coll.,  N.  J. 

Prof.  E.  McClure,  University  of  Oregon. 

Prof.  W J McGee,  Bureau  of  American  Eth- 
nology. 

Mr.  John  E.  McGrath,  U.  S.  Coast  Survey. 

Admiral  R.  W.  Meade,  U.  S.  N. 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  President  of  the  Poly- 
technic Institute,  Worcester,  Mass. 

Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  Ornithologist  and  Mani- 
malogist,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Hon.  John  H.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  S. 

Prof.  W.  L-  Moore,  Chief  of  Weather  Bureau. 

Mr.  Frederick  H.  Newell,  Chief  Hydrographer 
of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Surve3^ 

Mr.  Herbert  G.  Ogden,  U.  S.  Coast  Surve3^ 

Lieut.  Robert  E.  Peaiy,  U.  ,S.  N. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Pear)^ 

Hon.  Geo.  C.  Perkins,  U.  S.  S. 

Mr.  William  H.  Pickering,  Professor  of  .Astron- 
omy in  Plarvard  University. 

Major  John  W.  Powell,  Director  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Powell,  Superintendent  of  Schools, 
District  of  Columbia. 

Ploti.  John  R.  Procter,  President  of  the  U.  S. 
Civil  Service  Commission. 

Mr.  Israel  C.  Russell,  Professor  of  Geology  in 
the  Univer.sit3'  of  Michigan. 

Dr.  N.  vS.  Shaler,  Professor  of  Geology  in  Har- 
vard University. 

Commander  Charles  D.  Sig.sbee,  H}'drograplier 
to  the  Bureau  of  Navigation,  Nav)'  Dept. 

Miss  Eliza  Rnhaniah  Scidmore. 

Commander  Z.  L-  Tanner,  U.  vS.  N. 

Mr.  Frank  Vincent,  New  York. 

Hon.  Charles  D.  Walcott,  Director  of  the  U.  S. 
Geological  Survey. 

Mrs.  Fannie  B.  Ward. 

Mr.  Bailey  Willis,  U.  S.  Geological  Survey. 


PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS  OF  RECENT  NUMBERS. 


JANUARY. — Russia  in  Europe,  with  map,  Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard  ; The  Arctic  Cruise 
of  the  U.  S.  Revenue  Cutter  “Bear,”  with  illustrations.  Dr.  ,Sheldon  Jackson;  The 
Scope  and  Value  of  Arctic  Exploration,  Gen.  A.  W.  Greely,  U.  S.  A. 

FEBRUARY. — Venezuela:  Her  Government,  People,  and  Boundary,  with  map  and  illustra- 
tions, William  IC.  Curtis  ; The  Panama  Canal  Route,  with  illu.strations,  Prof.  Robert  T. 
Hill;  The  Tehuante])cc  Ship  Railwaj’,  with  nia])s,  E.  L.  Corthell,  C.  E.,  LL.  D.  ; The 
Pre.sent  State  of  the  Nicaragua  Canal,  Gen.  A.  W.  Grecl}'  ; lCx])loralions  by  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnolog)’,  W J McGee.  W/.vt;  ;«<//>  of  thf  Orinoco  vaUev,  showiui^  tcrrilory 
lirained  bv  that  roaicnoav  its  bearing  on  the  Venezuelan  Itoniuiary  Question. 

MARCH. — The  So-Called  “Jeannette  Relics,”  Prof.  Win.  H.  Dali  ; Nansen’s  Polar  Expedi- 
tion, Gen.  /\.  W.  Greely;  The  .Submarine  Cables  of  the  World,  Gustave  llerrle  ; The 
Survey’  and  Subdivision  of  Inilian  Territory,  with  map  and  illu.slration,  Henry  Gannett  ; 
“ I'ree  Burghs’’  in  the  United  States,  Janies  II.  Blodgett,  .llso  charts  n)  .v  jio  inches, 
s/um'iny  Submarine  ’I'eley;raph  ('ables  oj  the  World  and  Principal  l.aud  Lines.  L'nll- 
pay^c  portraits  of  Dr.  Nansen  and  Prof.  IVm.  J 1.  Dull. 

APRIL. — Seriland,  with  map  and  illustration,  W J McGee  and 'Willard  I).  Johnson;  The 
Olynijiie  Country,  with  nia]),  the  late  S.  C.  Gilman;  The  Discovery  of  Glacier  Bay, 
Alaska,  Eliz.a  Kuhamah  Scidmore;  1 lydrograiihj'  in  the  United  States,  l*'rederick  11. 
Newell;  Recent  Triangulalion  in  the  Ca.scades,  S.  ,S.  Gannett;  The  .Altitude  of  Mt. 
Adams,  WiLshington,  Edgar  McClure. 

MAY. — Africa  since  i.SSH,  with  special  reference  to  South  .Africa  and  .Abyssinia,  with  inaji, 
Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard  ; 1‘undainental  th-ographic  Relation  of  the  'I'liree  .Americas, 
with  inaj),  Prof.  Rfibert  T.  Hill  ; 'I'he  K.insas  River,  .Arthur  P.  Davis.  Also  portrait  of 
Hon.  Gardiner  G.  Hubbard,  President  of  the  National  Geographic  Society. 

25  Cents  per  Number  or  $2.50  per  Year. 


THE  AUGUST  NUMBER 


OF 


will  contain  the  following  articles  on  the 

PIEDMONT  PLATEAU 
OF  VIRGINIA: 

THE  PHYSIOGRAPHY  OF  THE  REGION, 

By  prof.  W J McGEE; 

SPOTTSWOOD’S  EXPEDITION  OF  1716, 

By  DR  W.  M.  THORNTON, 

Chairman  of  the  Faculty  of  the  University  of  Virginia; 

ALBEMARLE  IN  REVOLUTIONARY  DAYS, 

By  dr  G.  brown  GOODE; 

JEFFERSON  AS  A GEOGRAPHER, 

By  gen.  a.  W.  GREELY,  U.  S.  A., 
with  other  interesting  contents. 


JUDD  & DETWEILER,  printers,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


3l.  VII 


AUGUST,  1896 


No.  8 


The 


A.  W.  GREELY 


I I 

Honorary  Editor:  JOHN  j^YDE 
Hoporary  Associate  Editjors 
W j[m_cGEE  - _ ELIZ^  RUHAl^AH  SCIliMORE 


1 CONTENTS 


/ 


FRONTISPIECE:  PORTRAIT  OP  HENRY  GANNETT. 

Chief  Geographer  of  the  U.  8.  Geological  ^turvey. 
THE  WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY. 

EIGHTH  ANNUAL  FIELD  MEETING  OP  THE  NATIONAL  GEO-/ 
GRAPHIC  SOCIETY. 

GEOGRAPHIC  HISTORY  OP  THE  PIEDMONT  PLATEAU. 

W J McGEE. 

SPOTTSWOOD  S EXPEDITION  OF  1716. 

DR  WILLIAM  M.  THORNTON. 
JEFFERSON  AS  A GEOGRAPHER.  GEN.  A.  W.  GREELY 

ALBEMARLE  IN  REVOLUTIONARY  DAYS.  DR  G.  BROWN  GOODE. 
Geographic  Notes,  p.  281;  Miscellanea,  p.  283. 

miLlsflKI)  HY  THK  N>\TION.\L  ' i^fK'IKTY 

AfiKNTs  IN  TiiK  rNrn:i)  Sr.\TKM  ako  C.an.vda 
Thk  Amrkk  as  N’kwji  <!i>MrANV^  anm  41  Ciiamiikiw  Stukkt,  Xi:w  Youic 

LoNOOS:  K.  .M  A KMKIIlOl  lill  iSc  Co.,  r»l  ut.l)  llAlUiY,  C.  C’. 

I’.MtIS:  IJlIKNTA.NoH,  37  AviCSTi:  OK  l/Ol’Klt.V 


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253 

259 


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National  Geographic  Society 

ORGANIZED,  JANUARY,  1888 


President 

GARDINER  G.  HUBBARD 
Vice-Presidents 

MARCU.S  BAKER  A.  W.  GREEI.Y 

WILLIAM  IL  DALL  C.  HART  MERRIAM 

G.  K.  GILBERT  HERBERT  G.  OGDEN 


Treasurer 
CHARLES  J.  BELL 


Recording  Secretary 
EVERETT  HAYDEN 


II.  F.  BLOUNT 
C.  W.  DABNEY,  Jr. 
DAVID  T.  DAY 
JOHN  HA'DE 


D 


Managers 


Corresponding  Secretary 
HENRY  GANNETT  | 


IV  J :UcGEE 
F.  H.  NEAVELL 
AV.  B.  POAVELL 
J.  B.  AVIGHT 


THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  MAGAZINE 
Back  Numbers  wanted  by  the  Society. 

For  the  purpose  of'makinor  up  complete  sets  of  the  Magazine, 
the  National  Geographic  Society  is  prepared  to  purchase  at  rea- 
sonable prices  the  following  back  numbers  ; 

Of  Vol.  I,  1889,  numbers  2 and  4;  of  Vol.  II,  1890,  num- 
bers 2 and  3 ; of  Vol.  IV,  1892,  numbers  1,  3,  4,  5,  and  6. 

Members  of  the  Society  or  other  persons  having  spare  copies 
of  any  of  these  numbers  are  invited  to  sell  or  present  them  to  the 
Society,  as  they  may  prefer. 

Address;  EVERETT  HAYDEN,  Seci'etary, 

1517  H Street,  Washington. 


NAT.  GEOG.  MAG. 


VOL.  VII,  1896,  PL.  XXVIII 


THE 


National  Geographic  Magazine 

VoL.  VII  AUGUST,  1896  No.  8 


THE  WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY* 

THE  CHARACTER  OF  THE  SOCIETY 

The  National  Geographic  Society  is  a scientific  organization. 
In  common  with  most  other  scientific  bodies,  it  is  occupied  in 
both  creating  and  diffusing  knowledge.  B}'-  reason  of  its  activity 
in  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  it  has  become  a popular  societ}% 
especially  in  the  national  capital,  where  most  of  the  addresses 
and  technical  papers  prepared  under  its  auspices  are  delivered  ; 
but  the  essential  fact  remains  that  it  is  a scientific  society  and 
that  it  is  its  function  to  create  as  well  as  to  diffuse  geographic 
knowledge. 

THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF  GEOGRAPHY 

Ancient  geogra[)hy  was  a description  of  continents  and  seas, 
nations  and  cities,  races  and  tril)es,  and  perhaps  of  animals  and 
])lants ; in  the  beginning  the  descriptions  were  oral,  but  with  the 
invention  of  sketching,  writing,  and  mapping  a permanent  geo- 
graphic art  was  developed.  Thus  ancient  geography  was  chiefly 
the  description  of  terrestrial  things  in  words  and  pictures,  and 
included  the  art  of  descrilfing  earth-features  with  pen  and  l)rush 
and  graver.  In  this  stage  geograj)hic  features  were  assumed  to  be 
j)ermanent  and  were  described  in  terms  of  form  and  position. 

As  time  passed  men  observed  that  tribes  and  peoples  came 
and  went,  that  cities  were  founded  and  sometimes  abandoned, 
that  nations  arose  and  ))assed  away;  and  thus  history  came  to 
Ije  and  a time  element  was  gradually  introduced  into  geography. 

• Siiboliince  of  ronmrks  l>y  W J MrGee  lU  a mpotinx  of  the  Hoard  of  Managers  of  tlio 
Society  on  .liineS,  IKItri,  printed  at  tlie  instance  of  Itie  Board. 


17 


254  WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 


Still  Later  it  was  observed  that  rivers  are  diverted,  lakes  filled 
up,  and  islands  submerged  through  natural  agencies  ; it  was  also 
found  that  many  shore  lines  are  shifting,  that  some  lands  are 
rising  and  others  sinking,  that  all  continents  are  wasting  through 
the  action  of  rain  and  rivers,  and  that  the  waste  of  the  land  is 
carried  into  the  seas  ; thus  geology  grew  up,  and  a time  element 
was  introduced  even  into  that  part  of  geogra})hy  which  deals  with 
the  more  persistent  earth-forms.  In  this  stage  geographic  features 
were  assumed  to  he  changeable,  and  they  were  described  not  only 
in  terms  of  form  and  position,  hut  in  terms  of  stage  or  sequence. 
This  ma}'  he  called  transitional  or  medieval  geography,  though 
it  comes  down  to  the  present  in  the  books,  and  many  geographers 
and  some  geographic  societies  have  not  yet  risen  above  its  plane. 

Modern  students  of  earth-forms  have  observed  that  rivers  cut 
their  own  valleys  in  definite  wa}^s  and  at  definite  rates  depend- 
ing on  known  conditions,  and  that  eventually  the  running  waters 
carve  the  land  into  hill  and  dale,  mountain  and  plain,  in  a defi- 
nite way,  albeit  varying  with  altitude,  structure,  and  other  con- 
ditions. With  recognition  of  the  agencies  and  conditions  of 
geographic  change  geogra[)hic  history  became  definite,  and  it  was 
found  ])ossilde  to  interpret  the  record  of  ages  of  continent-growth 
from  the  geographic  features,  great  and  small,  displayed  by  the 
continent.  In  this  way  a new  science  was  developed;  some- 
times it  is  called  the  new  geograph3^  sometimes  the  new  geology, 
sometimes  geomorphologj"  or  geomor})hy.  It  matters  little  what 
the  science  is  called,  but  it  is  important  to  remember  that  through 
recognition  of  causes  and  conditions  geography  was  raised  to  the 
plane  of  science.  This  is  modern  geogra])h\";  and  in  this  stage 
geographic  features  are  regarded  as  definite  products  of  known 
agency , and  thus  as  definite  records  ot’determinate  history,  and  de- 
scription in  terms  of  form  and  position  is  but  a means  to  a nobler 
end,  the  reading  of  world-history  from  geographic  features. 

So  three  epochs  in  geographic  development  may  be  recognized, 
and  their  importance  is  none  the  less  because  some  of  their  fac- 
tors overlap— for  the  overlapping  of  factors  is  one  of  the  charac- 
teristics of  development.  The  first  was  the  ancient  or  empiric 
e{)Och  ; the  second  was  the  transitional  or  scholastic  epoch  ; the 
third  is  the  modern  or  scientific  epoch.  In  its  first  epoch  geog- 
raphj'  was  a meager  bod}"  of  description  of  features  and  a crude 
art  of  describing ; in  the  second  epoch  it  became  a richer  body  of 
description  of  stages  as  well  as  features,  and  the  art  of  describing 
was  improved ; and  in  so  far  as  it  has  entered  into  the  third 


WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY  255 


epoch  it  has  become  a science  of  the  earth  in  which  the  chaos  of 
geograjihic  features  and  historical  stages  is  reduced  to  order, 
while  the  body  of  description  is  enriched  in  quantity  and  even 
more  in  quality,  and  the  art  of  describing  is  greatly  im])roved. 
So  in  modern  geograj)!!}’’  each  district,  the  continent,  even  the 
entire  world  is  considered  not  simply  as  an  assemblage  of  feat- 
ures. but  as  an  expression  of  tangible  forces  and  conditions,  a 
record  of  the  [>ast,  and  an  index  to  the  future,  and  thus  the  dead 
features  are  imbued  with  living  interest.  Briefly  stated,  the  an- 
cient geograph}"  was  static,  the  modern  geograph}’’  is  essentially 
dynamic. 

With  the  transformation  of  geography  from  art  to  science  its 
method  changed.  In  the  ancient  and  transitional  epochs,  when 
description  was  the  end  and  aim  of  geographic  work,  men  sought 
unknown  lands  and  waters,  and  through  their  zeal  and  courage 
the  earth  was  explored  save  for  small  areas  in  the  Americas, 
Asia,  Africa,  and  Australia,  and  for  larger  but  more  forbidding 
areas  in  the  Arctic  and  especially  in  the  Antarctic.  Modern 
geographers  in  like  manner  seek  the  unknown,  but  their  eyes 
are  flxed  on  agencies  and  conditions,  or  on  causes  and  effects, 
rather  than  on  material  features,  and  their  aim  is  the  com})lete 
reading  of  terrestrial  history  rather  than  the  complete  mapping 
of  the  terrestrial  surface.  So,  while  the  methods  blend  much  as 
the  stages  overlap,  it  is  just  to  say  that  the  early  method  of 
geographic  work  was  exploration,  and  that  the  modern  method 
is  research. 

THE  FUTURE  OF  GEOGRAPHY 

The  transformation  of  geograi)hy  began  with  the  introduction 
of  history  and  culminated  with  the  incorporation  of  the  principles 
of  geology.  Much  was  taken  also  from  biology,  chiefly  through 
the  doctrine  of  evolution,  which  afforded  a rational  view  of 
successional  relations;  but  less  was  obtained  from  anthropology, 
despite  the  fact  that  this  branch  of  knowledge  was  the  original 
contributor  of  history.  The  poverty  of  anthropology  as  a donor 
of  geogra])hic  knowledge  is  due  partly  to  the  fact  that  history 
was  fettered  by  scholasticism  almost  from  the  beginning,  partly 
to  the  fact  that  students  hesitated  long  before  applying  thei)rin- 
eiples  of  evolution  to  human  b(‘ings  and  institutions.  Accord- 
ingly human  geogra|)hy  is  still  in  the  transitional  stage,  so  far  at 
least  as  most  of  the  geographers  and  geographic  institutions  of  the 
world  are  concerned.  It  is  indeed  recognized  that  tribes  and 


256  WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY 


peoples  come  and  go,  tiuit  cities  are  founded  and  sometimes 
abandoned,  that  nations  arise  and  pass  away,  and  the  statistician 
records  the  facts  as  the  early  geographer  described  forms  and  posi- 
tions, while  the  historian  records  the  successive  stages  as  the 
medieval  geogra[)her  noted  stages  in  the  wandering  of  an  over- 
loaded river ; but  the  descri{>tion,  he  it  formal  or  historical,  is  de- 
scription merely,  and  too  rarely  reaches  the  plane  of  science. 
The  one  thing  needful  in  modern  geograph}’’  is  suggested  by  the 
advance  made  through  the  new  geology ; it  is  definite  recognition  of 
the  causes  and  conditions  by  which  human  progress  is  shaped.  When 
this  fundamental  })rinciple  is  grasped,  dead  statistics  and  musty 
history  will  he  vivified,  just  as  the  dead  earth-forms  have  been  im- 
bued with  living  interest,  and  human  geography  will  rise  to  the 
])lane  of  science.  Now,  the  first  requisite  for  improvement  is 
recognition  of  need,  and  the  common  need  of  geography  and 
anthropology  is  so  keenly  felt  by  a number  of  students  as  to  sug- 
gest the  future,  and  it  may  clearly  be  foreseen  that  future  students 
will  extend  and  apply  our  ever-increasing  knowledge  of  cause 
and  effect  to  Imman  progress.  Statistics  and  history  recorded 
in  monuments  and  letters,  paintings  and  gravings  furnish  the 
re(piisite  data  of  form  and  position  and  succession,  and  may  be 
molded  into  attractive  form,  I)ut  nothing  less  than  definite  recog- 
nition of  tlie  forces  by  which  the  successive  stages  grew  will  in- 
fuse the  breath  of  life  into  this  body  of  knowledge. 

So  it  may  be  predicted  that  the  geogra|)hy  of  the  future  will 
be  devoted  primarily  to  research  concerning  the  forces  of  the 
earth,  including  those  affecting  peoi)les  and  institutions  as  well 
as  those  shaping  land-forms  and  molding  faunas  and  floras,  and 
that  industries,  arts, commerce,  laws,  governments,  religions,  even 
civilization  itself,  will  eventually  fall  within  the  domain  of  defi- 
nitely organized  science  and  become  incorporated  in  geography. 
Tlie  prediction  is  easy  and  safe  because  the  geography  of  the 
l)resent  is  already  on  the  higher  plane  with  respect  to  the  inor- 
ganic j)art  of  its  object-matter,  is  well  advanced  toward  this  plane 
with  respect  to  the  evolution  of  organisms,  and  looks  up  to  the 
same  ])lane  with  respect  to  the  courses  and  causes  of  human 
organization;  the  fulfillment  of  the  prediction  will  be  simply 
the  consummation 'of  present  progress. 

THE  PURPOSES  AXD  METHODS  OF  THE  SOCIETY 

It  is  the  purpose  of  the  National  Geographic  Society  to  increase 
and  diffuse  geographic  knowledge  growing  out  of  research  as  well 


WORK  OF  THE  NATIONAL  GEOGRAPHIC  SOCIETY  257 


as  exploration.  The  more  tangible  instrumentalities  employed 
are  (1)  technical  meetings,  (2)  popular  addresses,  and  (3)  a 
monthly  magazine. 

The  technical  meetings  are  devoted  to  the  presentation  and 
discussion  of  the  results  of  geographic  research,  the  announce- 
ment of  discoveries  made  through  research  or  exploration,  the 
discussion  of  methods  for  exploration,  survey,  research,  record, 
etc.  These  meetings  are  somewhat  informal  gatherings  of  a body 
of  working  geographers,  bound  together  by  common  in